Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-559fc8cf4f-dxfhg Total loading time: 0.293 Render date: 2021-03-05T17:45:42.762Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Article contents

International collaboration in Antarctica: the International Polar Years, the International Geophysical Year, and the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 October 2008

Colin P. Summerhayes
Affiliation:
Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR), Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1ER

Abstract

As the fourth International Polar Year (IPY) 2007–2008, gets into full swing it is timely to reflect on the history of development of international scientific collaboration in the IPYs since the first one in 1882–1883, including the third, which evolved into the International Geophysical Year (IGY) of 1957–1958. The success of international scientific collaboration in the IGY led the International Council for Science (ICSU), the body that managed the IGY, to create the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) to carry forward the collaboration in Antarctic science that had begun during the IGY. This year, 2008, seems an appropriate time to undertake such an historical review, given that we are not only midway through the fourth IPY, but also that it is SCAR's 50th anniversary; the first SCAR meeting having been held in The Hague on 3–5 February 1958. Since SCAR's membership began with 12 member countries and 4 ICSU unions, membership has grown to 34 countries and 8 ICSU unions, with more expected to join at the 30th meeting of SCAR in Moscow in July 2008. Both SCAR's activities and those of the fourth IPY benefit from international collaboration not only between scientists, but also between the national Antarctic operations managers, working together through the Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programmes (COMNAP), and national policy makers working together through the Antarctic Treaty mechanisms. Thanks to all their efforts, the IPY of 2007–2009 will leave behind a legacy of enhanced observing systems for documenting the status and change of all aspects of the Antarctic environment as the basis for improved forecasting of its future condition. SCAR expects to play a major role in the design of those systems and their use to improve scientific understanding of the place of the Antarctic in the global environmental system, and the pace and direction of change within that system.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2008

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Arntzd, W.E., and Clarke, A.. (editors) 2002. Ecological studies in the Antarctic sea ice zone. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Astapenko, P.D., and Treshnikov, A.F.. 1967. Inter-relationship between meteorology, oceanography and glaciology in Antarctic studies. Oxford: Pergamon (Annals of the International Geophysical Year 44): 96121.Google Scholar
Baker, F.W.G. 1982a. The first International Polar Year, 1882–83. Polar Record 21 (132): 275285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baker, F.W.G. 1982b. A century of international interdisciplinary co-operation. Interdisciplinary Science Reviews 7 (4): 270282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baker, F.W.G. 1983. Anniversaries of the polar years and the International Geophysical Year. Geneva (ninth WMO Congress unpublished manuscript).Google Scholar
Barr, W. 2007. International Polar Years. In: Riffenburgh, B. (editor). Encyclopedia of the Antarctic. New York, London: Routledge 1: 537539.Google Scholar
Bell, R.E. 2007. Antarctic earth system science in the International Polar Year 2007–2008. In: Cooper, A., Raymond, C., and the ISAES editorial team (editors). Antarctica: a keystone in a changing world. Santa Barbara: USGS (tenth SCAR international symposium on Antarctic earth sciences (ISAES) 26 August–1 September 2007. USGS open file report 2007–1047).Google Scholar
Bergstrom, D.M., Convey, P., and Huiskes, A.H.L. (editors). 2006. Trends in Antarctic terrestrial and limnetic ecosystems: Antarctica as a global indicator. Dordrecht: Springer, Dordrecht.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berson, A., and Breitfuss, L.. 1927. Sitzung des Sonderausschusses am 16.11.1926. Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen (Ergänzungsheft) 191: 110113.Google Scholar
Brooks, C.E.P. 1959. Meteorological results of the second International Polar Year, 1932–33. London: Pergamon (Annals of the International Geophysical Year 1 (II)): 261265Google Scholar
Clarke, A., Arntz, W.E., and Smith, C.R. (editors). 2006. EASIZ: ecology of the Antarctic sea ice zone. Deep-Sea Research 53 (II) (8–10): 8031140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ehrhart, S.B. 1902. Die Verteilung der Temperatur und des Luftdruckes auf der Erdoberfläche im Polarjahre 1882/1883. Inauguraldissertation. Stuttgart: Stuttgarter Vereins-Buchdruckerei, Stuttgart, 36 S., 4 Tf. [Temperature distribution and pressure distribution of the surface of the Earth during the Polar Year 1882/1883. PhD dissertation. Stuttgart: Stuttgarter Vereins-Buchdruckerei]Google Scholar
El-Sayed, S.Z. (editor). 1994. Southern ocean ecology: the BIOMASS perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Feldstein, Y.I., and Starkov, G.V.. 1967. Dynamics of auroral belt and polar geomagnetic disturbances. Planetary Space Science 15 (1): 209229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fifield, R. 1987. International Research in the Antarctic. Oxford: Oxford University Press (SCAR/ICSU Press, Oxford Scientific Publications).Google Scholar
Fogg, G.E. 2007. International Geophysical Year. In: Riffenburgh, B. (editor). Encyclopedia of the Antarctic 1 535536.Google Scholar
Goodison, B., Brown, J., Jezek, K., Key, J., Prowse, T., Snorrason, A., and Worby, T.. 2007. State and fate of the polar cryosphere, including variability of the Arctic hydrological cycle. World Meteorological Organization Bulletin 56 (4): 284292.Google Scholar
Gould, L.M. 1967. The effects of the IGY on the progress of research and exploration in the Antarctic. Oxford: Pergamon (Annals of the International Geophysical Year 44): 16.Google Scholar
Holdgate, M.W. 1967. Biology. Annals of the IGY 44: 722Google Scholar
ICSU (International Council for Science). 2004. A framework for the International Polar Year 2007–2008. ICSU (ICSU IPY 2007–2008 planning group, October 2004).Google Scholar
ICSU/WMO (International Council for Science/World Meteorological Organization). 2007. The scope of science for the International Polar Year 2007–2008. Geneva: World Meteorological Organization (Produced by the ICSU/WMO Joint Committee for IPY 2007–2008. WMO TD No. 1364).Google Scholar
IGY (International Geophysical Year). 1967. International Geophysical Year stations in Antarctica and the sub–Antarctic islands. In: Antarctica. Oxford: Pergamon (Annals of the International Geophysical Year 44): 200201.Google Scholar
IMC (International Meteorological Congress). 1879. Report of the Proceedings of the Second International Meteorological Congress at Rome. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.Google Scholar
Jones, H.S. 1959. The inception and development of the International Geophysical Year. Oxford: Pergamon (Annals of the International Geophysical Year 1 (III)): 383413.Google Scholar
Lambert, B.P. 1967. Cartography. Oxford: Pergamon (Annals of the International Geophysical Year 44): 2352.Google Scholar
Laursen, V. 1951. Bibliography for the second International Polar Year, 1923–33. Copenhagen: International Meteorological Organization (temporary commission on the Liquidation of the Polar Year 1932–33).Google Scholar
Laursen, V. 1959. The second International Polar Year, 1932–33. London: Pergamon (Annals of the International Geophysical Year 1(II)): 211234.Google Scholar
Lüdecke, C. 2004. The first International Polar Year (1882–83): a big science experiment with small science equipment. History of Meteorology 1: 5564.Google Scholar
Lüdecke, C. 2007a. Die Internationalen Polarjahre; 125 Jahre Herausforderung für Wissenschaft und Politik. Naturwissenschaftliche Rundschau 60 (12): 621628.Google Scholar
Lüdecke, C. 2007b. Über die Globale Verteilung von Luftdruck und Temperatur am Beispiel des 1. Internationalen Polarjahres 1882/1883. Hamburg: DACH MT. URL: http://meetings.copernicus.org/dach2007/download/DACH2007_A_00400.pdfGoogle Scholar
Mill, H.R. 1902. Dr. von Neumayer and polar research. Geographical Journal 19 (3): 362364.Google Scholar
Mill, H.R. 1909. Obituary: Dr. Georg von Neumayer. Geographical Journal 34 (4): 460462.Google Scholar
Mills, W.J. 2003 Exploring polar frontiers–a historical encyclopedia. Santa Barbara: ABCClio.Google Scholar
Nagata, T., and Oguti, T.. 1967. Inter-relationships between the upper atmosphere and geomagnetic disturbances in Antarctica. Oxford: Pergamon (Annals of the International Geophysical Year 44): 5365.Google Scholar
Neumayer, G. von. 1901. Auf zum Südpol! 45 Jahre Wirkung zur Förderung der Erforschung der Südpolar-Region, 1855–1900. Berlin: Vita Deutsches Verlagshaus.Google Scholar
SCAR (Scientific Commitee on Antarctic Research). 2004. Strategic plan 2004–2010. Cambridge: SCAR (Special Report).Google Scholar
SCAR (Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research). 2007. Achievements of SCAR to 2006. Cambridge: SCAR (Report 29).Google Scholar
Stonehouse, B. 2002. Encyclopedia of Antarctica and the Southern Oceans. Chichester: J. Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
Sullivan, W. 1961. Assault on the unknown: the International Geophysical Year. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
Summerhayes, C.P., Dickson, B., Meredith, M., Dexter, P., and Alverson, K.. 2007. Observing the polar oceans during the International Polar Year and beyond. WMO Bulletin 56 (4)270283Google Scholar
Weyprecht, C. 1875a. Scientific work of the second Austro-Hungarian polar expedition, 1872–4. Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London 45: 1933 (translated from Geographische Mittheilungen 31)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weyprecht, C. 1875b. Fundamental principles of scientific Arctic investigation. Graz (An address delivered before the 46th meeting of German Naturalists and Physicians).Google Scholar
Wilczek, J.N., and Weyprecht, C.. 1877. Programme des travaux d'une expédition polaire internationale. Vienna: W. Stein (Paper submitted to the second International Meteorological Congress, Rome).Google Scholar
Willett, R.W. 1967. Geology. Oxford: Pergamon (Annals of the International Geophysical Year 44): 5365.Google Scholar
Wilson, J.T. 1961. IGY: the year of the new moons (foreword L.V. Berkner). London: Michael Joseph.Google Scholar
Wood, K.R., and Overland, J.E.. 2006. Climate lessons from the first International Polar Year. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 87 (12): 16851697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Woollard, G.P. 1967. Continental structure of Antarctica. Oxford: Pergamon (Annals of the International Geophysical Year 44): 122143.Google Scholar
Zumberge, J.H. 1987. The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research. Introduction. In: Fifield, R. (editor). International research in the Antarctic. Oxford: Oxford University Press (SCAR/ICSU Press, Oxford Scientific Publications): 18.Google Scholar

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 9
Total number of PDF views: 141 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 5th March 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

International collaboration in Antarctica: the International Polar Years, the International Geophysical Year, and the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

International collaboration in Antarctica: the International Polar Years, the International Geophysical Year, and the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

International collaboration in Antarctica: the International Polar Years, the International Geophysical Year, and the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *