Rice blast disease, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the most damaging diseases of rice worldwide. Cultivation of rice varieties carrying resistance genes is the most economic and successful strategy to control the disease. In this study, 451 rice varieties from around the world including 363 Thai landrace rice varieties, 21 Thai improved rice varieties, 43 Japanese rice varieties and 24 worldwide rice varieties were screened by PCR technique using gene-specific markers for 10 rice blast resistance genes: Pi9, Piz-t, Pi50, Pigm(t), Pid2, Pid3, Pia, Pik, Pi54 and Pita. The results showed that 382 (99.48%) Thai rice varieties have at least one resistance gene and two rice varieties, ‘Hom’ and ‘Bak muay’, contained eight out of ten screened rice blast resistance genes. 320 rice varieties (83.33%) contained three or more rice blast resistance genes. The frequency of the rice blast resistance gene ranges from 87.76–9.64 per cent, of which the Pid3 gene has the highest frequency and the Pi54 gene has the lowest frequency. Two major resistance genes, found in Japanese rice varieties, are the Pik gene (76.74%) and the Pi9 gene (72.09%). While two major resistance genes, found in the international rice varieties are the Pi9 gene (66.67%) and the Pi54 gene (62.50%). The disease resistance gene profile of each rice variety obtained from this study will benefit the rice blast resistant breeding programme in the future.