This is a hybrid journal, which means it provides authors with options to make their articles open access.
Open access options
(1) Authors can choose to publish their articles as Gold Open Access with a Creative Commons licence, enabling anyone to access and redistribute the content and, depending upon their chosen licence, re-use the content in new or derivative works with attribution. The terms of re-use for Gold Open Access content are stated in the copyright line of the article.
Gold Open Access is supported by an article processing charge (APC) typically paid by the author’s funding body or institution; please check the fees and pricing page for details of this journal's charges. Cambridge University Press has also made a number of agreements to support open access, and authors at participating institutions may be eligible for APC waivers and discounts.
(2) Under Cambridge University Press’s Green Open Access policy for Science, Technology and Medicine (STM) journals, authors can archive certain versions of their articles in an institutional or non-commercial subject repository, or on their personal or departmental websites. The archived version can be the Accepted Manuscript (after peer review) six months after publication, or an earlier version at any time, but not the final published PDF (the Version of Record). This allows authors to comply with the open access mandates of many funders and institutions. For more information, please see our Green Open Access policy.
Articles subject to Plan S as a result of funding by cOAlition S should be published as Gold Open Access. This journal's Green Open Access policy is not compatible with Plan S.
For more information about open access, please see our FAQs. If you have questions which are not answered by these or our other policy pages and resources, please contact email@example.com.
A preprint is an early version of an article prior to the version accepted for publication in a journal. This journal allows preprints to be posted anywhere at any time, including before submission to the journal. For more information, see the Cambridge University Press preprint policy.