Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Seasonal and genetic variations in water-soluble carbohydrates and other quality traits in ecotypes and cultivars of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

  • Sarah McGrath (a1) (a2), Trevor R. Hodkinson (a2), Andreas Frohlich (a1), Jim Grant (a3) and Susanne Barth (a1)...

Abstract

Phenotyping of genetic resources remains the bottleneck in the characterization of genetic resources, since the advent of modern next-generation sequencing technologies has made genotyping much more cost- and time-effective. This article reports on the phenotyping of agriculturally important traits in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). In the present study, water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC), crude protein and dry matter contents were recorded for 1320 individuals, pooled into 132 samples from 33 perennial ryegrass ecotypes and cultivars at five different harvest time points across the 2004 growing season. While, in general, the cultivars had higher WSC contents than the ecotypes, individual ecotypes did show potential to be used in breeding programmes, as they had higher values than all other accessions at particular cutting time points. In correlation analyses, positive relationships were observed between dry matter and glucose contents both early and late in the growing season. Principal components analysis allowed the split either between cultivars and ecotypes or between tetraploid cultivars and the rest of the accessions at four of the five cutting time points. In the analysis of variance, cutting time was the most significant factor influencing the variation in traits.

Copyright

Corresponding author

* Corresponding author. E-mail: susanne.barth@teagasc.ie

References

Hide All
Akaike, H (1974) New look at statistical-model identification. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control AC-19: 716723.
Cairns, AJ, Pollock, CJ, Gallagher, JA and Harrison, J (2000) Fructans: synthesis and regulation. In: Leegood, RC, Sharkey, TD and von Caemmerer, S (eds) Photosynthesis: Physiology and Metabolism. Advances in Photosynthesis, vol. 9. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 301318.
Casler, MD (2006) Perennial grasses for turf, sport and amenity uses: evolution of form, function and fitness for human benefit. Journal of Agricultural Science 144: 189203.
Cogan, N, Smith, K, Yamada, T, Francki, M, Vecchies, A, Jones, E, Spangenberg, G and Forster, J (2005) QTL analysis and comparative genomics of herbage quality traits in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics 110: 364380.
Connolly, V (2000) Collection and conservation of forage species from old pasture ecosystems. Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research 39: 476477.
Ding, XM and Yang, YF (2007) Variations of water-soluble carbohydrate contents in different age class modules of Leymus chinensis populations in sandy and saline–alkaline soil on the Songnen plains of China. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 49: 576581.
Fulkerson, WJ, Slack, K, Bryant, R and Wilson, F (2003) Selection for more persistent perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) cultivars for subtropical/warm temperate dairy regions of Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 43: 10831091.
Gilliland, TJ, Barrett, PD, Mann, RL, Agnew, RE and Fearon, AM (2002) Canopy morphology and nutritional quality traits as potential grazing value indicators for Lolium perenne varieties. Journal of Agricultural Science 139: 257273.
Hincha, DK, Zuther, E, Hellwege, EM and Heyer, AG (2002) Specific effects of fructo- and gluco-oligosaccharides in the preservation of liposomes during drying. Glycobiology 12: 103110.
Humphreys, MO (2005) Genetic improvement of forage crops – past, present and future. Journal of Agricultural Science 143: 441448.
Huyghe, C and Tabel, C (2009) Genetic improvement of the feeding value of perennial forage plants and innovation in the cultivars. Fourrages 198: 99113.
Jafari, A, Connolly, V and Walsh, EJ (2003a) Genetic analysis of yield and quality in fullsib families of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) under two cutting managements. Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research 42: 275292.
Jafari, A, Connolly, V, Frolich, A and Walsh, E (2003b) A note on estimation of quality parameters in perennial ryegrass by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research 42: 293299.
Jones, EL and Roberts, JE (1991) A note on the relationship between palatability and WSC content in perennial ryegrass. Irish Journal of Agriculture and Food Research 30: 163167.
Kramer, CY (1956) Extension of multiple range tests to group means with unequal numbers of replications. Biometrics 12: 307310.
Lee, MRF, Merry, RJ, Davies, DR, Moorby, JM, Humphreys, MO, Theodorou, MK, MacRae, JC and Scollan, ND (2003) Effect of increasing availability of water-soluble carbohydrates on in vitro rumen fermentation. Animal Feed Science and Technology 104: 5970.
Marley, CL, Davies, DA, Vale, JE, Evans, JG, Scollan, ND, Moorby, JM, MacRae, JC and Theodorou, MK (2005) Effects of upland pastures sown with two contrasting Lolium varieties on the performance of beef steers when compared to steers grazing permanent pastures. Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science Annual Conference, 3–6 April 2005, York , pp. 194.
McGrath, S, Hodkinson, TR and Barth, S (2007) Extremely high cytoplasmic diversity in natural and breeding populations of Lolium (Poaceae). Heredity 99: 531544.
McGrath, S, Hodkinson, TR, Charles, MT, Zen, D and Barth, S (2010) Variation in inflorescence characters and inflorescence development in ecotypes and cultivars of Lolium perenne L. Grass and Forage Science 65: 398409.
Miller, LA, Moorby, JM, Davies, DR, Humphreys, MO, Scollan, ND, MacRae, JC and Theodorou, MK (2001) Increased concentration of water-soluble carbohydrate in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.): milk production from late-lactation dairy cows. Grass and Forage Science 56: 383394.
Minitab Incorporated (2000) Minitab Statistical Software Version 15. Available at www.minitab.com.
Pontes, LS, Carrere, P, Andueza, D, Louault, F and Soussana, JF (2007) Seasonal productivity and nutritive value of temperate grasses found in semi-natural pastures in Europe: responses to cutting frequency and N supply. Grass and Forage Science 62: 485496.
Rohlf, F (2005) NTSYSpc: Numerical Taxonomy System. Version 2.2. Setauket, NY: Exeter Publishing, Ltd.
SAS Institute, (2002–2003) SAS Language and Procedure: Usage, Version 9.1. 1st edn. Cary, NC: SAS Institute.
Schwarz, G (1978) Estimating dimension of a model. Annals of Statistics 6: 461464.
Skøt, L, Humphreys, J, Humphreys, MO, Thorogood, D, Gallagher, J, Sanderson, R, Armstead, I and Thomas, ID (2007) Association of candidate genes with flowering time and water-soluble carbohydrate content in Lolium perenne L. Genetics 177: 535547.
Smith, KF, Reed, KFM and Foot, JZ (1997) An assessment of the relative importance of specific traits for the genetic improvement of nutritive value in dairy pasture. Grass and Forage Science 52: 167175.
Smith, KF, Simpson, RJ, Culvenor, RA, Humphreys, MO, Prud'homme, MP and Oram, RN (2001) The effects of ploidy and a phenotype conferring a high water-soluble carbohydrate concentration on carbohydrate accumulation, nutritive value and morphology of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Journal of Agricultural Science 136: 6574.
Smith, HJ, Tamminga, S and Elgersma, A (2006) Dairy cattle grazing preference among six cultivars of perennial ryegrass. Agronomy Journal 98: 12131220.
Tas, BM, Taweel, HZ, Smit, HJ, Elgersma, A, Dijkstra, J and Tamminga, S (2006) Rumen degradation characteristics of perennial ryegrass cultivars during the growing season. Animal Feed Science and Technology 131: 102119.
Tukey, J (1953) Multiple comparisons. Journal of the American Statistical Association 48: 624625.
Turner, LB, Cairns, AJ, Armstead, IP, Ashton, J, Skot, K, Whittaker, D and Humphreys, MO (2006a) Dissecting the regulation of fructan metabolism in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) with quantitative trait locus mapping. New Phytologist 169: 4557.
Turner, LR, Donaghy, DJ, Lane, PA and Rawnsley, RP (2006b) Effect of defoliation management, based on leaf stage, on perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), prairie grass (Bromus willdenowii Kunth.) and cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.) under dryland conditions. 1. Regrowth, tillering and water-soluble carbohydrate concentration. Grass and Forage Science 61: 164174.
Vereyken, IJ, Chupin, V, Islamov, A, Kuhlin, A, Hincha, DK and Kruiff, B (2003) The effect of fructan on the phospholipid organisation in the dry state. Biophysical Journal 85: 30583065.
Wilkins, PW (1991) Breeding perennial ryegrass for agriculture. Euphytica 52: 201214.
Wilkins, PW and Humphreys, MO (2003) Progress in breeding perennial forage grasses for temperate agriculture. Journal of Agricultural Science 140: 129150.
Wilkins, RJ and Jones, R (2000) Alternative home-grown protein sources for ruminants in the United Kingdom. Animal Feed Science and Technology 85: 2332.
Xiong, Y, Fei, SZ, Brummer, EC, Moore, KJ, Barker, RE, Jung, G, Curley, J and Warnke, SE (2006) QTL analysis of fiber components and crude protein in an annual × perennial ryegrass interspecific hybrid population. Molecular Breeding 18: 327340.
Yu, XQ, Luo, N, Yan, JP, Tang, JC, Liu, SW and Jiang, YW (2012) Differential growth response and carbohydrate metabolism of global collection of perennial ryegrass accessions to submergence and recovery following de-submergence. Journal of Plant Physiology 169: 10401049.

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

McGrath et al. Supplementary Material
Tables

 Word (800 KB)
800 KB

Seasonal and genetic variations in water-soluble carbohydrates and other quality traits in ecotypes and cultivars of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

  • Sarah McGrath (a1) (a2), Trevor R. Hodkinson (a2), Andreas Frohlich (a1), Jim Grant (a3) and Susanne Barth (a1)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.