Skip to main content Accessibility help

Genetic diversity in local barley accessions collected from different geographical regions of Tunisia

  • M. A. Ould Med Mahmoud (a1) and S. Hamza (a1)


To assess the genetic diversity among Tunisian local barley, a set of 120 barley accessions representing five distinct geographical regions (North-West, Littoral, South, Jerba and Kerkennah Islands) was characterized with 20 simple sequence repeats (SSR) and 8 expressed sequence tag (EST)-SSR markers. The 28 loci revealed a total of 98 alleles, with an average of 3.76 alleles per locus (range 2–10). Gene diversity averaged 0.50 (range 0.09–0.84). Partitioning analysis of genetic diversity showed that about 95% of the total variation was within regions and no geographical differentiation could be found except for the North-West population. Similarly, neighbour joining clustering of the genotypes did not indicate any clear pattern of division among the barley accessions based on geographical origin. These results may reflect the impact of seed exchange between farmers which is likely to limit highlighting favourable alleles due to local adaptation.


Corresponding author

*Corresponding author. E-mail:


Hide All
Baek, HJ, Beharav, A and Nevo, E (2003) Ecological-genomic diversity of microsatellites in wild barley. Hordeum spontaneum, populations in Jordan. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 1063: 397410.
Barnaud, A, Deu, M, Garine, E, McKey, D and Joly, HI (2007) Local genetic diversity of sorghum in a village in northern Cameroon: structure and dynamics of landraces. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 114: 237248.
Chen, X, Shaoying, G, Defu, C, Pin, L, Xiangdong, J and Lijun, S (2006) Assessing genetic diversity of Chinese cultivated barley by STS markers. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 53: 16651673.
Comadran, J, Russell, JR, van Eeuwijk, FA, Ceccarelli, S, Grando, S, Baum, M, Stanca, AM, Pecchioni, N, Mastrangelo, AM, Akar, T, Al-Yassin, A, Benbelkacem, A, Choumane, W, Ouabbou, H, Dahan, R, Bort, J, Araus, JL, Pswarayi, A, Romagosa, I, Hackett, CA and Thomas, WTB (2008) Mapping adaptation of barley to droughted environments. Euphytica 161: 3545.
Deghaïs, M, Gharbi, MS, Faleh, M, Zarkouna, T and Chakroun, M (1999) Les acquis de l'amélioration génétique des céréales en Tunisie. Les Annales de l'INRAT 72: 330.
El Felah, M and Medimagh, S (2005) Food barley in Tunisia. In: Grando, S and Gormez, H (eds) Food Barley: Importance, Uses and Local Knowledge. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Food Barley Improvement. Aleppo, Syria: ICARDA, pp. 2935.
El Felah, M and Mekni, MS (2000) Estimated genetic variation diversity for abiotic stress tolerance (drought and heat) and related traits in advanced lines derived from local landraces × improved barley cultivars. In: Logue, S (ed.) Proceedings of the 8th International Barley Genetics Symposium. Vol. III, Adelaide, South Australia, pp. 270272.
El Felah, M, Bettaieb ben Kaab, L and Chelbi, N (2004) Tunisian insular barley landraces: a significant genetic drift. In: Jaroslav, J and Janikova, J (eds) Proceedings of 9th International Barley Genetics Symposium. Brno, Czek Republic, Poster presentation, pp. 3942.
Excofier, L, Laval, G and Schneider, S (2005) Arlequin Version 3.0: an integrated software package for population genetics data analysis. Evolution Bioinformatics Online 1: 4750.
Feng, ZY, Zhang, LL, Zhang, YZ and Ling, HQ (2006) Genetic diversity and geographical differentiation of cultivated six-rowed naked barley landraces from the Qinghai-Tibet plateau of China detected by SSR analysis. Genetics and Molecular Biology 29: 330338.
Hamza, S, Ben Hamida, W, Rebai, A and Harrabi, M (2004) SSR-based genetic diversity assessment among Tunisian winter barley cultivars and relationship with morphological traits. Euphytica 135: 107118.
Huang, Q, Beharav, A, Li, Y, Kirzhner, V and Nevo, E (2002) Mosaic microecological differential stress causes adaptive microsatellite divergence in wild barley Hordeum spontaneum, at Neve Yaar, Israel. Genome 45: 12161229.
Ivandic, V, Hackett, CA, Nevo, E, Keith, R, Thomas, WT and Forster, BP (2002) Analysis of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in wild barley from the Fertile Crescent: associations with ecology, geography and flowering time. Plant Molecular Biology 48: 511527.
Jaradat, AA and Shahid, M (2006) Population and multilocus isozyme structures in a barley landraces. Plant Genetic Resources 4: 108116.
Mantel, N (1967) The detection of disease clustering and a generalized regression approach. Cancer Research 27: 209220.
Nei, M (1973) Analysis of gene diversity in subdivided populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 70: 33213332.
Orabi, J, Backes, G and Jahoor, A Genetic diversity and population structure of WANA barley. In: Grando, S (ed.) Symposium of the 10th International Barley Genetics. In press. Alexandria, Egypt.
Papa, R, Attene, G, Barcaccia, G, Ohgata, A and Konishi, T (1998) Genetic diversity in landrace populations of Hordeum vulgare L. from Sardinia, Italy, as revealed by RAPDs isozymes and morphological traits. Plant Breeding 117: 520530.
Pandey, M, Wagner, C, Friedt, W and Ordon, F (2006) Genetic relatedness and population differentiation of Himalayan hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) landraces inferred with SSRs. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 113: 715729.
Parzies, HK, Spoor, W and Ennos, RA (2004) Inferring seed exchange between farmers from population genetic structure of barley landrace Arabi Aswad from Northern Syria. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 51: 471478.
Perrier, X, Flori, A and Bonnot, F (2003) Data analysis methods. In: Hamon, P, Seguin, M, Perrier, X and Glaszmann, JC (eds) Genetic Diversity of Cultivated Tropical Plants. Montpellier, France: Enfield Science Publishers, pp. 4376.
Pillen, K, Binder, A, Kreuzkam, B, Ramsay, L, Waugh, R, Forster, J and Léon, J (2000) Mapping new EMBL-derived barley microsatellites and their use in differentiating German barley cultivars. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 101: 652660.
Pressoir, G and Berthaud, J (2004) Patterns of population structure in maize landraces from the Central Valleys of Oaxaca in Mexico. Heredity 92: 8894.
Pritchard, JK, Stephens, M and Donnelly, P (2000) Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data. Genetics 155: 945959.
Ramsay, L, Macaulay, M, Ivanissevich, SD, Maclean, K, Cardle, L, Fuller, J, Edwards, KJ, Tuvesson, S, Morgante, M, Massari, A, Maestri, E, Marmiroli, N, Sjakste, T, Ganal, MW, Powell, W and Waugh, R (2000) A simple sequence repeat-based linkage map of barley. Genetics 156: 19972005.
Rohlf, FJ (2000) NTSYS-pc Numerical taxonomy and multivariate analysis system Version 2.1, Exeter software, Setauket, New York.
Russell, JR, Booth, A, Fuller, JD, Baum, M, Ceccarelli, S, Grando, S and Powell, W (2003) Patterns of polymorphism detected in the chloroplast and nuclear genomes of barley landraces sampled from Syria and Jordan. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 107: 413421.
Saghai-Maroof, MA, Biyashev, RM, Yang, GP, Zhang, Q and Allard, RW (1994) Extraordinarily polymorphic microsatellite DNA in barley: species diversity, chromosomal locations, and population dynamics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 91: 54665470.
Saghai-Maroof, MA, Soliman, KM, Jorgenson, RA and Allard, RW (1984) Ribosomal DNA spacer length polymorphism in barley: Mendelian inheritance, chromosomal location and population dynamics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 81: 80148018.
Smith, L (1951) Genetics and cytology of barley. Botanical Review 17: 285355.
Sogaard, D and von Wettestein-Knowles, P (1987) Barley: genes and chromosomes. In: Rasmussen, SW (ed.) Carlsberg Res Comm 52: 123196.
Yahyaoui, S, Ernesto, I, Moralejo, M, Ramsay, L, Molina-Cano, JL, Ciudad, FJ, Lasa, JM, Gracia, MP and Casas, AM (2008) Patterns of genetic and eco-geographical diversity in Spanish barleys. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 116: 271282.
Yeh, FC, Yang, RC, Boyle, TBJ, Ye, ZH and Mao, JX (1997) Popgene, the User-friendly Shareware for Population Genetic Analysis. University of Alberta, Canada: Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Centre.


Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Mahmoud Supplementary Material

 Word (45 KB)
45 KB
Supplementary materials

Mahmoud Supplementary Material

 Unknown (18 KB)
18 KB

Genetic diversity in local barley accessions collected from different geographical regions of Tunisia

  • M. A. Ould Med Mahmoud (a1) and S. Hamza (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed