Hostname: page-component-77c89778f8-m8s7h Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-20T00:52:37.972Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Composition of and variation in high- and low-molecular weight glutenin subunits, and omega gliadins in Ethiopian tetraploid wheat germplasm

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 February 2007

Faris Hailu*
University of Lackomelza, Office of PIC, P.O. Box 33809, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Eva Johansson
Department of Crop Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 44, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden
Arnulf Merker
Department of Crop Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 44, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden
Getachew Belay
Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Centre, P.O. Box 32, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia
Department of Plant Science, Alemaya University, P.O. Box 219, Alemaya, Ethiopia
Habtamu Zeleke
Department of Plant Science, Alemaya University, P.O. Box 219, Alemaya, Ethiopia
*Corresponding author: E-mail:


A collection of 120 Ethiopian tetraploid wheat accessions was analysed for high-molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunit, low-molecular weight (LMW) glutenin subunit and omega gliadin composition by SDS–PAGE. For the HMW glutenin subunits, a new allelic variant, 2****, was detected which has not been previously described at the Glu-A1 locus. A high proportion of Glu-A1x banding pattern was observed in durum wheat. For the Glu-B1 locus four different banding patterns were detected. Among those HMW glutenin subunits, 7+8 were the most common, while subunits 14+15 and 6+8 were found to be rare. A high degree of variation was evident for the LMW glutenin subunits and D-zone omega gliadins. The association of the composition of the gluten with quality has been discussed. This wide variation can be used in improving the quality of wheat and to widen its genetic base.

Research Article
Copyright © NIAB 2006

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Alamerew, S, Chebotar, S, Huang, X, Röder, M, Börner, A (2004) Genetics diversity in Ethiopian hexaploid and tetraploid wheat germplasm assessed by microsatellite markers. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 51, 559567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bechere, E, Peña, RJ and Mitiku, D (2002) Gluten composition, quality characteristics, and agronomic attributes of durum wheat cultivars released in Ethiopia. African Crop Science Journal 10, 173182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beitz, JA, Shepherd, KW and Wall, JS (1975) Cereal single-kernel analysis of glutenin: use in wheat genetics and breeding. Cereal Chemistry 52, 513532.Google Scholar
Ben Amer, IM, Börner, A, Röder, M (2001) Detection of genetic diversity in Libyan wheat genotypes using microsatellite markers. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 48, 579585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boggini, G, Doust, MA, Annicchiarico, P and Pecetti, L (1997) Yielding ability, yielding stability and quality of exotic durum wheat germplasm in Sicily. Plant Breeding 116, 541545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Branlard, G, Dardevet, M, Nieto-Taladriz, MT and Khelifi, D (1994) Allelic diversity of the omega gliadins as revealed by SDS-PAGE: their possible implication in quality variation. In: Lafiandra, D, Masci, S and D'Ovidio, RD (Eds) Gluten Proteins 1993. Detmold, Germany: Association of Cereal Research, pp. 234243.Google Scholar
Branlard, G, Dardevet, M, Saccomano, R, Lagoutte, F and Gourdon, J (2001) Genetic diversity of wheat storage proteins and bread wheat quality. Euphytica 119, 5967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Branlard, G, Dardevet, M, Amiour, N and Igrejas, G (2003) Allelic diversity of HMW and LMW glutenin subunits and omega gliadins in French bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.). Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 50, 669679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cornish, GB and Lukow, OM (1996) Relationship between low-molecular-weight (LMW) glutenin (Glu-3) alleles and D-zone omega gliadins (Gli-1). In: Wrigley, CW (ed.) Gluten '96: Proceedings of the 6th International Gluten Workshop, pp. 408413.Google Scholar
Damidaux, R, Autran, JC and Feillet, P (1980) Intrinsic cooking quality evaluation in durum wheats through examination of gliadin electrophoregrams and measurements of gluten visco-elasticity. Cereal Foods World 25, 754756.Google Scholar
Fares, C, Novembre, G Di, Fonzo, N, Galterio, G and Pogna, NE (1997) Relationship between storage protein composition and gluten quality in breeding lines of durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum ssp durum ). Agricoltura Mediterranea 127, 363368.Google Scholar
Galili, G and Feldman, M (1984) Mapping of glutenin and gliadin genes located on chromosome 1B of common wheat. Molecular and General Genetics 193, 293298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Galterio, G, Grita, L and Brunori, A (1993) Pasta making quality in Triticum durum: new indices from the ratio among protein components separated by SDS-PAGE. Plant Breeding 110, 290296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gupta, RB and Shepherd, KW (1988) Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits in wheat: their variation, inheritance and association with bread making quality. In: Miller, TE, Koebner, RMD (eds) Proceedings of the 7th International Wheat Genetics Symposium. Bath: Bath Press, pp. 943949.Google Scholar
Harjit-Singh Dhaliwal, HS and Yifru, T (2000) Germplasm enhancement through wide hybridization and molecular breeding. In: The Eleventh Regional Wheat Workshop for Eastern, Central and South Africa. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: EARO, pp. 2534.Google Scholar
Igrejas, G, Guedes-Pinto, H, Carnide, V and Branlard, G (1999) The high and low molecular weight glutenin subunits and ω-gliadin composition of bread and durum wheats commonly grown in Portugal. Plant Breeding 118, 297302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jackson, EA, Holt, LM and Payne, PI (1983) Characterization of high-molecular-weight and low molecular-weight glutenin subunits of wheat endosperm by two dimensional electrophoresis and the chromosomal localization of their controlling genes. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 66, 2937.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johansson, E (1996) Quality evaluation of D-zone omega gliadins in wheat. Plant Breeding 115, 5762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johansson, E, Henriksson, P, Svensson, G and Hennen, WK (1993) Detection, chromosomal location and evaluation of the functional value of a novel high Mr glutenin subunit found in Swedish wheats. Journal of Cereal Science 17, 237245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Khelifi, D, Branlard, G, Bourgoin-Greneche, M (1992) Diversity of some D zone omega gliadins of bread wheat as revealed by 2 step A-PAGE/SDS-PAGE technique. Journal of Genetics and Breeding 46, 351358.Google Scholar
Kosmolak, FG, Dexter, JE, Matsuo, RR, Leisle, D and Marchylo, BA (1980) A relationship between durum wheat quality and gliadin electrophoregram. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 60, 427432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kovacs, MIP, Howes, NK, Leisle, D and Zawistowski, J (1995) Effect of two different low-molecular-weight subunits on durum wheat pasta-quality parameters. Cereal Chemistry 72, 8587.Google Scholar
Kuktaite, R, Larsson, H and Johansson, E (2004) Variation in protein composition of wheat flour and its relationship to dough behavior. Journal of Cereal Science 40, 3139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, CY and Rathjen, AJ (1996) Association of high and low molecular weight glutenin subunits with dough strength in durum wheats [ Triticum turgidum spp. Turgidum L. conv. durum (Desf.)] in south Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 36, 451458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, CY and Shepherd, KW (1995) Inheritance of B subunits of glutenin and ω and γ-gliadins in tetraploid wheats. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 90, 11491157.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Martinez, MC, Ruiz, M and Carrillo, JM (2004) New B low Mr glutenin subunit alleles at the Glu-A3, Glu-B2 and Glu B3 loci and their relationship with gluten strength in durum wheat. Journal of Cereal Science 40, 101107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Metakovsky, EV, Novoselskaya, A, Yu Kopus, MM, Sobko, TA and Sozinov, AA (1984) Blocks of gliadin components in winter wheat detected by one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 67, 559568.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nieto-Taladriz, MT, Ruiz, M, Martinez, MC, Vazquez, JF and Carrillo, JM (1997) Variation and classification of B low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit alleles in durum wheat. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 95, 11151160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Payne, PI and Corfield, KG (1979) Subunit composition of wheat glutenin protein isolated by gel filtration in a dissociating medium. Planta 145, 8388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Payne, PI and Lawrence, GJ (1983) Catalogue of alleles for the complex gene loci, Glu-A1, Glu-B1 and Glu-D1, which code for the high-molecular-weight subunit of glutenin in hexaploid wheat. Cereal Research Communication 11, 2935.Google Scholar
Payne, PI, Law, CN and Mudd, EE (1980) Control by homoeologous group 1 chromosomes of the high-molecular-weight subunits of glutenin, a major protein of wheat endosperm. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 58, 113120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Payne, PI, Jackson, EA and Holt, LM (1984) The association between γ-gliadin 45 and gluten strength in durum wheat varieties: a direct causal effect or the result of genetic linkage. Journal of Cereal Science 2, 7381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pogna, NE, Lafiandra, D, Feillet, P and Autran, JC (1988) Evidence for a direct causal effect of low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits on gluten viscoelasticity in durum wheats. Journal of Cereal Science 7, 211214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pogna, NE, Autran, JC, Mellini, F, Lafiandra, D and Feillet, P (1990) Chromosome 1B-encoded gliadins and glutenin subunits in durum wheat: genetics and relationship to gluten strength. Journal of Cereal Science 11, 1534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Randhawa, HS, Dhaliwal, HS, Harjit-Singh Haminda, K (1995) Cataloguing of wheat germplasm for HMW glutenin subunit composition, In: Chopa, VL, Sharma, RP, Swaminatha, MS (eds) Second Asia-Pacific Conference on Agricultural Biotechnology. New Delhi: Oxford and IBH Publishing Company, pp. 1326.Google Scholar
Randhawa, HS, Dhaliwal, HS, Harjit-Singh, (1997) Diversity for HMW glutenin subunit composition and the origin of polyploid wheat. Cereal Research Communications 25, 7784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruiz, M and Carrillo, JM (1995) Relationships between different prolamin proteins and some quality parameters in durum wheat. Plant Breeding 114, 4044.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shewry, PR, Tatham, AS, Forde, J, Kries, M and Miflin, BJ (1986) The classification and nomenclature of wheat gluten proteins: a reassessment. Journal of Cereal Science 4, 97106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Singh, NK, Shepherd, KW and Cornish, GB (1991) A simplified SDS-PAGE procedure for separating LMW subunits of glutenin. Journal of Cereal Science 14, 203208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Uhlen, AK (1990) The composition of high molecular weight glutenin subunits in Norwegian wheats, and their relation to bread-making quality. Norwegian Journal of Agricultural Science 4, 17.Google Scholar
Vavilov, NI (1929) Wheat of Ethiopia. Bulletin of Applied Botany, Genetics and Plant Breeding 20, 224356.Google Scholar
Woychik, JH, Boundy, JA and Dimler, RJ (1961) Starch gel electrophoresis of wheat gluten proteins with concentrated urea. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 94, 477482.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed