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Editorial endeavours: plainchant revision in early modern Italian printed graduals

  • MARIANNE C.E. GILLION (a1)

Abstract

The extensive melodic revision of plainchant in editions of the Graduale Romanum published in Italy from the late sixteenth century onward resulted in musically diverse repertoires that could depart widely from earlier chant traditions. The scale of the changes in these sources, both in type and in number, has obscured certain aspects of their editors’ work: their familiarity with the corpus, their aims and techniques, and their approach to the task. Previous analyses concluded that the editors worked on a chant-by-chant basis, and were either unaware of or ignored any shared melodic relationships between pieces of plainchant. An examination of the revisions to the recurrent melody used by the eight Ostende alleluias in three influential Italian printed graduals – Gardano 1591, Giunta 1596 and Medici 1614/15 – provides a different perspective. Analyses of the reshaped chants reveal that the editors possessed knowledge of the repertoire guiding aims, and favoured revision techniques. The combination of these factors, whether intentionally or not, resulted in the chants’ continued structural connection in the midst of increased melodic diversity. The individuation evident the chants did not necessarily signal the editors’ unfamiliarity with the repertoire, but could have been indicative of their intentional rejection of shared elements. Further, the revisions to the Ostende alleluias reveal that the editorial process could be flexible, with the chants approached both as individual entities and as groups. These findings demonstrate the complexity of the editorial process in early modern Italian printed graduals, and deepen our understanding of this multifaceted repertoire.

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This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the CreativeCommonsAttribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Footnotes

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This article is based upon research in my doctoral dissertation, ‘“Diligentissime emendatum, atque correctum”? The transmission and revision of plainchant in Italian printed graduals, 1499–1653’, Ph.D. diss., University of Manchester (2015). I wish to thank Professor David Burn, Dr Amy Chambers and Dr Miriam Wendling for the comments on earlier versions of this article. My current research is funded by the Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek – Vlaanderen (FWO).

Footnotes

References

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1 Gillion, Marianne C.E., ‘Cantate Domino Canticum Novum? A Re-examination of “Post-Tridentine” Chant Revision in Italian Printed Graduals’, in The Council of Trent: Reform and Controversy in Europe and Beyond (1545–1700), ed. Soen, Violet and François, Wim, 3 vols. (Göttingen, 2018), 3: 159–81.

2 Gillion, Marianne C.E., ‘“Shall the Dead Arise and Praise You”? Revisions to the Missa pro defunctis in Italian Printed Graduals, 1591–1621’, Trossinger Jahrbuch für Renaissancemusik, 13 (2017), 5980, at 60–3.

3 Gillion, Marianne C.E., ‘Retrofitting Plainchant: The Incorporation of “Tridentine” Liturgical Changes in Italian Printed Graduals, 1572–1653’, Journal of Musicology, 36/3 (2019), 331–69.

4 Karp, Theodore, An Introduction to the Post-Tridentine Mass Proper, 2 vols. (Middleton, 2005), 1: 203–4; Gillion, ‘“Shall the Dead Arise”’, 64–5.

5 Karp, Post-Tridentine, 1: 88–93, 113–19 and 167–78.

6 Sherr, Richard, ‘The Life of Plainchants: A Review of An Introduction to the Post-Tridentine Mass Proper by Theodore Karp’, Early Music, 35/2 (2007), 301–2, at 302.

7 Gozzi, Marco, ‘L'edizione veneziana del Graduale curate da Vecchi, Balbi e Gabrieli (1591)’, Polifonie, 5/2 (2005), 931 (English translation: ‘The Venetian Edition of the Gradual Edited by Gabrieli, Balbi, and Vecchi’, 33–46, at 41).

8 Gillion, ‘“Shall the Dead Arise”’, 72–7; Gillion, ‘Cantate domino’, 170–6.

9 For an overview of some of the complaints, see Harrán, Don, Word-Tone Relations in Musical Thought (Neuhausen-Stuttgart, 1986), 113–19, 123–9, 184–5, 209–10, 294–5; idem, In Defense of Music: The Case for Music as Argued by a Singer and Scholar of the Late Fifteenth Century (Lincoln, 1989); More, Mother Thomas, ‘The Performance of Plainsong in the Later Middle Ages and the Sixteenth Century’, Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association, 92 (1965–6), 121–4, at 121–3.

10 Gillion, ‘“Diligentissime emendatum, atque correctum”’.

11 Source Readings in Music History, ed. Oliver Strunk and Leo Treitler, rev. edn (New York, 1998), 375. The Latin text of the commission may be found in Molitor, Raphael, Die Nach-Tridentinische Choral-Reform zu Rom: Ein Beitrag zur Musikgeschichte des XVI. und XVII. Jahrhunderts, 2 vols. (Leipzig, 1901–2; rept, Hildesheim, 1967), 1: 297–8.

12 Harrán, Word-Tone Relations, 115–17, 204–5.

13 The correspondence may be found in Molitor, Die Nach-Tridentinische Choral-Reform, 1: 296–7, 301–5. For English translations, see Hayburn, Robert F., Papal Legislation on Sacred Music 95 A.D. to 1977 A.D. (Collegeville, 1979), 3843.

14 The revised Missale Romanum was universally imposed unless an institution or a region could prove the use of a rite extending back two hundred years or more.

15 Gillion, ‘Retrofitting Plainchant’, 336–9.

16 Gozzi, ‘The Venetian Edition’, 40–3; Agee, Richard J., ‘Ideological Clashes in a Cinquecento Edition of Plainchant’, in Music, Dance and Society: Medieval and Renaissance Studies in Memory of Ingrid G. Brainard, ed. Buckley, Ann and Cyrus, Cynthia J. (Kalamazoo, 2011), 143–58, 143–6.

17 Ibid. See also Indino, Annarita, ‘Il Graduale stampato da Angelo Gardano (1591)’, in Il canto piano nell'era della stampa: atti del Convegno internazionale di studi sul canto liturgico nei secoli XV–XVIII: Trento, Castello del Buonconsiglio, Venezia, Fondazione Ugo e Olga Levi, 9–11 Ottobre 1998, ed. Cattin, Giulio, Curti, Danilo and Gozzi, Marco, (Trent, 1999), 207–21.

18 Graduale Romanum (Venice: Gardano, 1591), fol. 2r. The division of editorial labour will be discussed further below.

19 Graduale de Tempore iuxta ritum Sacrosanctae Romanae Ecclesiae: Editio Princeps (1614), ed. Giacomo Baroffio and Manlio Sodi (Vatican City, 2001); Graduale de Sanctis iuxta ritum Sacrosanctae Romanae Ecclesiae: Editio Princeps (1614–15), ed. Giacomo Baroffio and Manlio Sodi (Vatican City, 2001); Baroffio, Giacomo, ‘La trasmissione delle melodie gregoriane nell'Editio Medicea e nelle fonti parallele’, Polifonie 6/2 (2006), 1141 (English translation: ‘The Transmission of Gregorian Melodies in the Editio Medicea and Parallel Sources’, 43–52).

20 Williamson, Magnus, ‘Affordable Splendor: Editing, Printing and Marketing the Sarum Antiphoner (1519–20)’, Renaissance Studies, 26/1 (2012), 6087; Marianne C.E. Gillion, ‘Archiepiscopal Archetypes, Printed Books, and Parish Practices: Musical Notation in Editions of the Missale Salisburgense (1492–1515)’, Florilegium (forthcoming, 2020).

21 Agee, Richard J., ‘The Printed Dissemination of the Roman Gradual in Italy during the Early Modern Period’, Notes, 64/1 (2007), 942, at 10–15.

22 Karp begins to explore the melodic relationships between the Italian printed graduals in Post-Tridentine, 1: 8, 86, 202. The relationships between editions of the gradual issued in Italy between 1499 and 1653, and the formation of identifiable printed plainchant traditions are discussed in Gillion, ‘Diligentissime emendatum’, ch. 2.

23 Some variants stemmed from typesetting errors or flexible notational practices. However, the frequency of any given variant throughout a source, combined with its context (i.e., if it resolves a musically problematic reading) indicates that the modification was a conscious change. On the importance of small variants in manuscript chant sources, see Andrew Hughes, ‘Patterns and Paleography: Revisions, Variants, Errors, and Methods’, in Music in Medieval Europe: Studies in Honour of Bryan Gillingham, ed. Terence Bailey and Alma Santosuosso (Aldershot, 2007), 287–311, at 289–90, 298–302.

24 Gillion, ‘Diligentissime emendatum’. This does not preclude the use of manuscript copytexts, but no direct evidence of their use has been found in Venice. In contrast, analyses have shown that editors could use up to four different printed exemplars. Gillion, ‘Retrofitting Plainchant’, 337–8, 353, 359.

25 Karp, Post-Tridentine, 1: 1–3; Baroffio, ‘The Transmission of Gregorian Melodies’, 45.

26 Richardson, Brian, Print Culture in Renaissance Italy: The Editor and the Vernacular Text 1470–1600 (Cambridge, 1996), 20–3.

27 Karp, Post-Tridentine, 1: 203–4; Gillion, ‘“Shall the Dead Arise”’, 64–5.

28 Examples drawn from all genres of proper chants may be found in Gillion, ‘“Shall the Dead Arise”’, 66–77.

29 There exists some variability concerning the definition of the term ‘formula’, which is indicative of the variety of stylistic characteristics that could be (and have been) described as ‘formulaic’. The definition I use combines those found in Maloy, Rebecca, Inside the Offertory: Aspects of Chronology and Transmission (Oxford, 2010), 90–1; and Hornby, Emma, Gregorian and Old Roman Eighth-Mode Tracts (Aldershot, 2002), 910.

30 On the memorisation of (notated) plainchant in the late medieval period, see Busse Berger, Anna Maria, Medieval Music and the Art of Memory (Berkeley, 2005), 4784, at 50; Wright, Craig, Music and Ceremony at Notre Dame of Paris, 500–1550 (Cambridge, 1989), 325–9.

31 Karp, Post-Tridentine, 1: 88–93, 113–19, 167–78.

32 Sherr, ‘The Life of Plainchants’, 302.

33 Gillion, ‘“Shall the Dead Arise”’, 73–7; Gillion, ‘Cantate Domino’, 170–6, 179–81.

34 This group is also referred to as Dominus dixit from the incipit from the First Mass of Christmas. In this article, the group will be referred to as Ostende after the chant's first appearance. On the nomenclature, see Willi Apel, Gregorian Chant (Bloomington, 1958), 381–2; Hiley, David, Western Plainchant: A Handbook (Oxford, 1993), 132–3; and James W. McKinnon and Christian Thodberg, ‘Alleluia’, Grove Music Online. www.oxfordmusiconline.com (accessed 21 April 2017).

35 The copy consulted is GB-Lbl, IC 24240. The guidelines governing all the transcriptions and their subsequent analyses are found in the editorial method at the end of this article.

36 In his analysis of Alleluia Dominus dixit, Hiley observes that the verse in his exemplar (Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, lat. 776, fol. 12r) has the melodic goal of c. Hiley, Western Plainchant, 132. In Giunta 1499/1500, there is equal emphasis on b.

37 In referring to pitches, the following conventions are used. The lowest note of the medieval gamut is represented as Γ. From there the pitches ascend through uppercase letters (A–G), lowercase letters (a–g), and where necessary lowercase plus prime.

38 Hiley, Western Plainchant, 132. Hiley's exemplar notates paired phrases at the close of the terminal melisma. These do not appear in Giunta 1499/1500. In this printed source, Melisma 3 is the most melodically unstable and is shortened in many chants.

39 McKinnon and Thodberg, ‘Alleluia’; Alleluia-Melodien I bis 1100, ed. Karlheinz Schlager, Monumenta Monodica Medii Aevi 7 (Kassel, 1968), 137, 368, 637–8.

40 The copy consulted is I-TRbc FSG 16 (Feininger Collection).

41 Graduale Romanum (Venice: Gardano, 1591), fol. 2r: Quod quidem Graduale Romanum à multis praestantibus, et primarijs Italiae viris, musica praeditis, in cantibus ipsis planis eruditissimis, revisum fuit: et in primis à R.D. Andrea Gabriele in Ecclesia Divi Marci Venetiarum Organico; à R. Magistro Ludovico Balbio, in Ecclesia Divi Antonij Patavini Musices moderatore et à R.D. Horatio de Vecchijs Mutinensi Canonico Corrigiensi; à quibus omnibus coniunctim, et separatim summo studio, ac diligentia correctum fuit, et emendatum.

42 This is especially the case with the contribution Gabrieli, who predeceased the volume by six years. Agee takes the appearance of Gabrieli's name in the preface as evidence that work on the gradual was already occurring in the 1580s. Agee, ‘Ideological Clashes’, 146.

43 Gozzi, ‘The Venetian Edition’, 41.

44 As it is not possible to reconstruct the exact division of labour, the following discussion will simply refer to ‘the editors’.

45 The characteristics of the revised chant in Gardano 1591, and in the two other graduals under consideration, are discussed in Gillion, ‘“Shall the Dead Arise”’, 65–80.

46 It is not possible to compare this with their physical proximity in the editors’ exemplars since these are unknown. Agee (‘Ideological Clashes’, 145–6) has proposed that the editors might have had access to the manuscripts revised by Palestrina and Zoilo. Gillion (‘Retrofitting Plainchant’, 362–4) has shown that a gradual following the 1580 Liechtenstein tradition was mostly likely used as one of their sources.

47 Accidentals are not uniformly notated in Italian printed graduals and as such will not be discussed in the analyses. See the editorial method.

48 Duggan, Mary Kay, Italian Music Incunabula: Music and Type (Berkeley, 1992), 129–42, 200–72; Sonia Carli, ‘Il Graduale Romano curato da Francesco De Brugis, incunabolo di Lucantonio Giunta (1499–1500)’, in Il canto piano nell'era della stampa, ed. Cattin, Curti and Gozzi, 201–5; Massera, Giuseppe, La ‘Mano musicale perfetta’ di Francesco de Brugis delle prefazioni a corali di L.A. Giunta (Florence, 1963).

49 Gillion, ‘“Shall the Dead Arise”’, 67–8; eadem, ‘Retrofitting Plainchant’, 349–55.

50 The exceptions are abbreviated editions of the gradual issued in 1546 and 1560 edited by Pietro Cinciarino of Urbino, a member of the Congregation of Blessed Peter of Pisa (the Hieronymites).

51 The copy consulted is D-As, 2 Th Lt K 26.

52 Gillion, ‘Diligentissime emendatum’; eadem, ‘Cantate domino’, 163–4; eadem, ‘Retrofitting Plainchant’, 347, n. 50.

53 Hiley, Western Plainchant, 130; McKinnon and Thodberg, ‘Alleluia’.

54 The text underlay of the word can differ, but in most of the chants the melody is that of the first iteration. The exceptions are Ostende nobis and Diffusa est gratia, which have slight variants.

55 Karp, Post-Tridentine, 1: 88, 103.

56 The papal privilege provided the publisher exclusive rights to print the work during a limited period.

57 The copies consulted are I-TRbc FSG 19 and 20 (Feininger Collection) and the facsimile editions edited by Baroffio and Sodi.

58 For a detailed account of the Medicean Edition's long gestation period, see Hayburn, Papal Legislation, 38–64. Transcription of the documents cited by Hayburn may be found in Molitor, Nach-Tridentinische Choral-Reform, 1: 296–7, 301–4, and 2: 213–37.

59 Karp, Post-Tridentine Mass Proper, 1: 8, 86, 202. The Medicean Edition did influence the editor of the Graduale Romanum issued by the Venetian firm of Ciera in 1621, being one of the (at least) four exemplars used. Gillion, ‘Retrofitting Plainchant’, 349, 352–5.

60 Soriano was the maestro di cappella of the Cappella Giulia – the papal chapel – between 1603 and 1620. Noel O'Regan, ‘Soriano [Suriano, Suriani, Surianus], Francesco’, in Grove Music Online; Klaus Fischer, ‘Anerio, Felice’, in Grove Music Online (accessed 4 February 2019).

61 Text-painting (where the melody reflects the meaning of a word) occurs periodically in the Medicean Edition. Karp, Post-Tridentine, 1: 204.

62 The exception to this is Ostende nobis, where the final syllable of the last word falls on a single G.

63 In most Italian printed graduals, the chants are notated on their first occurrence, and for all subsequent occasions the user is directed back via the rubrics.

64 This is discussed in Gillion, ‘Retrofitting Plainchant’, 364–6. The variant melody in the Medicean Edition does not match the alternate melodies for the ‘diffusa est gratia’ text in Schlager, Alleluia-Melodien, xv. It also does not yield any results when searched for on the Cantus Index: Catalogue of Chant Texts and Melodies, www.cantusindex.org (accessed 21 April 2017).

65 In the feast of St Monica, the beginning of the verse is slightly different, and in the feast of St Praxedis a single c is appended to ‘procede’.

66 This approach can be seen at other points in the gradual, where there are multiple iterations of a chant melody. See Gillion, ‘Retrofitting Plainchant’, 352–3.

67 Karp, Post-Tridentine, 2: ix–x.

68 In this matter I differ from Karp. Chants in the three sources under consideration do not employ liquescence and possible rhythmic interpretations of the notation are not relevant to the analyses. On rhythm in early modern printed graduals, see Gozzi, Marco, ‘Le edizioni liturgico-musicale dopo il concilio’, in Music e Liturgia nella Riforma Tridentina, ed. Curti, Danilo and Gozzi, Marco (Trent, 1995), 3955; Antonio Lovato, ‘Aspetti Ritmici del Canto Piano nei Trattati dei Secoli XVI-XVII’, in Il canto piano nell'era della stampa, ed. Cattin, Curti and Gozzi, 99–114.

69 Due to this variance, accidental use is not commented upon in the discussion of the Ostende alleluias. Although a b flat might not be notated in a chant, it could still have been sung in performance.

70 The exceptions, for reasons discussed in the article, are the readings of Diffusa est gratia and Specie tua from the Medicean Edition. The versions from vol. 2 fol. 12v and fol. 234r respectively are used in the synoptic transcriptions.

This article is based upon research in my doctoral dissertation, ‘“Diligentissime emendatum, atque correctum”? The transmission and revision of plainchant in Italian printed graduals, 1499–1653’, Ph.D. diss., University of Manchester (2015). I wish to thank Professor David Burn, Dr Amy Chambers and Dr Miriam Wendling for the comments on earlier versions of this article. My current research is funded by the Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek – Vlaanderen (FWO).

Editorial endeavours: plainchant revision in early modern Italian printed graduals

  • MARIANNE C.E. GILLION (a1)

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