Bailey, John J. and O’Connor, Robert J.. 1975. “Operationalizing Incrementalism: Measuring the Muddles.” Public Administration Review 35(1): 60–66.10.2307/975202
Baumgartner, Frank R. and Jones, Bryan D.. 2009. Agendas and Instability in American Politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Ben-ShalomYonatan, Robert A. Moffitt Yonatan, Robert A. Moffitt and Karl Scholz, John. 2012. “An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Anti-Poverty Programs in the United States.” In The Oxford Handbook of the Economics of Poverty, ed. Jefferson, Philip N., 709–49. New York: Oxford University Press.
Berman, Larry P. 1979. The Office of Management and Budget and the Presidency. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Berry, Christopher R., Burden, Barry C., and Howell, William G.. 2010. “The President and the Distribution of Federal Spending.” American Political Science Review 104(4): 783–99.10.1017/S0003055410000377
Browning, Rufus P., Marshall, Dale Rogers, and Tabb, David H.. 1984. Protest Is Not Enough: The Struggle of Blacks and Hispanics for Equality in Urban Politics. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Cameron, Charles and McCarty, Nolan. 2004. “Models of Vetoes and Veto Bargaining.” Annual Review of Political Science 7: 409–35.10.1146/annurev.polisci.7.012003.104810
Canes-Wrone, Brandice. 2001. “The President’s Legislative Influence from Public Appeals.” American Journal of Political Science 45(2): 313–29.10.2307/2669343
Canes-Wrone, Brandice. 2006. Who Leads Whom? Presidents, Policy, and the Public. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Chiou, Fang-Yi and Rothenberg, Lawrence S.. 2013. “The Elusive Search for Presidential Power.” American Journal of Political Science 58(3): 653–68.10.1111/ajps.12057
Clarke, Wes. 1998. “Divided Government and Budget Conflict in the U. S. States.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 23(1): 5–22.10.2307/440211
Clayton, Dewey. 2010. The Presidential Campaign of Barrack Obama: A Critical Analysis of a Radically Transcendent Strategy. New York: Routledge.10.4324/9780203883952
Cohen, Jeffrey E. 1993. “The Dynamics and Interactions Between the President’s and the Public’s Civil Rights Agendas: A Study in Presidential Leadership and Representation.” Policy Studies Journal 21(3): 514–21.10.1111/j.1541-0072.1993.tb01806.x
Cohen, Jeffrey E. 1997. Presidential Responsiveness and Public Policy-Making. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.10.3998/mpub.14952
Covington, Cary R. 1987. “Staying Private: Gaining Congressional Support for Unpublicized Presidential Preferences on Roll Call Voters.” Journal of Politics 49(3): 737–55.10.2307/2131276
Crotty, William, ed. 2012. The Obama Presidency: Promise and Performance. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.
Davis, Otto A., Dempster, M. A. H., and Wildavsky, Aaron. 1966. “A Theory of the Budgetary Process.” American Political Science Review 60(3): 529–47.10.2307/1952969
Dearden, James A. and Husted, Thomas A.. 1990. “Executive Budget Proposal, Executive Veto, Legislative Override, and Uncertainty: A Comparative Analysis of the Budgetary Process.” Public Choice 65(1): 1–19.10.1007/BF00139288
Deering, Christopher J. and Maltzman, Forrest. 1999. “The Politics of Executive Orders: Legislative Constraints on Presidential Power.” Political Research Quarterly 52(4): 767–83.10.1177/106591299905200405
Donohue, John J and Heckman, James. 1991. “Continuous versus Episodic Change: The Impact of Civil Rights Policy on the Economic Status of Blacks.” Journal of Economic Literature 29(4): 1603–43.
Gilens, Martin. 1999. Why Americans Hate Welfare: Race, Media, and the Politics of Antipoverty Policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.10.7208/chicago/9780226293660.001.0001
Gillespie, Andra, ed. 2012. Whose Black Politics? Cases in Post-Racial Black Leadership. New York: Routledge.
Gillion, Daniel Q. 2016. Governing with Words: The Political Dialogue on Race, Public Policy, and Inequality in America. New York: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9781316412299
Griffin, John D. and Keane, Michael. 2006. “Descriptive Representation and the Composition of African American Turnout.” American Journal of Political Science 40(4): 998–1012.10.1111/j.1540-5907.2006.00229.x
Griffin, John. D and Newman, Brian. 2008. Minority Report: Evaluating Political Equality in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.10.7208/chicago/9780226308692.001.0001
Hajnal, Zoltan L. 2006. Changing White Attitudes Toward Black Political Leadership. New York: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9780511607523
Hajnal, Zoltan L. and Horowitz, Jeremy D.. 2014. “Racial Winners and Losers in American Party Politics.” Perspectives on Politics 12(1): 100–118.10.1017/S1537592713003733
Harris, Fredrick C. 2012. The Price of the Ticket: Barack Obama and the Rise and Decline of Black Politics. New York: Oxford University Press.10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199739677.001.0001
Harris, Fredrick C. and Lieberman, Robert C., eds. 2013. Beyond Discrimination: Racial Inequality in a Post Racial Era. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Haynie, Kerry L. 2001. African American Legislators in the American States. New York: Columbia University Press.10.7312/hayn10644
Henry, Charles P., Allen, Robert L., and Chrisman, Robert, eds. 2011. The Obama Phenomenon: Toward a Multiracial Democracy. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.10.5406/illinois/9780252036453.001.0001
Hopkins, Daniel J. and McCabe, Katherine T.. 2012. “After It’s Too Late: Estimating the Policy Impacts of Black Mayoralties in US Cities.” American Politics Research 40(4): 665–700.10.1177/1532673X11432469
Howell, William G., Jackman, Saul P., and Rogowski, Jon C.. 2013. The Wartime President: Executive Influence and the Nationalizing Politics of Threat. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.10.7208/chicago/9780226048420.001.0001
Hutchings, Vincent L. 2009. “Change or More of the Same? Evaluating Racial Attitudes in the Obama Era.” Public Opinion Quarterly 73(5): 917–42.10.1093/poq/nfp080
Hutchings, Vincent, McClerking, Harwood, and Charles, Guy-Uriel. 2004. “Congressional Representation of Black Interests: Recognizing the Importance of Stability.” Journal of Politics 66(2): 450–68.10.1111/j.1468-2508.2004.00159.x
Irving, Shelley and Loveless, Tracy. 2015. Dynamics of Economic Well-Being: Participation in Government Programs 2009–2012: Who Gets Assistance? Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.
Iversen, Torben and Soskice, David. 2006. “Electoral Institutions and the Politics of Coalitions: Why Some Democracies Redistribute More than Others.” American Political Science Review 100(2): 165–81.10.1017/S0003055406062083
Kamlet, Mark S. and Mowery, David C.. 1987. “Influences on Executive and Congressional Budgetary Priorities, 1955–1981.” American Political Science Review 81(1): 155–78.10.2307/1960783
Keele, Luke and Kelly, Nathan J.. 2005. “Dynamic Models for Dynamic Theories: The Ins and Outs of Lagged Dependent Variables.” Political Analysis 14(2): 186–205.10.1093/pan/mpj006
Kernell, Samuel. 2006. Going Public: New Strategies of Presidential Leadership. Washington DC: CQ Press.
Kiewiet, Roderick D. and Krehbiel, Keith. 2000. “Here’s the President: Where’s the Party? U.S. Appropriations on Discretionary Domestic Spending, 1950–1999.” Leviathan 30: 115–37.
Kiewiet, Roderick D. and McCubbins, Matthew D.. 1988. “Presidential Influence on Congressional Appropriations Decisions.” American Journal of Political Science 32(3): 713–36.10.2307/2111243
Kiewiet, Roderick D. and McCubbins, Matthew D.. 1991. The Logic of Delegation: Congressional Parties and the Appropriations Process. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
King, Desmond and Smith, Rogers. 2011. Still a House Divided: Race and Politics in Obama’s America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Krause, George A. and Cook, Ian P.. 2015. “Partisan Presidential Influence over US Federal Budgetary Outcomes: Evidence from a Stochastic Decomposition of Executive Budget Proposals.” Political Science Research and Methods 3(2): 2443–64.10.1017/psrm.2014.28
Laney, Garrine. 2013. Poverty Rates for Selected Detailed Race and Hispanic Groups by State and Place: 2007–2011. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.
LeLoup, Lance T. 1978. “The Myth of Incrementalism: Analytical Choices in Budgetary Theory.” Polity 10(4): 488–509.10.2307/3234402
Lewis, Jeffrey B., Poole, Keith, Rosenthal, Howard, Boche, Adam, Rudkin, Aaron, and Sonnet, Luke. 2018. Voteview: Congressional Roll-Call Votes Database. Retrieved November 1, 2018. https://voteview.com/.
Liu, Baodong. 2010. The Election of Barack Obama: How He Won. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.10.1057/9780230111790
Macartney, Suzanne, Bishaw, Alemayehu, and Fontenot, K.. 2013. 2013: Poverty Rates for Selected Detailed Race and Hispanic Groups by State and Place: 2007–2011. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.
Mansbridge, Jane. 1999. “Should Blacks Represent Blacks and Women Represent Women? A Contingent ‘Yes.’” Journal of Politics 61(3): 628–57.10.2307/2647821
Minta, Michael D. 2011. Oversight: Representing the Interests of Blacks and Latinos in Congress. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Nelson, Thomas E., Sanbonmatsu, Kira, and McClerking, Harwood K.. 2007. “Playing a Different Race Card: Examining the Limits of Elite Influence on Perceptions of Racism.” Journal of Politics 69(4): 416–29.10.1111/j.1468-2508.2007.00540.x
Nteta, Tatishe M., Rhodes, Jesse H., and Tarsi, Melinda R.. 2016. “Conditional Representation: Presidential Rhetoric, Public Opinion, and the Representation of African American Interests.” Journal of Race, Ethnicity, and Politics 1(2): 280–315.10.1017/rep.2016.4
Pack, Janet Rothenberg. 1987. “The Political Policy Cycle: Presidential Effort vs. Presidential Control.” Public Choice 54(3): 231–59.10.1007/BF00125648
Palumbo, Thomas. 2010. Economic Characteristics of Households in the United States: Third Quarter 2008. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.
Pelissero, John P., Holian, David B., and Tomaka, Laura A.. 2000. “Does Political Incorporation Matter? The Impact of Minority Mayors Over Time.” Urban Affairs Review 36(1): 84–92.10.1177/10780870022184769
Peterson, Mark A. 1990. Legislating Together: The White House and Capitol Hill from Eisenhower to Reagan. Cambridge,: Harvard University Press.
Pitkin, Hanna F. 1967. The Concept of Representation. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Preuhs, Robert R. 2006. “The Conditional Effects of Minority Descriptive Representation: Black Legislators and Policy Influence in the American States.” Journal of Politics 68(3): 585–99.10.1111/j.1468-2508.2006.00447.x
Rossiter, Clinton. 1960. The American Presidency. New York: Harcourt-Brace.
Rudalevige, Andrew. 2013. “Narrowcasting the Obama Presidency.” Perspectives on Politics 11(4): 1126–34.10.1017/S1537592713002788
Schaffner, Brian F., Rhodes, Jesse H., and La Raja, Raymond J.. 2016. “Race- and Class-Based Inequality and Representation in Local Government.” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Philadelphia, PA, September 1–4.
Shah, Paru and Marschall, Melissa. 2012. “The Centrality of Racial and Ethnic Politics in American Cities and Towns.” In The Oxford Handbook of Urban Politics, ed. Mossberger, Karen, Clarke, Susan E., and John, Peter. New York: Oxford University Press.
Skocpol, Theda. 2012. Obama and America’s Political Future. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.10.4159/harvard.9780674067943
Spar, Karen and Falk, Gene. 2015. Federal Benefits and Services for People with Low Income: Programs and Spending, FY2008–FY2013. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service.
Tate, Katherine. 2003. Black Faces in the Mirror: African Americans and Their Representatives in U.S. Congress. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Tesler, Michael. 2016. Post-Racial or Most-Racial: Race and Politics in the Obama Era. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.10.7208/chicago/9780226353159.001.0001
Tomkin, Shelley L. 1998. Inside OMB: Politics and Process in the President’s Budget Office. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
True, James L. 2000. “Avalanches and Incrementalism: Making Policy and Budgets in the United States.” American Review of Public Administration 30(1): 3–18.10.1177/02750740022064524
Wanat, John. 1974. “Bases of Budgetary Incrementalism.” American Political Science Review 68(3): 1221–28.10.2307/1959158
Whitby, Kenny J. 2000. The Color of Representation: Congressional Behavior and Black Interests. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Whittington, Keith E. and Carpenter, Daniel P.. 2003. “Executive Power in American Institutional Development.” Perspectives on Politics 1(3): 495–513.10.1017/S1537592703000367
Williams, Melissa S. 1998. Voice, Trust, and Memory: Marginalized Groups and the Failings of Liberal Representation. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Wilson, William J. 1987. The Truly Disadvantaged. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Zelizer, Julian E. 2018. “Policy Revolution without a Political Transformation: The Presidency of Barack Obama.” In The Presidency of Barack Obama: A First Historical Assessment, ed. Zelizer, Julian E.. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.10.23943/9781400889556