Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-559fc8cf4f-28jzs Total loading time: 0.383 Render date: 2021-03-04T06:30:36.822Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Strategic Discrimination

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  16 September 2020

Abstract

Why are women and people of color under-represented in U.S. politics? I offer a new explanation: strategic discrimination. Strategic discrimination occurs when an individual hesitates to support a candidate out of concern that others will object to the candidate’s identity. In a series of three experiments, I find that strategic discrimination exists, it matters for real-world politics, and it can be hard to overcome. The first experiment shows that Americans consider white male candidates more electable than equally qualified Black and white women, and to a lesser extent, Black men. These results are strongly intersectional, with Black women rated less electable than either Black men or white women. The second experiment demonstrates that anti-Trump voters weigh Democratic candidates’ racial and gender identities when deciding who is most capable of beating Donald Trump in 2020. The third experiment finds that while some messages intended to combat strategic discrimination have no effect, diverse candidates can increase their perceived electability by showing that they have a path to victory. I conclude by arguing that strategic discrimination is especially salient in contemporary U.S. politics due to three parallel trends: increasing diversity among candidates, growing awareness of sexism and racism, and high levels of political polarization.

Type
Special Section: The Glass Ceiling/Gender
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2020. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of the American Political Science Association

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

Footnotes

A list of permanent links to Supplemental Materials provided by the author precedes the References section.

*

Data replication sets are available in Harvard Dataverse at: https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/6FFKRI

This research was supported by the MIT Political Science Department; the MIT Political Experiments Research Lab, and the 2019 Carrie Chapman Catt Prize for Research on Women and Politics (Honorable Mention). Blair Read provided superb research assistance, with logistical help from Paula Kreutzer and Z. Y. Chris Peng. Adam Berinsky, Pavielle Haines, Danny Hidalgo, Rich Nielsen, Spencer Piston, Jamil Scott, Tagart Sobotka, Erin Tolley, Srdjan Vucetic, and Erika Weisz contributed valuable feedback, as did audiences at APSA 2019, the University of Toronto Political Science Department, the Public Law Centre at the University of Ottawa, and six anonymous reviewers. For moral support and encouragement, the author would like to thank Taylor Boas, Adam Bonica, Christine Cheng, Dara Kay Cohen, Amelia Hoover Green, Vivek Krishnamurthy, Eduardo Moncada, Sarah Parkinson, Maia Pelleg, Agustin Rayo, Julia Sweeney, and Michael Weintraub.

References

60 Minutes . 2008. “The Long-Shot Candidate,” CBS, December 28. (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F8MxP9adPO8).Google Scholar
Abrajano, Marisa A., and Alvarez, R. Michael. 2005. “A Natural Experiment of Race-Based and Issue Voting: The 2001 City of Los Angeles Elections.” Political Research Quarterly 58(2): 203-18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ahearn, Lorraine, and Alexander, Lex. 1996. “Rematch: It’s Gantt vs. Helms.” Greensboro [NC} News & Record, May 7.Google Scholar
Allport, Floyd Henry. 1924. Social Psychology. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.Google Scholar
Ambinder, Marc. 2009. “Race Over?” Atlantic Monthly, January/February 2009. (https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2009/01/race-over/307215/).Google Scholar
Anastasopoulos, Lefteris. 2016. “Estimating the Gender Penalty in House of Representatives Elections Using a Regression Discontinuity Design.” Electoral Studies 43:150-57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bacon, Perry. 2018. “The Problem with ‘Electability.’” FiveThirtyEight, Aug. 21. (https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/the-problem-with-electability/).Google Scholar
Bai, Matt. 2004. “Electability.” New York Times Magazine, December 12. (https://www.nytimes.com/2004/12/12/magazine/electability.html).Google Scholar
Barbara Lee Family Foundation. 2019. “Ready, Willing, and Electable: Women Running for Executive Office.” Memo. (https://www.barbaraleefoundation.org/research/ready-willing-electable/).Google Scholar
Bateson, Regina. 2020. "Replication Data for: Strategic Discrimination." https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/6FFKRI, Harvard Dataverse.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Becker, Gary. 1971[1957]. The Economics of Discrimination, 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bejarano, Christina E. 2013. The Latina Advantage: Gender, Race, and Political Success. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
Bertrand, Marianne, and Mullainathan, Sendhil. 2004. “Are Emily and Greg More Employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination.” American Economic Review 94(4): 9911013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berinksy, Adam. 2017. “Rumors and Health Care Reform: Experiments in Political Misinformation.” British Journal of Political Science 47(2): 241-62.Google Scholar
Blank, Rebecca M., Dabady, Marilyn, and Citro, Constance F., eds. 2004. Measuring Racial Discrimination: Panel on Methods for Assessing Discrimination, Committee on National Statistics, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
Brown, Nadia, and Gershon, Sarah Allen. 2017. “Examining Intersectionality and Symbolic Representation.” Politics, Groups, and Identities 5(3): 500505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brownstein, Ronald. 2019a. “2020 Democrats Face the Most Diverse Electorate in History.” CNN Politics, February 12. (https://www.cnn.com/interactive/2019/02/politics/dem-primaries-exit-polls/).Google Scholar
Brownstein, Ronald 2019b. “The Democratic Debate Over Winning Back Trump’s Base.” Atlantic Monthly, May 2. (https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2019/05/joe-bidens-bid-white-working-class-vote/588613/).Google Scholar
Burden, Barry C., Ono, Yosikuni, and Yamada, Masahiro. 2017. “Reassessing Public Support for a Female President.” Journal of Politics 79(3): 1073-78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Butler, Daniel M., and Preece, Jessica Robinson. 2016. “Recruitment and Perceptions of Gender Bias in Party Leader Support.” Political Research Quarterly 69(4): 842–51.Google Scholar
Carroll, Susan J., and Sanbonmatsu, Kira. 2013. More Women Can Run: Gender and Pathways to the State Legislatures. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chira, Susan. 2019. “Stacey Abrams, After Narrow Loss, Has Some Decisions to Make.” New York Times, March 5. (https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/05/us/politics/stacey-abrams-georgia-democrats.html).Google Scholar
Coppock, Alexander, and McClellan, Oliver A.. 2019. “Validating the Demographic, Political, Psychological, and Experimental Results Obtained from a New Source of Online Survey Respondents.” Research and Politics 6(1): 114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cotton, Anthony. 2020. “Female Candidates Say They’ll Stand Their Ground in Democratic Senate Primary.” Colorado Public Radio, January 26. (https://www.cpr.org/2020/01/26/female-candidates-say-theyll-stand-their-ground-in-democratic-senate-primary/).Google Scholar
Crowder-Meyer, Melody. 2013. “Gendered Recruitment without Trying: How Local Party Recruiters Affect Women’s Representation.” Politics and Gender 9(4): 390413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crowley, Candy, and Johnson, Sasha. 2007. “Is Black America Ready to Embrace Obama?” CNN, March 1. (http://www.cnn.com/2007/POLITICS/02/28/obama.black.vote/index.html).Google Scholar
Culham, Devin. 2018. “Abdul El-Sayed Says ‘Powerful’ Democrats Think He Won’t Win Because He’s Muslim.” Detroit Metro Times, July 30. (https://www.metrotimes.com/news-hits/archives/2018/07/30/abdul-el-sayed-says-powerful-democrats-say-he-wont-win-because-hes-muslim).Google Scholar
Deaton, Angus, and Cartwright, Nancy. 2018. “Understanding and Misunderstanding Randomized Controlled Trials.” Social Science and Medicine 210:221.Google ScholarPubMed
Ditonto, Tessa. 2019. “Direct and Indirect Effects of Prejudice: Sexism, Information, and Voting Behavior in Political Campaigns.” Politics, Groups, and Identities 7(3): 590609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Do, James J., Samuels, Steven M., Adkins, Donald J., Clinard, Matthew E., and Koveleskie, Aaron J.. 2013. “Gender Bias and Pluralistic Ignorance in Perceptions of Fitness Assessments.” Military Psychology 24(1): 2335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Doherty, David, Dowling, Conor M., and Miller, Michael G.. 2019. “Do Local Party Chairs Think Women and Minority Candidates Can Win? Evidence from a Conjoint Experiment.” Journal of Politics 81(4): 1282–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dolan, Kathleen. 2014. When Does Gender Matter? Women Candidates and Gender Stereotypes in American Elections. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dowling, Conor, and Miller, Michael. 2015. “Can Information Alter Perceptions about Women’s Chances of Winning Office? Evidence from a Panel Study.” Politics and Gender 11(1): 5588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fields, James M., and Schuman, Howard. 1976. “Public Beliefs about the Beliefs of the Public.” Public Opinion Quarterly 40(4): 427–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marched, First We, Ran, Then We. 2019. “Panel 4: The Personal Side of Being a Candidate.” Jennifer Chudy, moderator. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, January 12. (https://firstwemarched.com/video).Google Scholar
Fox, Richard L. and Lawless, Jennifer L.. 2008. “If Only They’d Ask: Gender, Recruitment, and Political Ambition.” Journal of Politics 72(2): 310-26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fox, Richard L. and Lawless, Jennifer L. 2011. “Gendered Perceptions and Political Candidacies: A Central Barrier to Women’s Equality in Electoral Politics.” American Journal of Political Science 55(1): 5973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fox News. 2018. “CA Dem Candidate: Party Officials Told Me I’m ‘Too Brown’ to Win.” June 5. (https://insider.foxnews.com/2018/06/05/california-democrat-says-party-told-him-too-brown-win-congress-seat-against-rohrabacher).Google Scholar
Frederick, Angela. 2013. “Bringing Narrative In: Race-Gender Storytelling, Political Ambition, and Women’s Paths to Public Office.” Journal of Women, Politics, and Policy 34(2): 113-37.Google Scholar
Gallup. 2019. “In Depth: The Presidency.” (https://news.gallup.com/poll/4729/presidency.aspx).Google Scholar
Gambino, Lauren. 2018. “‘Just Win, Baby’: Nancy Pelosi Tells Democrats It’s OK to Run Against Her.” The Guardian, May 8.Google Scholar
Germond, Jack W. 1996. “Who Will Face Helms May Hinge on Race.” Baltimore Sun, May 6.Google Scholar
Goldberg, Philip. 1968. “Are Women Prejudiced Against Women?Transaction 5(5): 2830.Google Scholar
Gontcharova, Natalie. 2018. “Black Women Are Running for Office—But Are They Getting the Support They Need?” Refinery29, June 4. (https://www.refinery29.com/en-us/2018/06/200865/black-women-running-alabama).Google Scholar
Glick, Peter. 2019. “Gender, Sexism, and the Election: Did Sexism Help Trump More than It Hurt Clinton?Politics, Groups, and Identities 7(3): 713-23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graham, Ruth. 2018. “Struggling to Bring the ‘Blue Wave’ to Deep-Red Alabama.” New York Times Magazine, October 17. (https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/17/magazine/struggling-to-bring-the-blue-wave-to-deep-red-alabama.html).Google Scholar
Hamby, Peter. 2019. “‘This is Do-or-Die’: Joe Biden’s ‘Electability’ Argument Is How Democrats Lose Elections.” Vanity Fair, May 7. (https://www.vanityfair.com/news/2019/05/joe-biden-electability-argument-is-how-democrats-lose-elections?verso=true).Google Scholar
Hancock, Ange-Marie. 2007. “When Multiplication Doesn’t Equal Quick Addition: Examining Intersectionality as a Research Paradigm.” Perspectives on Politics 5(1): 6379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hartig, Hannah, and Doherty, Carroll. 2018. “More in US See Drug Addiction, College Affordability, and Sexism as ‘Very Big’ National Problems.” Pew Research Center. October 22. (https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/10/22/more-in-u-s-see-drug-addiction-college-affordability-and-sexism-as-very-big-national-problems/).Google Scholar
Hawkesworth, Mary. 2003. “Congressional Enactments of Race-Gender: Toward a Theory of Raced-Gendered Institutions.” American Political Science Review 97(4): 529-50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hayes, Danny, and Lawless, Jennifer L.. 2016. Women on the Run: Gender, Media, and Political Campaigns in a Polarized Era. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heerwig, Jennifer A., and McCabe, Brian J.. 2009. “Education and Social Desirability Bias: The Case of a Black Presidential Candidate.” Social Science Quarterly 90(3): 674–86.Google Scholar
Helman, Scott. 2007. “Politics of Doubt Gnaw at Black Voters in S.C.” Boston Globe, November 9.Google Scholar
Highton, Benjamin. 2004. “White Voters and African American Candidates for Congress.” Political Behavior 26(1): 125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hohman, James. 2018. “The Daily 202: Joe Biden Appeals to Working-Class Whites Who Defected to Trump. Is that How Democrats Win Again?” Washington Post, October 15. (https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/powerpost/paloma/daily-202/2018/10/15/daily-202-joe-biden-appeals-to-working-class-whites-who-defected-to-trump-is-that-how-democrats-win-again/5bc396dc1b326b7c8a8d19a1/?utm_term=.ae53906af73e).Google Scholar
Holman, Mirya, and Schneider, Monica C.. 2018. “Gender, Race, and Political Ambition: How Intersectionality and Frames Influence Interest in Public Office.” Politics, Groups, and Identities 6(2): 264–80.Google Scholar
Holzer, Harry, and Ihlanfeldt, Keith R.. 1998. “Customer Discrimination and Employment Outcomes for Minority Workers.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 113(3): 835-67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huddy, Leonie, and Terkildsen, Nayda. 1993. “The Consequences of Gender Stereotypes for Women Candidates at Different Levels and Types of Office.” Political Research Quarterly 46(3): 503-25.Google Scholar
Juenke, Eric Gonzalez, and Shah, Paru. 2016. “Demand and Supply: Racial and Ethnic Minority Candidates in White Districts.” Journal of Race, Ethnicity, and Politics 1(1): 6090.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Katz, Daniel, and Allport, Floyd Henry. 1931. Student Attitudes: A Report of the Syracuse University Research Study. Syracuse, NY: Craftsman Press.Google Scholar
King, Ledyard, Elbeshbishi, Sarah, and della Cava, Marco. 2019. “Elizabeth Warren’s Latest Hurdle to the Presidency: Democrats’ Belief Women Face Tougher Fight against Trump.” USA Today, September 10. (https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/elections/2019/09/10/elizabeth-warren-democrats-worry-electability-against-trump/2055209001/).Google Scholar
Kirkland, Patricia A., and Coppock, Alexander. 2018. “Candidate Choice without Party Labels: New Insights from Conjoint Survey Experiments.” Political Behavior 40: 571-91.Google Scholar
Kitchener, Caroline. 2019. “This Millennial Congresswoman Is Bringing Vulnerability to Capitol Hill.” The Lily, March 25. (https://www.thelily.com/this-millennial-congresswoman-is-bringing-vulnerability-to-capitol-hill/).Google Scholar
Krook, Mona Lena, and Mackay, Fiona, eds. 2011. Gender, Politics, and Institutions: Towards a Feminist Institutionalism. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krook, Mona Lena, and Sanín, Juliana Restrepo. 2019. “The Cost of Doing Politics? Analyzing Violence and Harassment against Female Politicians.” Perspectives on Politics. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1537592719001397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lambert, Tracy A., Kahn, Arnold S., and Apple, Kevin J.. 2003. “Pluralistic Ignorance and Hooking Up.” Journal of Sex Research 40(2): 129-33.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lawless, Jennifer L. and Fox, Richard L.. 2010. It Still Takes a Candidate: Why Women Don’t Run for Office. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Lawless, Jennifer L., and Pearson, Kathryn. 2008. “The Primary Reason for Women’s Underrepresentation? Reevaluating the Conventional Wisdom.” Journal of Politics 70(1): 6782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lieberman, Evan S. 2016. “Can the Biomedical Research Cycle Be a Model for Political Science?Perspectives on Politics 14(4): 1054-66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mackay, Fiona, Kenny, Meryl, and Chappell, Louise. 2011. “New Institutionalism through a Gender Lens: Towards a Feminist Institutionalism?International Political Science Review 31(5): 573-88.Google Scholar
Mas, Alexandre, and Moretti, Enrico. 2009. “Racial Bias in the 2008 Presidential Election.” American Economic Review: Papers & Proceedings 99(2): 323-29.Google Scholar
McCarthy, Justin. 2019. “Less than Half in US Would Vote for a Socialist for President.” Gallup News, May 9. (https://news.gallup.com/poll/254120/less-half-vote-socialist-president.aspx).Google Scholar
Mildenberger, Matto, and Tingley, Dustin. 2019. “Beliefs about Climate Beliefs: The Problem of Second-Order Opinions in Climate Policymaking.” British Journal of Political Science 49(4): 1279-307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, Dale T., and Prentice, Deborah A.. 1994. “Collective Errors and Errors about the Collective.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 20(5): 541-50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miyajima, Takeru, and Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki. 2017. “I Want to but I Won’t: Pluralistic Ignorance Inhibits Intentions to Take Paternity Leave in Japan.” Frontiers in Psychology 8(1508): 112.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mummolo, Jonathan, and Peterson, Erik. 2019. “Demand Effects in Survey Experiments: An Empirical Assessment.” American Political Science Review 113(2): 517-29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mutz, Diana Carole. 2011. Population-Based Survey Experiments. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Naughton, James. 1971. “Muskie Rules Out a Black Running Mate.” New York Times, September 9.Google Scholar
Neal, Samantha. 2017. “Views of Racism as a Major Problem Increase Sharply, Especially Among Democrats.” Pew Research Center. August 29. (https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/08/29/views-of-racism-as-a-major-problem-increase-sharply-especially-among-democrats/).Google Scholar
Niven, David. 1998. “Party Elites and Women Candidates: The Shape of Bias.” Women and Politics 19(2): 5780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nunley, John M., Pugh, Adam, Romero, Nicholas, and Seals, R. Alan. 2015. “Racial Discrimination in the Labor Market for Recent College Graduates: Evidence from a Field Experiment.” B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy 15(3): 1093-125.Google Scholar
Nyhan, Brendan, and Reifler, Jason. 2010. “When Corrections Fail: The Persistence of Political Misperceptions.” Political Behavior 32: 303–30.Google Scholar
O’Gorman, Hubert. 1975. “Pluralistic Ignorance and White Estimates of White Support for Racial Segregation.” Public Opinion Quarterly 39(3): 313-30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
O’Gorman, Hubert. 1986. “The Discovery of Pluralistic Ignorance: An Ironic Lesson.” Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 22(4): 333-47.3.0.CO;2-X>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
O’Gorman, Hubert, and Garry, Stephen L.. 1976. “Pluralistic Ignorance – A Replication and Extension.” Public Opinion Quarterly 40(4): 449-58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parker, Kim, Graf, Nikki, and Igielnik, Ruth. 2019. “Generation Z Looks a Lot Like Millennials on Key Social and Political Issues.” Pew Research Center. January 17. (https://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2019/01/17/generation-z-looks-a-lot-like-millennials-on-key-social-and-political-issues/).Google Scholar
Pearson, Kathryn, and McGhee, Eric. 2013. “What It Takes to Win: Questioning ‘Gender Neutral’ Outcomes in US House Races.” Politics and Gender 9(4): 439-62.Google Scholar
Philpot, Tasha, and Walton, Jr Hanes. 2007. “One of Our Own: Black Women Candidates and the Voters Who Support Them.” American Journal of Political Science 51(1): 4962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prentice, Deborah A., and Miller, Dale T.. 1993. “Pluralistic Ignorance and Alcohol Use on Campus: Some Consequences of Misperceiving the Social Norm.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 64(2): 243-56.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Quinnipiac University Poll. 2019. “Biden Is on Top of Democratic Pack, Quinnipiac University National Poll Finds.” March 28. (https://poll.qu.edu/national/release-detail?ReleaseID=2611).Google Scholar
Reflective Democracy Campaign. 2019. “The Electability Myth: The Shifting Demographics of Political Power in America.” (https://wholeads.us/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/The-Electability-Myth-_-The-Shifting-Demographics-of-Political-Power-In-America-8-1-19.pdf).Google Scholar
Rheault, Ludovic, Rayment, Erica, and Musulan, Andreea. 2019. “Politicians in the Line of Fire: Incivility and the Treatment of Women on Social Media.” Research and Politics 6(1): 17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Riccardi, Nicholas. 2019. “After 2016 Loss, Democrats Know They Need White Male Voters.” Associated Press, April 7. (https://www.apnews.com/79fefc13c5a54b089da12c7007e98ac8).Google Scholar
Sack, Kevin. 1996. “Race an Issue for Democrats in Primary Opposite Helms.” New York Times, April 21.Google Scholar
Schwarz, Susanne, Hunt, William, and Coppock, Alexander. 2018. “What Have We Learned about Gender from Candidate Choice Experiments? A Meta-Analysis of 30 Factorial Survey Experiments.” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago, IL, April 5–8. (https://alexandercoppock.com/projectpages_SHC_gender.html).Google Scholar
Shah, Paru. 2014. “It Takes a Black Candidate: A Supply-Side Theory of Minority Representation.” Political Research Quarterly 67(2): 266-79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shah, Paru, Scott, Jamil, and Juenke, Eric Gonzalez. 2019. “Women of Color Candidates: Examining Emergence and Success in State Legislative Elections.” Politics, Groups, and Identities 7(2): 429-43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sigelman, Lee, and Welch, Susan. 1984. “Race, Gender, and Opinion Toward Black and Female Presidential Candidates.” Public Opinion Quarterly 48(2): 467-75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Silva, Andrea, and Skulley, Carrie. 2019. “Always Running: Candidate Emergence among Women of Color.” Political Research Quarterly 72(2): 342-59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simas, Elizabeth. 2017. “The Effects of Electability on U.S. Primary Voters.” Journal of Elections, Public Opinion, and Parties 27(3): 274-90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simien, Evelyn M. 2007. “Doing Intersectionality Research: From Conceptual Issues to Practical Examples.” Politics and Gender 3(2): 264–71.Google Scholar
Smith, Eric R.A.N., and Fox, Richard L.. 2001. “The Electoral Fortunes of Women Candidates for Congress.” Political Research Quarterly 54(1): 205–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, Tom W., Hout, Michael, and Marsden, Peter V.. 2017. General Social Survey, 1972–2016 [Cumulative File]. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], National Opinion Research Center [distributor]. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR36797.v1Google Scholar
Sobotka, Tagart Cain. 2020. “Not Your Average Joe: Pluralistic Ignorance, Status, and Modern Sexism.” Men and Masculinities. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1097184X20901578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Streb, Matthew, Burrell, Barbara, Frederick, Brian, and Genovese, Michael A.. 2008. “Social Desirability Effects and Support for a Female American President.” Public Opinion Quarterly 72(1): 7689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Teele, Dawn Langan, Kalla, Joshua, and Rosenbluth, Frances. 2018. “The Ties That Double Bind: Social Roles and Women’s Underrepresentation in Politics.” American Political Science Review 112(3): 525-41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Terkildsen, Nayda. 1993. “When White Voters Evaluate Black Candidates: The Processing Implications of Skin Color, Prejudice, and Self-Monitoring.” American Journal of Political Science 37(4): 1032-53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Todorov, Alexander, and Mandisodza, Anesu N.. 2004. “Public Opinion on Foreign Policy: The Multilateral Public that Perceives Itself as Unilateral.” Public Opinion Quarterly 68(3): 323-48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weisz, Erika. 2020. “This Psychological Concept Could be Shaping the Presidential Election.” Nautilus, February 10. (http://nautil.us/blog/this-psychological-concept-could-be-shaping-the-presidential-election).Google Scholar
Williams, Linda E. 1990. “White/Black Perceptions of the Electability of Black Political Candidates.” National Political Science Review 2: 4564.Google Scholar
Zeleny, Jeff. 2008. “Saying Race Is No Barrier, Obama Still Courts Blacks.” New York Times, January 2. (https://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/02/us/politics/02race.html).Google Scholar
Zengerle, Jason. 2008. “The Message Keeper.” The New Republic, November 5. (https://newrepublic.com/article/62089/the-message-keeper).Google Scholar
Zhou, Li. 2019. “Democrats Are Prioritizing ‘Electability’ in 2020. That’s a Coded Term.” Vox, April 16. (https://www.vox.com/2019/4/16/18308141/democrats-electability-2020-presidential-nomination).Google Scholar

Bateson Dataset

Link

Bateson supplementary material

Bateson supplementary material

PDF 1 MB

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 3673
Total number of PDF views: 589 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 16th September 2020 - 4th March 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Strategic Discrimination
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Strategic Discrimination
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Strategic Discrimination
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *