Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The More the Merrier? The Effects of Having Multiple International Election Monitoring Organizations

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 February 2009

Judith Kelley
Affiliation:
Duke University. E-mail: judith.kelley@duke.edu
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

As the pressure to invite international election monitors rose at the end of the Cold War, states refused to grant the United Nations a dominant role. Thus, today multiple intergovernmental, regional, and international non-governmental organizations often monitor the same elections with equal authority. This article examines the costs and benefits of this complex regime to highlight some possible broader implications of regime complexity. It argues that the availability of many different organizations facilitates action that might otherwise have been blocked for political reasons. Furthermore, when different international election monitoring agencies agree, their consensus can bolster their individual legitimacy as well as the legitimacy of the international norms they stress, and thus magnify their influence on domestic politics. Unfortunately the election monitoring example also suggests that complex regimes can engender damaging inter-organizational politics and that the different biases, capabilities, and standards of organizations sometime can lead organizations to outright contradict each other or work at cross-purposes.

Type
Symposium
Copyright
Copyright © American Political Science Association 2009

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Alter, Karen J., and Meunier, Sophie. 2009. The politics of international regime complexity. Perspectives on Politics 7 (1): 1324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anglin, Douglas. 1995. International monitoring of the transition to democracy in South Africa, 1992–1994. African Affairs 94 (377): 519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Balian, Hrair. 2001. Ten years of international election assistance and observation. Helsinki Monitor 12 (3): 197209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bjornlund, Eric. 2004. Beyond Free and Fair: Monitoring Elections and Building Democracy. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Carothers, Thomas. 1997. The observers observed. Journal of Democracy 8 (3): 1731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cooley, Alexander, and Ron, James. 2002. The NGO scramble: Organizational insecurity and the political economy of transnational action. International Security 27 (1): 539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Council of Europe, Parliamentary Assembly. 1998. Observation of Presidential Election in Azerbaijan (11 October 1998), Doc. 8256.Google Scholar
Dorman, Sara Rich. 2004. “Make Sure they Count Nicely this Time: The Politics of Election Observing in Zimbabwe.” Edinburgh Research Archive.Google Scholar
Geisler, Gisela. 1993. Fair? What has fairness got to do with it? Vagaries of election observations and democratic. Journal of Modern African Studies 31 (4): 613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hafner-Burton, Emilie. 2009. The power politics of regime complexity: Human rights trade conditionality in Europe. Perspectives on Politics 7 (1): 3337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kelley, Judith. 2008. Assessing the complex evolution of norms: the rise of international election monitoring. International Organization 62 (2): 221–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kelley, Judith. Forthcoming. D minus elections: The politics and norms of international election monitoring. International Organization.Google Scholar
Organization of American States, General Assembly. 1990. Unit for the Promotion of Democracy.Google Scholar
Santa-Cruz, Arturo. 2005. Constitutional structures, sovereignty, and the emergence of norms: The case of international election monitoring. International Organization 59 (3): 663–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Throup, David, and Hornsby, Charles. 1998. Multi-Party Politics in Kenya: The Kenyatta & Moi States and the Triumph of the System in the 1992 Election. Athens: Ohio University Press.Google Scholar
United Nations. 2005. Declaration of Principles for International Election Observation and Code of Conduct for International Election Observers.Google Scholar
United Nations Development Programme. N.d. UNDP and Electoral Assistance: Ten Years of Experience: United Nations Development Programme.Google Scholar
“Zambia: OAU secretary-general endorses Mugabe's rejection of foreign observers.” 2002. BBC Monitoring Africa—Political Supplied by BBC Worldwide Monitoring, February 15.Google Scholar
“Zimbabwe; Group's Poll Report Biased, Racist.” 2002. Africa News, April 30.Google Scholar

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 10
Total number of PDF views: 305 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 26th January 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Hostname: page-component-898fc554b-4dk4j Total loading time: 0.394 Render date: 2021-01-26T09:24:38.598Z Query parameters: { "hasAccess": "0", "openAccess": "0", "isLogged": "0", "lang": "en" } Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false }

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

The More the Merrier? The Effects of Having Multiple International Election Monitoring Organizations
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

The More the Merrier? The Effects of Having Multiple International Election Monitoring Organizations
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

The More the Merrier? The Effects of Having Multiple International Election Monitoring Organizations
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *