The 5-nitroimidazole drug metronidazole has remained the drug of choice in the treatment of anaerobic infections, parasitic as well as bacterial, ever since its development in 1959. In contrast to most other antimicrobials, it has a pleiotropic mode of action and reacts with a large number of molecules. Importantly, metronidazole, which is strictly speaking a prodrug, needs to be reduced at its nitro group in order to become toxic. Reduction of metronidazole, however, only takes place under very low concentrations of oxygen, explaining why metronidazole is exclusively toxic to microaerophilic and anaerobic microorganisms. In general, resistance rates amongst the pathogens treated with metronidazole have remained low until the present day. Nevertheless, metronidazole resistance does occur, and for the treatment of some pathogens, especially Helicobacter pylori, metronidazole has become almost useless in some parts of the world. This review will give an account on the current status of research on metronidazole's mode of action, metronidazole resistance in eukaryotes and prokaryotes, and on other 5-nitroimidazoles in use.