Skip to main content Accessibility help

A systematic review of pentacyclic triterpenes and their derivatives as chemotherapeutic agents against tropical parasitic diseases



Parasitic infections are among the leading global public health problems with very high economic and mortality burdens. Unfortunately, the available treatment drugs are beset with side effects and continuous parasite drug resistance is being reported. However, new findings reveal more promising compounds especially of plant origin. Among the promising leads are the pentacyclic triterpenes (PTs) made up of the oleanane, ursane, taraxastane, lupane and hopane types. This paper reviews the literature published from 1985 to date on the in vitro and in vivo anti-parasitic potency of this class of phytochemicals. Of the 191 natural and synthetic PT reported, 85 have shown high anti-parasitic activity against various species belonging to the genera of Plasmodium, Leishmania, Trypanosoma, as well as various genera of Nematoda. Moreover, structural modification especially at carbon 3 (C3) and C27 of the parent backbone of PT has led to improved anti-parasitic activity in some cases and loss of activity in others. The potential of this group of compounds as future alternatives in the treatment of parasitic diseases is discussed. It is hoped that the information presented herein will contribute to the full exploration of this promising group of compounds as possible drugs for parasitic diseases.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      A systematic review of pentacyclic triterpenes and their derivatives as chemotherapeutic agents against tropical parasitic diseases
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      A systematic review of pentacyclic triterpenes and their derivatives as chemotherapeutic agents against tropical parasitic diseases
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      A systematic review of pentacyclic triterpenes and their derivatives as chemotherapeutic agents against tropical parasitic diseases
      Available formats


Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Umaru Musa Yaradua University, Katsina, Nigeria. Tel: +2348034651034. E-mail:


Hide All
Abe, F., Yamauchi, T., Nagao, T., Kinjo, J., Okabe, H., Higo, H. and Akahane, H. (2002). Ursolic acid as a trypanocidal constituent in rosemary. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 25, 14851487.
Alves, T. M. D. A., Nagem, T. J., de Carvalho, L. H., Krettli, A. U. and Zani, C. L. (1997). Antiplasmodial triterpene from Vernonia brasiliana . Planta Medica 63, 554555.
Begum, S., Wahab, A., Siddiqui, B. S. and Qamar, F. (2000). Nematicidal constituents of the aerial parts of Lantana camara . Journal of Natural Products 63, 765767.
Begum, S., Zehra, S. Q., Siddiqui, B. S., Fayyaz, S. and Ramzan, M. (2008). Pentacyclic triterpenoids from the aerial parts of Lantana camara and their nematicidal activity. Chemistry and Biodiversity 5, 18561866.
Begum, S., Perwaiz, S., Siddiqui, B. S., Khan, S., Fayyaz, S. and Ramzan, M. (2011). Chemical constituents of Cordia latifolia and their nematicidal activity. Chemistry & Biodiversity 8, 850861.
Bero, J., Hannaert, V., Chataigné, G., Hérent, M. F. and Quetin-Leclercq, J. (2011). In vitro antitrypanosomal and antileishmanial activity of plants used in Benin in traditional medicine and bio-guided fractionation of the most active extract. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 137, 9981002.
Bhutta, Z. A., Sommerfeld, J., Lassi, Z. S., Salam, R. A. and Das, J. K. (2014). Global burden, distribution and interventions for the infectious diseases of poverty. Infectious Diseases of Poverty 3, 21.
Broniatowski, M., Flasiński, M. and Wydro, P. (2012). Investigation of the interactions of lupane type pentacyclic triterpenes with outer leaflet membrane phospholipids – Langmuir monolayer and synchrotron X-ray scattering study. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 381, 116124.
Buckner, F. S., Waters, N. C. and Avery, V. M. (2012). Recent highlights in anti-protozoan drug development and resistance research. International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance 2, 230235.
Camacho, M. D. R., Mata, R., Castaneda, P., Kirby, G. C., Warhurst, D. C., Croft, S. L. and Phillipson, J. D. (2000). Bioactive compounds from Celaenodendron mexicanum . Planta Medica 66, 463468.
Chowdhury, A. R., Mandal, S., Goswami, A., Ghosh, M., Mandal, L., Chakraborty, D., Ganguly, A., Tripathi, G., Mukhopadhyay, S., Banyopadhyay, S. and Majumder, H. K. (2003). Dihydrobetulinic acid induces apoptosis in Leishmania donovani by targeting DNA topoisomerase I and II: implications in antileishmanial therapy. Molecular Medicine 9, 2636.
Chowdhury, S., Mukherjee, T., Sengupta, S., Chowdhury, S. R., Mukhopadhyay, S. and Majumder, H. K. (2011). Novel betulin derivatives as antileishmanial agents with mode of action targeting type IB DNA topoisomerase. Molecular Pharmacology 80, 694703.
Cunha, W. R., Crevelin, E. J., Arantes, G. M., Crotti, A. E. M., Silva, M. L., Furtado, N. A., Albuquerque, S. and Ferreira, D. D. S. (2006). A study of the trypanocidal activity of triterpene acids isolated from Miconia species. Phytotherapy Research 20, 474478.
Cunha, W. R., Martins, C., Ferreira, D. D., Crotti, A. E., Lopes, N. P. and Albuquerque, S. (2003). In vitro trypanocidal activity of triterpenes from Miconia species. Planta Medica 69, 470471.
Cunha, N. L., Uchôa, C. J. D., Cintra, L. S., de Souza, H. C., Peixoto, J. A., Silva, C. P., Magalhaes, L. G., Gimenez, V. M. M., Groppo, M., Rodriguez, V., da Silva Filho, A. A., e Silva, M. L. A., Cunha, W. R., Pauletti, P. M. and Januário, A. H. (2012). In vitro schistosomicidal activity of some Brazilian cerrado species and their isolated compounds. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012, 173614.
da Silva Ferreira, D., Esperandim, V. R., Toldo, M. P. A., Saraiva, J., Cunha, W. R. and De Albuquerque, S. (2010). Trypanocidal activity and acute toxicity assessment of triterpene acids. Parasitology Research 106, 985989.
da Silva Ferreira, D., Esperandim, V. R., Toldo, M. P. A., Kuehn, C. C., do Prado Junior, J. C., Cunha, W. R. and Albuquerque, S. D. (2013 a). In vivo activity of ursolic and oleanolic acids during the acute phase of Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Experimental Parasitology 134, 455459.
da Silva Ferreira, D., Esperandim, V. R., Marçal, M. G., Neres, N. B. R., Cunha, N. L., Silva, M. L. A. and Cunha, W. R. (2013 b). Natural products and Chagas’ disease: the action of triterpenes acids isolated from Miconia species. Universitas Scientiarum 18, 243256.
da Silva Filho, A. A., Bueno, P. C. P., Gregório, L. E., Silva, M. L., Albuquerque, S. and Bastos, J. K. (2004). In-vitro trypanocidal activity evaluation of crude extract and isolated compounds from Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (Asteraceae). Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 56, 11951199.
da Silva Filho, A. A., Resende, D. O., Fukui, M. J., Santos, F. F., Pauletti, P. M., Cunha, W. R., Silva, M. L. A., Gregório, L. E., Bastos, J. K. and Nanayakkara, N. P. D. (2009). In vitro antileishmanial, antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activities of phenolics and triterpenoids from Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (Asteraceae). Fitoterapia 80, 478482.
De Pablos, L. M., González, G., Rodrigues, R., García Granados, A., Parra, A. and Osuna, A. (2010). Action of a pentacyclic triterpenoid, maslinic acid, against Toxoplasma gondii . Journal of Natural Products 73, 831834.
de Sá, M. S., Costa, J. F. O., Krettli, A. U., Zalis, M. G., de Azevedo Maia, G. L., Sette, I. M. F., Câmara, C. D., da Silva Filho, J. M. B., Giulietti-Harley, A. M., dos Santos, R. R. and Soares, M. B. P. (2009). Antimalarial activity of betulinic acid and derivatives in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum and in vivo in P. berghei-infected mice. Parasitology Research 105, 275279.
Doligalska, M., Joźwicka, K., Laskowska, M., Donskow-Łysoniewska, K., Pączkowski, C. and Janiszowska, W. (2013). Changes in Heligmosomoides polygyrus glycoprotein pattern by saponins impact the BALB/c mice immune response. Experimental Parasitology 135, 524531.
Dzubak, P., Hajduch, M., Vydra, D., Hustova, A., Kvasnica, M., Biedermann, D., Markoba, L., Urban, M. and Sarek, J. (2006). Pharmacological activities of natural triterpenoids and their therapeutic implications. Natural Product Reports 23, 394411.
Figueiredo, J. N., Räz, B. and Séquin, U. (1998). Novel quinone methides from Salacia kraussii with in vitro antimalarial activity. Journal of Natural Products 61, 718723.
Gachet, M. S., Kunert, O., Kaiser, M., Brun, R., Zehl, M., Keller, W., Munoz, R. A., Bauer, R. and Schuehly, W. (2011). Antiparasitic compounds from Cupania cinerea with activities against Plasmodium falciparum and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. Journal of Natural Products 74, 559566.
Germonprez, N., Maes, L., Van Puyvelde, L., Van Tri, M., Tuan, D. A. and De Kimpe, N. (2005). In vitro and in vivo anti-leishmanial activity of triterpenoid saponins isolated from Maesa b alansae and some chemical derivatives. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 48, 3237.
Gnoatto, S. C., Vechia, L. D., Lencina, C. L., Dassonville-Klimpt, A., Da Nascimento, S., Mossalayi, D., Gullon, J., Gosmann, G. and Sonnet, P. (2008). Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of new ursolic and oleanolic acids derivatives as antileishmanial agents. Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry 23, 604610.
Graziose, R., Rojas-Silva, P., Rathinasabapathy, T., Dekock, C., Grace, M. H., Poulev, A., Lila, M. A., Smith, P. and Raskin, I. (2012). Antiparasitic compounds from Cornus florida L. with activities against Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania tarentolae . Journal of Ethnopharmacology 142, 456461.
Güçlü-Üstündağ, Ö. and Mazza, G. (2007). Saponins: properties, applications and processing. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 47, 231258.
He, W., Van Puyvelde, L., Maes, L., Bosselaers, J. and De Kimpe, N. (2003). Antitrichomonas in vitro activity of Cussonia holstii Engl. Natural Product Research 17, 127133.
He, Z. D., Ma, C. Y., Zhang, H. J., Tan, G. T., Tamez, P., Sydara, K., Bouamanivong, S., Southavong, B., Soejarto, D. D., Pezzuto, J. M. and Fong, H. H. (2005). Antimalarial constituents from Nauclea orientalis (L.) L. Chemistry and Biodiversity 2, 13781386.
Hernández-Carlos, B., González-Coloma, A., Orozco-Valencia, Á. U., Ramírez-Mares, M. V., Andrés-Yeves, M. F. and Joseph-Nathan, P. (2011). Bioactive saponins from Microsechium helleri and Sicyos bulbosus . Phytochemistry 72, 743751.
Hill, R. A. and Connolly, J. D. (2015). Triterpenoids. Natural Product Reports 32, 273327.
Hoerauf, A., Pfarr, K., Mand, S., Debrah, A. Y. and Specht, S. (2011). Filariasis in Africa – treatment challenges and prospects. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 17, 977985.
Hoet, S., Pieters, L., Muccioli, G. G., Habib-Jiwan, J. L., Opperdoes, F. R., and Quetin-Leclercq, J. (2007). Antitrypanosomal activity of triterpenoids and sterols from the leaves of Strychnos spinosa and related compounds. Journal of Natural Products 70, 13601363.
Hotez, P. J., Alvarado, M., Basáñez, M. G., Bolliger, I., Bourne, R., Boussinesq, M., Brooker, S. J., Brown, A. S., Buckle, G., Budke, C. M., Carabin, H., Coffeng, L. E., Fèvre, E. M., Fürst, T., Halasa, Y. A., Jasrasaria, R., Johns, N. E., Keiser, J., King, C. H., Lozano, R., Murdoch, M. E., O'Hanlon, S., Pion, S. D. S., Pullan, R. L., Ramaiah, K. D., Roberts, T., Shepard, D. S., Smith, J. L., Stolk, W. A., Undurraga, E. A., Utzinger, J., Wang, M., Murray, C. J. L. and Naghavi, M. (2014). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010: interpretation and implications for the neglected tropical diseases. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 8, e2865.
Ibrahim, M. A., Mohammed, A., Isah, M. B. and Aliyu, A. B. (2014). Anti-trypanosomal activity of African medicinal plants: a review update. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 154, 2654.
Izumi, E., Ueda-Nakamura, T., Dias Filho, B. P., Júnior, V. F. V. and Nakamura, C. V. (2011). Natural products and Chagas’ disease: a review of plant compounds studied for activity against Trypanosoma cruzi . Natural Product Reports 28, 809823.
Jäger, S., Trojan, H., Kopp, T., Laszczyk, M. N. and Scheffler, A. (2009). Pentacyclic triterpene distribution in various plants – rich sources for a new group of multi-potent plant extracts. Molecules 14, 20162031.
Kalani, K., Kushwaha, V., Verma, R., Murthy, P. K. and Srivastava, S. K. (2013). Glycyrrhetinic acid and its analogs: a new class of antifilarial agents. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters 23, 25662570.
Laszczyk, M. N. (2009). Pentacyclic triterpenes of the lupane, oleanane and ursane group as tools in cancer therapy. Planta Medica 75, 15491560.
Leder, K., Torresi, J., Brownstein, J. S., Wilson, M. E., Keystone, J. S., Barnett, E., Schwartz, E., Schlagenhauf, P., Wilder-Smith, A., Castelli, F., von Sonnenburg, F., Freedman, D. O. and Cheng, A. C. (2013). Travel-associated illness trends and clusters, 2000–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases 19, 10491057.
Leite, A. C., Ambrozin, A. R. P., Fernandes, J. B., Vieira, P. C., Silva, M. F. G. F. and Albuquerque, S. D. (2008). Trypanocidal activity of limonoids and triterpenes from Cedrela fissilis . Planta Medica 74, 17951799.
Lenta, B. N., Ngouela, S., Boyom, F. F., Tantangmo, F., Tchouya, G. F., Tsamo, E., Gut, J., Rosenthal, P. J. and Connolly, J. D. (2007). Anti-plasmodial activity of some constituents of the root bark of Harungana madagascariensis LAM. (Hypericaceae). Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (Tokyo) 55, 464467.
Liu, J. (2005). Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid: research perspectives. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 100, 9294.
Ma, C. Y., Musoke, S. F., Tan, G. T., Sydara, K., Bouamanivong, S., Southavong, B., Soejarto, D. D., Fong, H. H. S. and Zhang, H. J. (2008). Study of antimalarial activity of chemical constituents from Diospyros quaesita . Chemistry and Biodiversity 5, 24422448.
Maes, L., Germonprez, N., Quirijnen, L., Van Puyvelde, L., Cos, P. and Berghe, D. V. (2004). Comparative activities of the triterpene saponin maesabalide III and liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) against Leishmania donovani in hamsters. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 48, 20562060.
Maregesi, S. M., Hermans, N., Dhooghe, L., Cimanga, K., Ferreira, D., Pannecouque, C., Vanden Berghee, D. A., Cose, P., Maese, L., Vlietincka, A. J., Apersa, S. and Pieters, L. (2010). Phytochemical and biological investigations of Elaeodendron schlechteranum . Journal of Ethnopharmacology 129, 319326.
Misra, N., Sharma, M., Raj, K., Dangi, A., Srivastava, S. and Misra-Bhattacharya, S. (2007). Chemical constituents and antifilarial activity of Lantana camara against human lymphatic filariid Brugia malayi and rodent filariid Acanthocheilonema viteae maintained in rodent hosts. Parasitology Research 100, 439448.
Mohanty, S., Srivastava, P., Maurya, A. K., Cheema, H. S., Shanker, K., Dhawan, S., Darokar, M. P. and Bawankule, D. U. (2013). Antimalarial and safety evaluation of Pluchea lanceolata (DC.) Oliv. and Hiern: in-vitro and in-vivo study. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 149, 797802.
Moneriz, C., Marín-García, P., Bautista, J. M., Diez, A. and Puyet, A. (2011 a). Parasitostatic effect of maslinic acid. II. Survival increase and immune protection in lethal Plasmodium yoelii-infected mice. Malaria Journal 10, 103.
Moneriz, C., Marín-García, P., García-Granados, A., Bautista, J. M., Diez, A. and Puyet, A. (2011 b). Parasitostatic effect of maslinic acid. I. Growth arrest of Plasmodium falciparum intraerythrocytic stages. Malaria Journal 10, 82.
Moneriz, C., Mestres, J., Bautista, J. M., Diez, A. and Puyet, A. (2011 c). Multi-targeted activity of maslinic acid as an antimalarial natural compound. FEBS Journal 278, 29512961.
Moon, H. I., Jung, J. C. and Lee, J. (2007). Antiplasmodial activity of triterpenoid isolated from whole plants of Viola genus from South Korea. Parasitology Research 100, 641644.
Mukaratirwa, S., Gcanga, L. and Kamau, J. (2016). Efficacy of maslinic acid and fenbendazole on muscle larvae of Trichinella zimbabwensis in laboratory rats. Journal of Helminthology 90, 8690.
Newman, D. J. and Cragg, G. M. (2012). Natural products as sources of new drugs over the 30 years from 1981 to 2010. Journal of Natural Products 75, 311335.
Nyasse, B., Ngantchou, I., Nono, J. J. and Schneider, B. (2006). Antifilarial activity in vitro of polycarpol and 3-O-acetyl aleuritolic acid from Cameroonian medicinal plants against Onchocerca gutturosa . Natural Product Research 20, 391397.
Nyongbela, K. D., Lannang, A. M., Ayimele, G. A., Ngemenya, M. N., Bickle, Q. and Efange, S. (2013). Isolation and identification of an antiparasitic triterpenoid estersaponin from the stem bark of Pittosporum mannii (Pittosporaceae). Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease 3, 389392.
Pink, R., Hudson, A., Mouriès, M. A. and Bendig, M. (2005). Opportunities and challenges in antiparasitic drug discovery. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 4, 727740.
Qamar, F., Begum, S., Raza, S. M., Wahab, A. and Siddiqui, B. S. (2005). Nematicidal natural products from the aerial parts of Lantana camara Linn. Natural Product Research 19, 609613.
Rasoanaivo, P., Wright, C. W., Willcox, M. L. and Gilbert, B. (2011). Whole plant extracts versus single compounds for the treatment of malaria: synergy and positive interactions. Malaria Journal 10, S4.
Ridoux, O., Di Giorgio, C., Delmas, F., Elias, R., Mshvildadze, V., Dekanosidze, G., Kemertelidze, E., Balansard, G. and Timon-David, P. (2001). In vitro antileishmanial activity of three saponins isolated from ivy, α-hederin, β-hederin and hederacolchiside A1, in association with pentamidine and amphotericin B. Phytotherapy Research 15, 298301.
Rocha, L. G., Almeida, J. R. G. S., Macedo, R. O. and Barbosa-Filho, J. M. (2005). A review of natural products with antileishmanial activity. Phytomedicine 12, 514535.
Ruphin, F. P., Baholy, R., Emmanue, A., Amelie, R., Martin, M. T. and Koto-te-Nyiwa, N. (2013). Antiplasmodial, cytotoxic activities and characterization of a new naturally occurring quinone methide pentacyclic triterpenoid derivative isolated from Salacia leptoclada Tul. (Celastraceae) originated from Madagascar. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 3, 780784.
Safayhi, H. and Sailer, E. R. (1997). Anti-inflammatory actions of pentacyclic triterpenes. Planta Medica 63, 487493.
Sairafianpour, M., Bahreininejad, B., Witt, M., Ziegler, H. L., Jaroszewski, J. W. and Stærk, D. (2003). Terpenoids of Salvia hydrangea: two new, rearranged 20-norabietanes and the effect of oleanolic acid on erythrocyte membrane. Planta Medica 69, 846850.
Sánchez-González, M., Lozano-Mena, G., Juan, M. E., García-Granados, A. and Planas, J. M. (2013). Assessment of the safety of maslinic acid, a bioactive compound from Olea europaea L. Molecular Nutrition and food Research 57, 339346.
Santos, D. O., Coutinho, C. E., Madeira, M. F., Bottino, C. G., Vieira, R. T., Nascimento, S. B., Bernardino, A., Bourguignon, S. C., Corte-Real, S., Pinho, R. T., Rodrigues, C. R. and Castro, H. C. (2008). Leishmaniasis treatment – a challenge that remains: a review. Parasitology Research 103, 110.
Sheng, H., and Sun, H. (2011). Synthesis, biology and clinical significance of pentacyclic triterpenes: a multi-target approach to prevention and treatment of metabolic and vascular diseases. Natural Product Reports 28, 543593.
Simelane, M. B., Shonhai, A., Shode, F. O., Smith, P., Singh, M. and Opoku, A. R. (2013). Anti-plasmodial activity of some Zulu Medicinal plants and of some triterpenes isolated from them. Molecules 18, 1231312323.
Steele, J. C. P., Warhurst, D. C., Kirby, G. C. and Simmonds, M. S. J. (1999). In vitro and in vivo evaluation of betulinic acid as an antimalarial. Phytotherapy Research 13, 115119.
Suksamrarn, A., Tanachatchairatana, T. and Kanokmedhakul, S. (2003). Antiplasmodial triterpenes from twigs of Gardenia saxatilis . Journal of Ethnopharmacology 88, 275277.
Taketa, A. T., Gnoatto, S. C., Gosmann, G., Pires, V. S., Schenkel, E. P. and Guillaume, D. (2004). Triterpenoids from Brazilian Ilex species and their in vitro antitrypanosomal activity. Journal of Natural Products 67, 16971700.
Tan, N., Kaloga, M., Radtke, O. A., Kiderlen, A. F., Öksüz, S., Ulubelen, A. and Kolodziej, H. (2002). Abietane diterpenoids and triterpenoic acids from Salvia cilicica and their antileishmanial activities. Phytochemistry 61, 881884.
Tantangmo, F., Lenta, B. N., Boyom, F. F., Ngouela, S., Kaiser, M., Tsamo, E., Weniger, B., Rosenthal, P. J. and Vonthron-Senecheau, C. (2010). Antiprotozoal activities of some constituents of Markhamia tomentosa (Bignoniaceae). Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 104, 391398.
Tarleton, R. L. (2007). Immune system recognition of Trypanosoma cruzi . Current Opinion in Immunology 19, 430434.
Torres-Santos, E. C., Lopes, D., Rodrigues Oliveira, R., Carauta, J. P. P., Bandeira Falcao, C. A., Kaplan, M. A. C. and Rossi-Bergmann, B. (2004). Antileishmanial activity of isolated triterpenoids from Pourouma guianensis . Phytomedicine 11, 114120.
Ukil, A., Biswas, A., Das, T. and Das, P. K. (2005). 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid triggers curative Th1 response and nitric oxide up-regulation in experimental visceral leishmaniasis associated with the activation of NF-κB. Journal of Immunology 175, 11611169.
Ukil, A., Kar, S., Srivastav, S., Ghosh, K. and Das, P. K. (2011). Curative effect of 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid in experimental visceral leishmaniasis depends on phosphatase-dependent modulation of cellular MAP kinases. PLoS ONE 6, e29062.
Vincken, J. P., Heng, L., de Groot, A. and Gruppen, H. (2007). Saponins, classification and occurrence in the plant kingdom. Phytochemistry 68, 275297.
Wolska, K. I., Grudniak, A. M., Fiecek, B., Kraczkiewicz-Dowjat, A. and Kurek, A. (2010). Antibacterial activity of oleanolic and ursolic acids and their derivatives. Central European Journal of Biology 5, 543553.
Wright, C. W. (2010). Recent developments in research on terrestrial plants used for the treatment of malaria. Natural Product Reports 27, 961968.
Xu, R., Fazio, G. C. and Matsuda, S. P. (2004). On the origins of triterpenoid skeletal diversity. Phytochemistry 65, 261291.
Ziegler, H. L., Franzyk, H., Sairafianpour, M., Tabatabai, M., Tehrani, M. D., Bagherzadeh, K., Hägerstrand, H., Stærk, D. and Jaroszewski, J. W. (2004). Erythrocyte membrane modifying agents and the inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum growth: structure–activity relationships for betulinic acid analogues. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry 12, 119127.
Ziegler, H. L., Staalsø, T. and Jaroszewski, J. W. (2006). Loading of erythrocyte membrane with pentacyclic triterpenes inhibits Plasmodium falciparum invasion. Planta Medica 72, 640642.
Zuco, V., Supino, R., Righetti, S. C., Cleris, L., Marchesi, E., Gambacorti-Passerini, C. and Formelli, F. (2002). Selective cytotoxicity of betulinic acid on tumor cell lines, but not on normal cells. Cancer Letters 175, 1725.


Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Isah supplementary material
Tables S1-S3 and Figure S1

 Word (1.0 MB)
1.0 MB


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed