Skip to main content Accessibility help

Schistosoma kisumuensis n. sp. (Digenea: Schistosomatidae) from murid rodents in the Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya and its phylogenetic position within the S. haematobium species group

  • B. HANELT (a1), S. V. BRANT (a1), M. L. STEINAUER (a1), G. M. MAINA (a2), J. M. KINUTHIA (a2), L. E. AGOLA (a2), I. N. MWANGI (a2), B. N. MUNGAI (a2), M. W. MUTUKU (a2), G. M. MKOJI (a2) and E. S. LOKER (a1)...


Schistosoma kisumuensis n. sp. is described based on 6 adult males and 2 adult females collected from the circulatory system of 3 murid rodent species, Pelomys isseli, Mastomys natalensis, and Dasymys incomtus. Specimens were collected from a single location, Nyabera Swamp, in Kisumu, Kenya in the Lake Victoria Basin. This new species is morphologically similar to members of the S. haematobium group, currently represented by 8 species parasitizing artiodactyls and primates, including humans. Schistosoma kisumuensis differs from these species by producing relatively small Schistosoma intercalatum-like eggs (135·2×52·9 μm) with a relatively small length to width ratio (2·55). Comparison of approximately 3000-base-pair sequences of nuclear rDNA (partial 28S) and mtDNA (partial cox1, nad6, 12S) strongly supports the status of S. kisumuensis as a new species and as a sister species of S. intercalatum. The cox1 genetic distance between these two species (6·3%) is comparable to other pairwise comparisons within the S. haematobium group. Separation of the Congo River and Lake Victoria drainage basins is discussed as a possible factor favoring the origin of this species.


Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, MSC03 2020, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 87131-0001, USA. Tel: +505 2774589. Fax: +505 2770304. E-mail:


Hide All
Attwood, S. W., Panasoponkul, C., Upatham, E. S., Meng, X. H. and Southgate, V. R. (2002). Schistosoma ovuncatum n. sp. (Digenea: Schistosomatidae) from northwest Thailand and the historical biogeography of Southeast Asian Schistosoma Weinland, 1858. Systematic Parasitology 51, 119.
Brown, D. S. (1994). Freshwater Snails of Africa and their Medical Importance. 2nd Edn. Taylor & Francis, London.
Chesterman, C. C. (1923). Note sur la bilharziose dans la region de Stanleyville (Congo belge). Annales de la Societe Belge de Medecine Tropicale 3, 6379.
De Bont, J. and Vercruysse, J. (1997). The epidemiology and control of cattle schistosomiasis. Parasitology Today 13, 255262.
De Clercq, D. (1987). The malacological situation in Kinshasa and description of an autochthonous focus of schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma intercalatum. Annales de la Société Belge de Médecine Tropicale 67, 345352.
de Heinzelin, J. (1962). Les formations du Western Rift et de la cuvette congolaise. Annales du Musée Royal de L'afrique Centrale 40, 219243.
Farley, J. (1971). A review of the family Schistosomatidae: excluding the genus Schistosoma from mammals. Journal of Helminthology 45, 289320.
Fisher, A. C. (1934). A study of the schistosomiasis of the Stanleyville district of the Belgian Congo. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 18, 277306.
Frandsen, F. (1977). Investigations of the unimiracidial infection of Schistosoma intercalatum in snails and the infection of the final host using cercariae of one sex. Journal of Helminthology 51, 5–10.
Huelsenbeck, J. P., Ronquist, F., Nielsen, R. and Bollback, J. P. (2001). Bayesian inference of phylogeny and its impact on evolutionary biology. Science 294, 23102314.
Kane, R. A., Southgate, V. R., Rollinson, D., Littlewood, D. T., Lockyer, A. E., Pages, J. R., Tchuem Tchuente, L. A. and Jourdane, J. (2003). A phylogeny based on three mitochondrial genes supports the division of Schistosoma intercalatum into two separate species. Parasitology 127, 131137.
Kumar, S., Tamura, K., Jakobsen, I. B. and Nei, M. (2001). MEGA2: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Software. Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA.
Larkin, M. A., Blackshields, G., Brown, N. P., Chenna, R., McGettigan, P. A., McWilliam, H., Valentin, F., Wallace, I. M., Wilm, A., Lopez, R., Thompson, J. D., Gibson, T. J. and Higgins, D. G. (2007). Clustal W and Clustal X version 2.0. Bioinformatics 23, 29472948.
Lewis, F. (1998). Schistosomiasis. In Current Protocols in Immunology, Supplement 28, Animal Models for Infectious Diseases (ed. Coligan, J. E., Kruisbeek, A. M., Margulies, D. H., Shevach, E. M. and Strober, W.),pp. 19.11.1119.11.28. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, USA.
Li, L., Yu, L. Y., Zhu, X. Q., Wang, C. R., Zhai, Y. Q. and Zhao, J. P. (2008). Orientobilharzia turkestanicum is grouped within African schistosomes based on phylogenetic analyses using sequences of mitochondrial genes. Parasitology Research 102, 939943.
Littlewood, D. T. and Johnston, D. A. (1995). Molecular phylogenetics of the four Schistosoma species groups determined with partial 28S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Parasitology 111, 167175.
Lockyer, A. E., Olson, P. D., Ostergaard, P., Rollinson, D., Johnston, D. A., Attwood, S. W., Southgate, V. R., Horak, P., Snyder, S. D., Le, T. H., Agatsuma, T., McManus, D. P., Carmichael, A. C., Naem, S. and Littlewood, D. T. (2003). The phylogeny of the Schistosomatidae based on three genes with emphasis on the interrelationships of Schistosoma Weinland, 1858. Parasitology 126, 203224.
Loker, E. S. (1983). A comparative study of the life-histories of mammalian schistosomes. Parasitology 87, 343369.
Morgan, J. A., DeJong, R. J., Kazibwe, F., Mkoji, G. M. and Loker, E. S. (2003). A newly-identified lineage of Schistosoma. International Journal for Parasitology 33, 977985.
Odongo-Aginya, E. I., Mueller, A., Loroni-Lakwo, T., Ndugwa, C. M., Southgate, V. R., Schweigmann, U., Seitz, H. M. and Doehring-Schwerdtfeger, E. (1994). Evidence for the occurrence of Schistosoma intercalatum at Albert Nile in northern Uganda. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 50, 723726.
Pagès, J. R., Durand, P., Southgate, V. R., Tchuem Tchuente, L. A. and Jourdane, J. (2001). Molecular arguments for splitting of Schistosoma intercalatum, into two distinct species. Parasitolgy Research 87, 5762.
Pagès, J. R., Jourdane, J., Southgate, V. R. and Tchuem Tchuente, L. A. (2003). Reconnaissance de deux espèces jumelles au sein du taxon Schistosoma intercalatum Fisher, 1934, agent de la schistosomose humaine rectale en frique. Description de Schistosoma guineensis n. sp. In Taxonomy, Ecology and Evolution of Metazoan Parasites (ed. Combes, C. and Jourdane, J.), pp. 139146. Presses Universitaires de Perpignan, Perpignan, France.
Pickford, M., Senut, B. and Hadoto, D. (1993). Geology and palaeobiology of the Albertine Rift Valley Uganda-Zaire. Centre International pour la Formation et les Echanges Géologiques 1993/24, 1180.
Pitchford, R. J. (1965). Differences in the egg morphology and certain biological characteristics of some African and Middle Eastern schistosomes, genus Schistosoma, with terminal-spined eggs. Bulletin of The World Health Organization 32, 105120.
Pitchford, R. J. (1977). A check list of definitive hosts exhibiting evidence of the genus Schistosoma Weinland, 1858 acquired naturally in Africa and the Middle East. Journal of Helminthology 51, 229252.
Posada, D. (2008). jModelTest: phylogenetic model averaging. Molecular Biology and Evolution 25, 12531256.
Pritchard, M. H. and Kruse, G. O. W. (1982). The Collection and Preservation of Animal Parasites. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NB, USA.
Rollinson, D. and Southgate, V. R. (1987). The genus Schistosoma: a taxonomic appraisal. In The Biology of Schistosomes: from Genes to Latrines (ed. Rollinson, D. and Simpson, A. J. G.), pp. 149. Academic Press, London, UK.
Ronquist, F. and Huelsenbeck, J. P. (2003). MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19, 15721574.
Schwetz, J. (1956 a). Role of wild rats and domestic rats (Rattus rattus) in schistosomiasis in man. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 50, 275282.
Schwetz, J. (1956 b). Some new comparative investigations on three Physopsis borne schistosomes: Schistosoma haematobium, S. bovis and S. intercalatum. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 5, 10211085.
Snyder, S. D. (2004). Phylogeny and paraphyly among tetrapod blood flukes (Digenea: Schistosomatidae and Spirorchiidae). International Journal for Parasitology 34, 13851392.
Snyder, S. D. and Loker, E. S. (2000). Evolutionary relationships among the Schistosomatidae (Platyhelminthes: Digenea) and an Asian origin for Schistosoma. Journal of Parasitology 86, 283288.
Steinauer, M., Mwangi, I., Maina, G., Kinuthia, J., Mutuku, M., Agola, E., Mungai, B., Mkoji, G. and Loker, E. S. (2008 a). Interactions between natural populations of human and rodent schistosomes in the Lake Victoria region of Kenya: A molecular epidemiological approach. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 16, 111.
Steinauer, M. L., Agola, L. E., Mwangi, I. N., Mkoji, G. M. and Loker, E. S. (2008 b). Molecular epidemiology of Schistosoma mansoni: a robust, high-throughput method to assess multiple microsatellite markers from individual miracidia. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 8, 6873.
Steinmann, P., Keiser, J., Bos, R., Tanner, M. and Utzinger, J. (2006). Schistosomiasis and water resources development: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimates of people at risk. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 6, 411425.
Swofford, D. (2002). PAUP*. Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (*and other Methods), Version 4.0b10 (Alvitec). Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, USA.
Tchuem Tchuente, L. A., Southgate, V. R., Jourdane, J., Webster, B. L. and Vercruysse, J. (2003). Schistosoma intercalatum: an endangered species in Cameroon? Trends in Parasitology 19, 389393.
Tchuem Tchuente, L. A., Southgate, V. R., Vercruysse, J., Kaukas, A., Kane, R., Mulumba, M. P., Pages, J. R. and Jourdane, J. (1997). Epidemiological and genetic observations on human schistosomiasis in Kinshasa, Zaire. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 91, 263269.
Truett, G. E., Heeger, P., Mynatt, R. L., Truett, A. A., Walker, J. A. and Warman, M. L. (2000). Preparation of PCR-quality mouse genomic DNA with hot sodium hydroxide and tris (HotSHOT). BioTechniques 29, 5254.
Van Damme, D. and Pickford, M. (1999). The late Cenozoic Viviparidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) of the Albertine Rift Valley (Uganda–Congo). Hydrobiologia 390, 171217.
Wang, C. R., Li, L., Ni, H. B., Zhai, Y. Q., Chen, A. H., Chen, J. and Zhu, X. Q. (2009). Orientobilharzia turkestanicum is a member of Schistosoma genus based on phylogenetic analysis using ribosomal DNA sequences. Experimental Parasitology 121, 193197.
Webster, B. L., Southgate, V. R. and Littlewood, D. T. (2006). A revision of the interrelationships of Schistosoma including the recently described Schistosoma guineensis. International Journal for Parasitology 36, 947955.
Wright, C. A., Southgate, V. R. and Knowles, R. J. (1972). What is Schistosoma intercalatum Fisher, 1934? Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 66, 2856.
Wright, C. A., Southgate, V. R. and Ross, G. C. (1979). Enzymes in Schistosoma intercalatum and the relative status of the Lower Guinea and Zaire strains of the parasite. International Journal for Parasitology 9, 523528.


Schistosoma kisumuensis n. sp. (Digenea: Schistosomatidae) from murid rodents in the Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya and its phylogenetic position within the S. haematobium species group

  • B. HANELT (a1), S. V. BRANT (a1), M. L. STEINAUER (a1), G. M. MAINA (a2), J. M. KINUTHIA (a2), L. E. AGOLA (a2), I. N. MWANGI (a2), B. N. MUNGAI (a2), M. W. MUTUKU (a2), G. M. MKOJI (a2) and E. S. LOKER (a1)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed