Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Epidemiology and immunology of Necator americanus infection in a community in Papua New Guinea: humoral responses to excretory-secretory and cuticular collagen antigens

  • D. I. Pritchard (a1), R. J. Quinnell (a1), A. F. G. Slater (a1), P. G. McKean (a1), D. D. S. Dale (a1), A. Raiko (a1) and A. E. Keymer (a1)...

Summary

Baseline data from an immuno-epidemiological study of hookworm infection in a rural village in Madang Province, Papua New Guinea are reported. Necator americanus was found to be the commonest helminth infection, with a prevalence of near 100% and intensity of 40 worms per host in adults. Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura were also present, at prevalences of 53, 10 and 3% respectively; Ancylostoma duodenale was absent. The frequency distribution of N. americanus was highly over-dispersed, and was well described by a negative binomial distribution with aggregation parameter, k, of 0·370. Intensity of infection was significantly related to host age, but did not differ between the sexes. Haemoglobin levels and haematocrit values were indicative of anaemia in the community, but were unrelated to hookworm infection. Levels of antibodies (IgG, IgA and 1gM combined) against adult Necator cuticular collagen and excretory-secretory (ES) products were determined.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Anderson, R. M. (1980). The dynamics and control of direct life cycle helminth parasites. Lecture Notes in Biomathematics 39, 278322.
Anderson, R. M. (1986). The population dynamics and epidemiology of intestinal nematode infections. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 80, 686–96.
Anderson, R. M. & May, R. M. (1985). Herd immunity to helminth infection and implications for parasite control. Nature, London 315, 493–6.
Anderson, R. M. & Medley, G. F. (1985). Community control of helminth infections of man by mass and selective chemotherapy. Parasitology 90, 629–60.
Anderson, R. M. & Schad, G. A. (1985). Hookworm burdens and faecal egg counts: an analysis of the biological basis of variation. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 79, 812–25.
Ball, P. A. J. & Bartlett, A. (1969). Serological reactions to infection with Necator americanus. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 63, 362–9.
Ball, P. A. J., Voller, A. & Taffs, L. F. (1971). Hypersensitivity to some nematode antigens. British Medical Journal 23 01. 1971, 210–11.
Behnke, J. M. (1987). Do hookworms elicit protective immunity in man? Parasitology Today 3, 200–6.
Butterworth, A. E. (1984). Cell-mediated damage to helminths. Advances in Parasitology 23, 143235.
Carr, A. & Pritchard, D. I. (1986). Identification of hookworm (Necator americanus) antigens and their translation in vitro.Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 19, 251–8.
Carr, A. & Pritchard, D.I. (1987). Antigen expression during development of the human hookworm Necator americanus (Nematoda). Parasite Immunology 9, 219–34.
Grove, D. I., Burston, T. O. & Forbes, I. J. (1974). Immunoglobulin E and eosinophil levels in atopic and non-atopic populations infested with hookworm. Clinical Allergy 4, 295300.
Hagan, P. (1987). Human immune response. In The Biology of Schistosomes (ed. Rollinson, D. & Simpson, A. J. G.), pp. 295320. London: Academic Press.
Hall, A. (1981). Quantitative variability of nematode egg counts in faeces: a study among rural Kenyans. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 75, 682–7.
Haswell-Elkins, M. R., Elkins, D. B., Manjula, K., Michael, E. & Anderson, R. M. (1988). An investigation of hookworm infection and reinfection following mass anthelminthic treatment in the South Indian fishing community of Vairavankuppam. Parasitology 96, 565–77.
Hornabrook, R. W., Kelly, A. & Mcmillan, B. (1975). Parasitic infection of man on Kar Kar Island, New Guinea. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 24, 590–5.
Jelliffe, D. B. (1966). The Assessment of the Nutritional Status of the Community. Geneva: World Health Organization Monograph Series, 53.
Jones, H. I. (1976). A study of human helminthiasis on Karkar Island, Madang Province. Papua New Guinea Medical Journal 19, 165–72.
Kelly, A. (1974). Alimentary Parasites of Man in Papua New Guinea. Papua New Guinea: Institute of Medical Research.
Marsh, K., Otoo, L., Hayes, R. J., Carson, D. C. & Greenwood, B. M. (1989). Antibodies to blood stage antigens of Plasmodium falciparum in rural Gambians and their relation to protection against infection. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 83, 293303.
Maxwell, C., Hussain, R., Nutman, T. B., Poindexter, R. W., Little, M. D., Schad, G. A. & Ottesen, E. A. (1987). The clinical and immunological responses of normal human volunteers to low dose hookworm (Necator americanus) infection. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 37, 126–34.
Mckean, P. G. (1989). Analysis of the antigens of the human hookworm Necator americanus. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Nottingham.
Neppert, J. & Warns, C-M. (1974). Mit Ascaris, Hakenwurm und Onchocerca — Antigenen kreuzreaginerende Seren aus Liberia, Westafrika. Tropenmedizin und Parasitologie 25, 492–7.
Ogilvie, B. M., Bartlett, A., Godfrey, F. C., Turton, J. A., Worms, M. J. & Yeates, R. A. (1978). Antibody responses in self infections with Necator americanus. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 72, 6671.
Pritchard, D. I., Behnke, J. M., Carr, A. & Wells, C. (1986). The recognition of antigens on the surface of adult and L4 Necator americanus by human and hamster post-infection sera. Parasite Immunology 8, 359–67.
Pritchard, D. I., Mckean, P. G. & Rogan, M. T. (1988a). Cuticular collagens–a concealed target for immune attack in hookworms. Parasitology Today 4, 239–41.
Pritchard, D. I., Mckean, P. G. & Rogan, M. T. (1988b). Cuticle preparations from Necator americanus and their immunogenicity in the infected host. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 28, 275–84.
Pritchard, D. I., Mckean, P. G., Leggett, K. V., Quinnell, R. J., Slater, A. F. C. & Keymer, A. E. (1990). The molecular basis of antigenic cross-reactivity between Necator americanus and Ascaris lumbricoides. Parasite Immunology (in the Press).
Roche, M. & Layrisse, M. (1966). The nature and causes of ‘hookworm anaemia’. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 15, 1031–102.
Schad, G. A. & Anderson, R. M. (1985). Predisposition to hookworm infection in humans. Science 228, 1537–40.
Shield, J., Anian, G., Ostwald, R. & Rainer, A. (1984). Reinfection with intestinal helminths after treatment with mebendazole. Papua New Guinea Medical Journal 27, 41–4.
Taylor, M. M. & Turton, J. A. (1976). Antigen-induced lymphocyte blastogenesis in a hookworm (Necator americanus) infection in man. Tropenmedizin und Parasitologie 27, 8992.
Turner, K. J., Fisher, E. H. & Mcwilliam, A. S. (1980). Homology between roundworm (Ascaris) and hookworm (Necator americanus) antigens detected by human IgE antibodies. Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medicine 58, 249–57.
Vines, A. P. (1970). The Epidemiological Sample Survey of the Highlands, Mainland and Island Regions of Papua New Guinea. Department of Public Health, Port Moresby, 621 pp.
Warren, K. S. (1988). Hookworm control. Lancet, 15, 10 1988, 897.
Waterlow, J. C. (1976). Classification and definition of protein energy nutrition. In Nutrition in Preventive Medicine (ed. Beaton, G. H. & Bengoa, J. M.). Geneva: WHO.
White, C. J., Maxwell, C. J. & Gallin, J. I. (1986). Changes in the structural and functional properties of human eosinophils during experimental infection. Journal of Infectious Diseases 154, 7883.
World Health Organization (1975). Control of nutritional anaemia with special reference to iron deficiency. Geneva: WHO Technical Report Series, No. 580.

Keywords

Epidemiology and immunology of Necator americanus infection in a community in Papua New Guinea: humoral responses to excretory-secretory and cuticular collagen antigens

  • D. I. Pritchard (a1), R. J. Quinnell (a1), A. F. G. Slater (a1), P. G. McKean (a1), D. D. S. Dale (a1), A. Raiko (a1) and A. E. Keymer (a1)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed