Bates, DM, Maechler, M, Bolker, B and Walker, S (2015) Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4. Journal of Statistical Software 67, 1–48.
Benesh, DP (2010 a) What are the evolutionary constraints on larval growth in a trophically transmitted parasite? Oecologia 162, 599–608.
Benesh, DP (2010 b) Developmental inflexibility of larval tapeworms in response to resource variation. International Journal for Parasitology 40, 487–497.
Benesh, DP and Hafer, N (2012) Growth and ontogeny of the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus in its copepod first host affects performance in its stickleback second intermediate host. Parasites & Vectors 5, 90.
Benesh, DP, Weinreich, F and Kalbe, M (2012) The relationship between larval size and fitness in the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus: bigger is better? Oikos 121, 1391–1399.
Blanquart, F, Kaltz, O, Nuismer, SL and Gandon, S (2013) A practical guide to measuring local adaptation. Ecology Letters 16, 1195–1205.
Clarke, AS (1954) Studies on the life cycle of the pseudophyllidean cestode Schistocephalus solidus. Proceedings of the Zoological Society 124, 257–302.
Cohen, H (1988) Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.
Dianne, L, Perrot-Minnot, MJ, Bauer, A, Gaillard, M, Léger, E and Rigaud, T (2011) Protection first then facilitation: a manipulative parasite modulates the vulnerability to predation of its intermediate host according to its own developmental stage. Evolution 65, 2692–2698.
Dubinina, MN (1980) Tapeworms (Cestoda, Ligulidae) of the Fauna of the USSR. Amerind Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Dehli.
Franceschi, N, Cornet, S, Bollache, LL, Dechaume-Moncharmont, F-X, Bauer, A, Motreuil, S and Rigaud, T (2010) Variation between populations and local adaptation in acanthocephalan-induced parasite manipulation. Evolution 64, 2417–2430.
Gandon, S and Nuismer, SL (2009) Interactions between genetic drift, gene flow, and selection mosaics drive parasite local adaptation. American Naturalist 173, 212–224.
Gopko, M, Mikheev, VN and Taskinen, J (2015) Changes in host behaviour caused by immature larvae of the eye fluke: evidence supporting the predation suppression hypothesis. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 69, 1723–1730.
Greischar, MA and Koskella, B (2007) A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters 10, 418–434.
Hafer, N and Benesh, DP (2015) Does resource availability affect host manipulation? – An experimental test with Schistocephalus solidus. Parasitology Open 1, e3.
Hafer, N and Milinski, M (2015) When parasites disagree: evidence for parasite-induced sabotage of host manipulation. Evolution 69, 611–620.
Hafer, N and Milinski, M (2016) Inter- and intraspecific conflicts between parasites over host manipulation. Proceeding of the Royal Society B 283, 20152870.
Hamley, M, Franke, F, Kurtz, J and Scharsack, JP (2017) An experimental approach to the immuno-modulatory basis of host-parasite local adaptation in tapeworm-infected sticklebacks. Experimental Parasitology 180, 119–132.
Hammerschmidt, K, Koch, K, Milinski, M, Chubb, JC and Parker, GA (2009) When to go: optimization of host switching in parasites with complex life cycles. Evolution 63, 1976–1986.
Hanzelová, V and Gerdeaux, D (2003) Seasonal occurrence of the tapeworm Proteocephalus longicollis and its transmission from copepod intermediate host to fish. Parasitology Research 91, 130–136.
Hoeksema, JD and Forde, SE (2008) A meta-analysis of factors affecting local adaptation. American Naturalist 171, 275–290.
Holmes, JC and Bethel, WM (1972) Modification of intermediate host behaviour by parasites. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 51, 123–149.
Hothorn, T, Bretz, F and Westfall, P (2008) Simultaneous inference in general parametric models. Biometrical Journal 50, 346–363.
Kalbe, M, Eizaguirre, C, Scharsack, JP and Jakobsen, PJ (2016) Reciprocal cross infection of sticklebacks with the diphyllobothriidean cestode Schistocephalus solidus reveals consistent population differences in parasite growth and host resistance. Parasites & Vectors 9, 130.
Kaltz, O and Shykoff, JA (1998) Local adaptation in host–parasite systems. Heredity 81, 361–370.
Kawecki, TJ and Ebert, D (2004) Conceptual issues in local adaptation. Ecology Letters 7, 1225–1241.
Lajeunesse, MJ and Forbes, MR (2002) Host range and local parasite adaptation. Proceedings. Biological Sciences/The Royal Society 269, 703–710.
Mauck, KE, De Moraes, CM and Mescher, MC (2014) Evidence of local adaptation in plant virus effects on host-vector interactions. Integrative and Comparative Biology 54, 193–209.
Moore, J (2002) Parasites and the Behavior of Animals. New York: Oxford University Press.
Moore, J (2013) An overview of parasite-induced behavioral alterations – and some lessons from bats. The Journal of Experimental Biology 216, 11–17.
Mouritsen, KN and Poulin, R (2003) Parasite-induced trophic facilitation exploited by a non-host predator: a manipulator's nightmare. International Journal for Parasitology 33, 1043–1050.
Nishimura, N, Heins, DC, Andersen, RO, Barber, I and Cresko, WA (2011) Distinct lineages of schistocephalus parasites in threespine and ninespine stickleback hosts revealed by DNA sequence analysis. PLoS ONE 6, e22505.
Parker, GA, Ball, MA, Chubb, JC, Hammerschmidt, K and Milinski, M (2009) When should a trophically transmitted parasite manipulate its host? Evolution 63, 448–458.
Pasternak, AF, Huntingford, FA and Crompton, DWT (1995) Changes in metabolism and behaviour of the freshwater copepod Cyclops strenuus abyssorum infected with Diphyllobothrium spp. Parasitology 110, 395–399.
Poulin, R (1994) Meta-analysis of parasite-induced behavioural changes. Animal Behaviour 48, 137–146.
Poulin, R (2010) Parasite manipulation of host behavior: an update and frequently asked questions. Advances in the Study of Behavior 41, 151–186.
Poulin, R and Thomas, F (1999) Phenotypic variability induced by parasites: extent and evolutionary implications. Parasitology Today 15, 28–32.
Poulin, R, Curtis, MA and Rau, ME (1992) Effects of Eubothrium salvelini (Cestoda) on the behaviour of Cyclops vernalis (Copepoda) and its susceptibility to fish predators. Parasitology 105, 265–271.
R Development Core Team and R Core Team (2016) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.
Scharsack, JP, Franke, F, Erin, NI, Kuske, A, Büscher, J, Stolz, H, Samonte, IE, Kurtz, J and Kalbe, M (2016) Effects of environmental variation on host-parasite interaction in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Zoology 119, 375–383.
Schneider, CA, Rasband, WS and Eliceiri, KW (2012) NIH image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis. Nature Methods 9, 671–675.
Seppälä, O, Valtonen, ET and Benesh, DP (2008) Host manipulation by parasites in the world of dead-end predators: adaptation to enhance transmission? Proceeding of the Royal Society B 275, 1611–1615.
Smyth, JD (1946) Studies on tapeworm physiology I. The cultivation of Schistocephalus solidus in vitro. The Journal of Experimental Biology 23, 47–70.
Sprehn, CG, Blum, MJ, Quinn, TP and Heins, DC (2015) Landscape genetics of Schistocephalus solidus parasites in threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from Alaska. PLoS ONE 10, 1–17.
Tain, L, Perrot-Minnot, M-J, Cezilly, F and Cézilly, F (2007) Differential influence of Pomphorhynchus laevis (Acanthocephala) on brain serotonergic activity in two congeneric host species. Biology Letters 3, 68–71.
Urdal, K, Tierney, JF and Jakobsen, PJ (1995) The tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus alters the activity and response, but not the predation susceptibility of infected copepods. The Journal of Parasitology 81, 330–333.
van der Veen, IT and Kurtz, J (2002) To avoid or eliminate: cestode infections in copepods. Parasitology 124, 465–474.
Weber, JN, Kalbe, M, Shim, KC, Erin, NI, Steinel, NC, Ma, L and Bolnick, DI (2017) Resist globally, infect locally: a transcontinental test of adaptation by stickleback and their tapeworm parasite. The American Naturalist 189, 43–57.
Wedekind, C (1997) The infectivity, growth, and virulence of the cestode Schistocephalus solidus in its first intermediate host, the copepod Macrocyclops albidus. Parasitology 115, 317–324.
Wedekind, C and Milinski, M (1996) Do three-spined sticklebacks avoid consuming copepods, the first intermediate host of Schistocephalus solidus?—An experimental analysis of behavioural resistance. Parasitology 112, 371–383.
Wedekind, C, Strahm, D and Schärer, L (1998) Evidence for strategic egg production in a hermaphroditic cestode. Parasitology 117, 373–382.
Weinreich, F, Benesh, DP and Milinski, M (2013) Suppression of predation on the intermediate host by two trophically-transmitted parasites when uninfective. Parasitology 140, 129–135.
Zander, CD, Groenewold, S and Strohbach, U (1994) Parasite transfer from crustacean to fish hosts in the Lübeck Bight, SW Baltic Sea. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen 48, 89–105.