BONHOMME, A., BOUCHOT, B., PEZZELLA, N., GOMEZ, J., LEMOAL, H. & PINON, J. M. (1999). Signaling during the invasion of host cells by Toxoplasma gondii. FEMS Microbiological Review 23, 551–561.
CARRUTHERS, V. B., GIDDINGS, O. K. & SIBLEY, L. D. (1999). Secretion of micronemal proteins is associated with toxoplasma invasion of host cells. Cellular Microbiology 1, 225–235.
CARRUTHERS, V. B. & SIBLEY, D. L. (1997). Sequential protein secretion from three distinct organelles of Toxoplasma gondii accompagnies invasion of human fibroblasts. European Journal of Cell Biology 73, 114–123.
CESBRON-DELAUW, M. F., TOMAVO, S., BEAUCHAMPS, P., FOURMAUX, M. P., CAMUS, D., CAPRON, A. & DUBREMETZ, J. F. (1994). Similarities between the primary structures of two distinct major surface proteins of Toxoplasma gondii. Journal of Biological Chemistry 269, 16217–16222.
DEBARD, N., BUZONI-GATEL, D. & BOUT, D. (1996). Intranasal immunization with SAG1 protein of Toxoplasma gondii in association with cholera toxin dramatically reduces development of cerebral cysts after oral infection. Infection and Immunity 64, 2158–2166.
DUBEY, J. P. (1997). Bradyzoite-induced murine toxoplasmosis: Stage conversion, pathogenesis, and tissue cyst formation in mice fed bradyzoites of different strains of Toxoplasma gondii. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 44, 592–602.
DUBEY, J. P., SPEER, C. A., SHEN, S. K., KWOK, O. C. & BLIXT, J. A. (1997). Oocyst-induced murine toxoplasmosis: life cycle, pathogenicity, and stage conversion in mice fed Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. Journal of Parasitology 83, 870–882.
DUBREMETZ, J.-F. (1998). Host cell invasion by Toxoplasma gondii. Trends in Microbiology 6, 27–30.
DUTTA, C., GRIMWOOD, J. & KASPER, L. H. (2000). Attachment of Toxoplasma gondii to a specific membrane fraction of CHO cells. Infection and Immunity 68, 7198–7201.
DZIERSZINSKI, F., MORTUAIRE, M., CESBRON-DELAUW, M. F. & TOMAVO, S. (2000). Targeted disruption of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored surface antigen SAG3 gene in Toxoplasma gondii decreases host cell adhesion and drastically reduces virulence in mice. Molecular Microbiology 37, 574–582.
FINLAY, B. B. & FALKOW, S. (1988). Comparison of the invasion strategies used by Salmonella cholerae-suis, Shigella flexneri and Yersinia enterocolitica to enter cultured animal cells: endosome acidification is not required for bacterial invasion or intracellular replication. Biochimie 70, 1089–1099.
FURTADO, G. C., CAO, Y. & JOINER, K. A. (1992). Laminin on Toxoplasma gondii mediates parasite binding to the beta 1 integrin receptor alpha 6 beta 1 on human foreskin fibroblasts and Chinese hamster ovary cells. Infection and Immunity 60, 4925–4931.
FURTADO, G. C., SLOWIK, M., KLEINMAN, H. K. & JOINER, K. A. (1992). Laminin enhances binding of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites to J774 murine macrophage cells. Infection and Immunity 60, 2337–2342.
GAILLARD, J.-L. & FINLAY, B. B. (1996). Effect of cell polarization and differentiation on entry of Listeria monocytogenes into enterocyte-like Caco2 cell line. Infection and Immunity 64, 1299–1308.
GARCIA-REGUET, N., LEBRUN, M., FOURMAUX, M. N., MERCEREAU-PUIJALON, O., MANN, T., BECKERS, C. J., SAMYN, B., VAN BEEUMAN, J., BOUT, D. & DUBREMETZ, J. F. (2000). The microneme protein MIC3 of Toxoplasma gondii is a secretory adhesin that binds to both the surface of the host cells and the surface of the parasite. Cellular Microbiology 2, 353–364.
GRIMWOOD, J., MINEO, J. R. & KASPER, L. H. (1996). Attachment of Toxoplasma gondii to host cells is host cell cycle dependent. Infection and Immunity 64, 4099–4104.
GRIMWOOD, J. & SMITH, J. E. (1992). Toxoplasma gondii: The role of 30-kDa surface protein in host cell invasion. Experimental Parasitology 74, 106–111.
GRIMWOOD, J. & SMITH, J. E. (1996). Toxoplasma gondii: the role of parasite surface and secreted proteins in host invasion. International Journal for Parasitology 26, 169–173.
GROSS, U. (1996). Toxoplasma gondii research in Europe. Parasitology Today 12, 1–4.
JACOBSON, R. L. & DOYLE, R. J. (1996). Lectin parasite interactions. Parasitology Today 12, 55–61.
KASPER, L. H. (1987). Isolation and characterization of a monoclonal anti-P30 antibody resistant mutant of Toxoplasma gondii. Parasite Immunology 9, 433–445.
LUFT, B. J. & REMINGTON, J. S. (1992). Toxoplasmic encephalitis in AIDS. Clinical Infectious Diseases 15, 211–222.
MANGER, I. D., HEHL, A. B. & BOOTHROYD, J. C. (1998). The surface of Toxoplasma tachyzoites is dominated by a family of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored antigens related to SAG1. Infection and Immunity 66, 2237–2244.
MINEO, J. R. & KASPER, L. H. (1994). Attachment of Toxoplasma gondii to host cells involves major surface protein, SAG-1 (P30). Experimental Parasitology 79, 11–20.
MINEO, J. R., MCLEOD, R., MACK, D., SMITH, J., KHAN, I. A., ELY, K. H. & KASPER, L. H. (1993). Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii major surface protein (SAG-1, P30) inhibit infection of host cells and are produced in murine intestine after peroral infection. Journal of Immunology 150, 3951–3964.
MORISAKI, J. H., HEUSER, J. E. & SIBLEY, L. D. (1995). Invasion of Toxoplasma gondii occurs by active penetration of the host cell. Journal of Cell Science 108, 2457–2464.
MOUNIER, J., VASSELON, T., HELLIO, R., LESOURD, M. & SANSONETTI, P. (1992). Shigella flexneri enters human colonic Caco2 epithelial cells through the basolateral pole. Infection and Immunity 60, 237–248.
ORTEGA-BARRIA, E. & BOOTHROYD, J. C. (1999). A Toxoplasma lectin-like activity specific for sulfated polysaccharides is involved in host cell infection. Journal of Biological Chemistry 274, 1267–1276.
PFEFFERKORN, E. R. & PFEFFERKORN, L. C. (1977). Specific labelling of intracellular Toxoplasma gondii with uracil. Journal of Protozoology 24, 449–453.
QUARONI, A., WANDS, J., TRELSTAD, R. L. & ISSELBACHER, K. J. (1979). Epithelioid cell cultures from rat small intestine. Characterization by morphologic and immunologic criteria. Journal of Cellular Biology 80, 248–265.
ROBERT-GANGNEUX, F., CREUZET, C., DUPOUY-CAMET, J. & ROISIN, M. P. (2000). Involvement of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signalling pathway in host cell invasion by Toxoplasma gondii. Parasite 7, 95–101.
SILVERMAN, J. A. & JOINER, K. (1997). Toxoplasma host–cell interaction. In Host Responses to Intracellular Pathogens (ed. KAUFMANN, S.), pp. 313–338. R.G. Landes Compagny Springer-Verlag GMBH & Co KG, New York.
SMITH, J. E. (1995). A ubiquitous intracellular parasite: the cellular biology of Toxoplasma gondii. International Journal for Parasitology 25, 1301–1309.
SPEER, C. A. & DUBEY, J. P. (1998). Ultrastructure of early stages of infections in mice fed Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. Parasitology 116, 35–42.
SPEER, C. A., DUBEY, J. P., BLIXT, J. A. & PROKOP, K. (1997). Time lapse video microscopy and ultrastructure of penetrating sporozoites, types 1 and 2 parasitophorous vacuoles, and the transformation of sporozoites to tachyzoites of the VEG strain of Toxoplasma gondii. Journal of Parasitology 83, 565–574.
VELGE, P., BOTTREAU, E., VAN-LANGENDONCK, N. & KAEFFER, B. (1997). Cell proliferation enhances entry of Listeria monocytogenes into intestinal epithelial cells by two proliferation-dependent entry pathways. Journal of Medical Microbiology 46, 681–692.
VELGE-ROUSSEL, F., CHARDÈS, T., MEVELEC, P., BRILLARD, M., HOEBEKE, J. & BOUT, D. (1994). Epitopic analysis of the Toxoplasma gondii major surface antigen SAG1. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 66, 31–38.
VELGE-ROUSSEL, F., MORETTO, M., BUZONI-GATEL, D., DIMIER-POISSON, I., FERRER, M., HOEBEKE, J. & BOUT, D. (1997). Differences in immunological response to a T. gondii protein (SAG1) derived peptide between two strains of mice: effect on protection in T. gondii infection. Molecular Immunology 34, 1045–1053.
VERCAMMEN, M., SCORZA, T., ELBOUHDIDI, A., VANBEECK, K., CARLIER, Y., DUBREMETZ, J. F. & VERSCHUEREN, H. (1999). Opsonization of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites with nonspecific immunoglobulins promotes their phagocytosis by macrophages and inhibits their proliferations in nonphagocytic cells in tissue culture. Parasite Immunology 21, 555–563.
VIDAL, K., GROSJEAN, I., EVILLARD, J. P., GESPACH, C. & KAISERLIAN, D. (1993). Immortalization of mouse intestinal epithelial cells by the SV40-large T gene. Phenotypic and immune characterization of the MODE-K cell line. Journal of Immunological Methods 166, 63–73.
VIEIRA, M. C. & MORENO, S. N. (2000). Mobilization of intracellular calcium upon attachment of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites to human fibroblasts is required for invasion. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 106, 157–162.
WOODMAN, J. P., DIMIER, I. H. & BOUT, D. T. (1991). Human endothelial cells are activated by IFN-gamma to inhibit Toxoplasma gondii replication. Inhibition is due to a different mechanism from that existing in mouse macrophages and human fibroblasts. Journal of Immunology 147, 2019–2023.
ZWEIBAUM, A., LABURTHE, M., GRASSEET, E. & LOUVARD, D. (1991). Intestinal transport of the gastrointestinal system. In Handbook of Physiology, Vol. IV (ed. FIELD, M. & FRIZZERL, R. A.), pp. 225–255. American Physiology Society, Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York.