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  • T.P. Wiseman

Prompted by Chrystina Häuber's seminal work on the eastern part of the mons Oppius, this article offers a radical reappraisal of the evidence for the ‘gardens of Maecenas’. Some very long-standing beliefs about the location and nature of the horti Maecenatiani are shown to be unfounded; on the other hand, close reading of an unjustly neglected text provides some new and unexpected evidence for what they were used for. The main focus of the argument is on the relevance of the horti to the development of Roman performance culture. It is intended to contribute to the understanding of Roman social history, and the method used is traditionally empirical: to collect and present whatever evidence is available, to define as precisely as possible what that evidence implies, and to formulate a hypothesis consistent with those implications.

Sull'onda del fondamentale lavoro di Chrystina Häuber sul settore orientale del mons Oppius, questo articolo offre un completo riesame delle testimonianze relative ai ‘giardini di Mecenate’. Da un lato quest'operazione ha portato alla dimostrazione di come alcune convinzioni di lungo corso sulla localizzazione e natura degli horti Maecenatiani siano infondate; dall'altro lato, una lettura serrata di un testo ingiustamente trascurato fornisce alcune nuove e inaspettate prove delle modalità di utilizzo degli horti. Il principale focus della discussione risiede nella rilevanza degli horti allo sviluppo della cultura romana della performance. Con questo lavoro si vuole contribuire alla comprensione della storia sociale romana, e il metodo usato è quello, tradizionalmente, empirico: raccogliere e presentare tutte le fonti disponibili, definire nel modo più preciso possibile ciò che le fonti implicano e formulare un'ipotesi coerente con gli indizi rintracciati.

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Address for correspondence: Professor T.P. Wiseman, 22 Hillcrest Park, Exeter, EX4 4SH, United Kingdom
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1 Paribeni, R., Notizie degli scavi (1925), 162, ‘sulla sinistra della via Ruggero Bonghi a chi la percorra venendo da via Merulana, quasi all'angolo di via Guiccardini’; Montuoro, P., ‘Una replica dell'Afrodite di Arles nel Museo Mussolini in Campidoglio’, Bullettino della Commissione archeologica comunale di Roma 53 (1926), 113–32, at 113. Now Musei Capitolini, Centrale Montemartini inv. MC 2139.

2 Ridgway, B.S., ‘The Aphrodite of Arles’, American Journal of Archaeology 80 (1976), 147–54; Pollini, J., ‘The “Dart Aphrodite”: a new replica of the “Arles Aphrodite Type”, the cult image of Venus Victrix in Pompey's Theater at Rome, and Venusian ideology and politics in the Late Republic–Early Principate’, Latomus 55 (1996), 757–85.

3 Augustus, Res gestae 20.1. Since the temple in the theatre was originally dedicated to Victoria (Tiro in Aulus Gellius 10.1.7), Pliny's reference to Venus Victrix already in 55 bc (Natural History 8.20) is evidently anachronistic; despite what is often said, the two goddesses were not identical.

4 Varro, De lingua Latina 5.50: the other was mons Cispius, the height now occupied by the basilica of S. Maria Maggiore.

5 Ovid, Ars amatoria 3.394 (terna theatra), Strabo 5.3.8 C236 (θέατρα τρία); Suetonius, Diuus Augustus 45.4 (trina theatra); Fasti Ostienses ad 112 (Inscriptiones Italiae XIII.1 201: theatris tribus).

6 Suetonius, Nero 31.1: non in alia re tamen damnosior quam in aedificando, domum a Palatio Esquilias usque fecit, quam primo transitoriam mox incendio absumptam restitutamque auream nominauit. Unless otherwise stated, all translations are mine.

7 Tacitus, Annals 15.39.1: eo in tempore Nero Antii agens non ante in urbem regressus est quam domui eius, qua Palatium et Maecenatis hortos continuauerat, ignis propinquaret.

8 Donatus, Vita Vergilii 6: Virgil's house in Rome was ‘on the Esquiline, next to the horti Maecenatiani’.

9 Cf. ps.-Acro on Horace, Satires 1.8.7 (below, n. 32): ‘where the Baths of Trajan now are’.

10 Most recently by Peirano, I., The Rhetoric of the Roman Fake (Cambridge, 2012), esp. 220–8.

11 Ch. Häuber, The Eastern Part of the Mons Oppius in Rome (BCAR Supplement 22) (Rome, 2014); her discussion of the Venus statue is at pp. 501–8.

12 Gnoli, U., Topografia e toponomastica di Roma medioevale e moderna (Rome, 1939), 261: ‘Il nome deriva dalla montuosità di quel quartiere, che comprendeva il colle Esquilino, il Viminale, parte del Quirinale e del Celio.’

13 Gregorovius, F., Roman Journals 1852–1874, English edition (London, 1907), 437.

14 Lanciani, R., ‘The future of Rome’, The Athenaeum 4234 (December 1908), 797 = Notes from Rome, ed. Cubberley, A.L. (London, 1988), 411.

15 Parker, J.H., Historical Photographs: A Catalogue of 3300 Photographs of Antiquities in Rome and Italy (London, 1879), nos. 3185–8.

16 Middleton, J.H., Ancient Rome in 1885 (Edinburgh, 1885), 61.

17 Middleton, Ancient Rome (above, n. 16), 404.

18 See for instance Cima, M. and Rocca, E. La (eds), Le tranquille dimori degli dei: la residenza imperiale degli horti Lamiani (Vicenza, 1986).

19 A Handbook of Rome and its Environs, ninth edition (London, John Murray, 1869).

20 It was laid out by Gregory XIII in 1575: Gnoli, Topografia e onomastica (above, n. 12), 166.

21 See for instance Lanciani, R. in Ramsay, W., A Manual of Roman Antiquities, fifteenth edition (London 1894), 8, on the Quirinal, Viminal and Esquiline: ‘These projecting spurs may be compared to the fingers of an open hand, the wrist of which is defined by the valley of Sallust on one side, and the valley of the Via Merulana on the other.’ For the ‘valley of Sallust’ (modern Via Sallustiana) north of the Quirinal, see Hartswick, K.J., The Gardens of Sallust: A Changing Landscape (Austin, 2004).

22 Fronto, Ad M. Caesarem 1.8.5 (= 2.2.5 van den Hout): mihique propter Maecenatem ac Maecenatianos hortos meos non alienus.

23 CIL XV 7438: Cornelio(rum) Fronto(nis) et Quadrati. The site is described as ‘presso la sala meceneziana in via Merulana’.

24 LTUR III.74–5 (M. de Vos); Claridge, A., Rome: An Oxford Archaeological Guide (Oxford, 2010), 330–3.

25 Purcell, N., ‘The Roman garden as a domestic building’, in Barton, I.M. (ed.), Roman Domestic Buildings (Exeter, 1996), 121–51, at 128–30.

26 Lanciani, R., The Athenaeum 2567 (6 January 1877), 25 = Notes from Rome, ed. Cubberley, A.L. (London, 1988), 28. ‘Park’ is of course a misnomer: see Purcell, N., ‘Dialectical gardening’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 14 (2001), 546–56, at 549–51.

27 Lanciani, R., Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries (Boston, 1888), 67. Modern consensus: e.g. Grimal, P., Les jardins romains (Paris, 1969), 143; Brown, P.M. (ed.), Horace Satires I (Warminster, 1993), 170; Bodel, J., Graveyards and Groves: A Study of the Lex Lucerina (Cambridge (MA), 1994), 38; Coarelli, F., Rome and Environs: An Archaeological Guide (Berkeley, 2007), 197; Gowers, E. (ed.), Horace Satires Book I (Cambridge, 2012), 263, 269.

28 Horace, Satires 1.8.1–16: olim truncus eram ficulnus, inutile lignum, | cum faber, incertus scamnum faceretne Priapum, | maluit esse deum. deus inde ego, furum auiumque | maxima formido; nam fures dextra coercet | obscenoque ruber porrectus ab inguine palus,| ast importunas uolucres in uertice harundo | terret fixa uetatque nouis considere in hortis. | huc prius angustis eiecta cadauera cellis | conseruus uili portanda locabat in arca; | hoc miserae plebi stabat commune sepulcrum, | Pantolabo scurrae Nomentanoque nepoti. | mille pedes in fronte, trecentos cippus in agrum | hic dabat, heredes monumentum ne sequeretur. | nunc licet Esquiliis habitare salubribus atque | aggere in aprico spatiari, quo modo tristes | albis informem spectabant ossibus agrum.

29 Propertius 4.8.1–2; taken by Cairns, F., Sextus Propertius: The Augustan Elegist (Cambridge, 2006), 258, as proof of the ‘physical proximity of Propertius to Maecenas’. Cf. Hutchinson, G. (ed.), Propertius Elegies Book IV (Cambridge, 2006), 191, who notes that agri is an odd term for a ‘park’ but does not query the association with Maecenas.

30 Cassius Dio 48.43.3; Bodel, Graveyards and Groves (above, n. 27), 33, 58.

31 Porphyrio on Satires 1.8.1 and 7: Priapum positum in hortis, qui erant extra portam Esquilinam antequam aedificiis quoque locus occuparetur, inducit … cum Esquilina regio prius sepulcris et bustis uacaret, primus Maecenas salubritatem aeris ibi esse passus [sic] hortos constituit.

32 Ps.-Acro on Satires 1.8.7: an propter dedicationem Maecenatis nouis h.e. nuper institutis ac recens satis? an quia antea sepulcra erant in hoc loco in quo modo sunt horti Maecenatis, ubi sunt modo thermae Traianae. Not quite right, since Trajan's Baths were on the site of the Domus Aurea, but close enough.

33 Strabo 5.3.7 C234; cf. also Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities 9.68.3–4.

34 Quintilian, Institutio oratoria 12.10.74; Suetonius, Gaius 27.2; Juvenal 5.153–5, 6.588; Wiseman, T.P. in Cima, M. and Rocca, E. La (eds), Horti Romani (BCAR Supplement 6) (Rome, 1995), 20–2.

35 Gowers, Horace Satires (above, n. 27), 269, with a false reference to Porphyrio.

36 Satires 1.6.18 (addressed to Maecenas): nos … a uulgo longe longeque remotos.

37 Satires 1.4.73–4; cf. Epistles 1.19.41–5, Odes 4.3.16.

38 Cf. Suetonius, Diuus Augustus 72.2, Tiberius 15.1; Philo, Legatio ad Gaium 44–5 (privacy for emperors).

39 Richardson, L. Jr, A New Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome (Baltimore, 1992), 200, citing ‘Horace, Sat. 1.8.7, with the scholia of Acron and Porphyrion’. Agger and cemetery south of the gate also in Grimal, Les jardins romains (above, n. 27), 144–5; Bodel, Graveyards and Groves (above, n. 27), 52 and 109; LTUR III.73 (Ch. Häuber); T.P. Wiseman in Cima and La Rocca, Horti Romani (above, n. 34) 13; Thein, A.G. in Haselberger, L. (ed.), Mapping Augustan Rome (JRA Supplement 50) (Portsmouth [RI], 2002), 145; Edmunds, L., ‘Horace's Priapus: a life on the Esquiline (Sat. 1.8)’, Classical Quarterly 59 (2009), 125–31, at 126.

40 See n. 33 above.

41 Strabo 5.3.7 C234 (ὑπὸ μέσῳ τῷ χώματι) on the Porta Viminalis. ‘The road which issued from it appears to have been of minor importance’ ( Platner, S.B. and Ashby, T., A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome [Oxford, 1929], 419), and the Viminal itself was something of a backwater; see Coarelli, F., Collis: il Quirinale e il Viminale nell'antichità (Rome, 2014), 327–71 on this ‘Cinderella of the seven hills’.

42 See n. 21 above.

43 See nn. 6–7 above.

44 See nn. 21–4 above.

45 Horace, Epodes 1.9.1–6: quando repostum Caecubum ad festas dapes | uictore laetus Caesare | tecum sub alta (sic Ioui gratum) domo, | beate Maecenas, bibam, | sonante mixtum tibiis carmen lyra, | hac Dorium, illis barbarum?

46 The ‘barbarian’ music of the tibiae was perhaps Dionysiac (cf. Catullus 64.264), unlike the warlike Doric mode.

47 Horace, Odes 3.29.5–12: eripe te morae, | ne semper udum Tibur et Aefulae | decliue contempleris aruum et | Telegoni iuga parricidae. | fastidiosam desere copiam et | molem propinquam nubibus arduis, | omitte mirari beatae | fumum et opes strepitumque Romae.

48 Telegonus, son of Odysseus and Circe, was the legendary founder of Tusculum (Festus 116 Lindsay, cf. Ovid, Fasti 3.92; Livy 1.49.9; Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities 4.45.1). For his accidental killing of his father see West, M.L., The Epic Cycle (Oxford, 2013), 300–3.

49 Suetonius, Diuus Augustus 72.2, Tiberius 15.1.

50 Nisbet, R.G.M. and Hubbard, M., A Commentary on Horace Odes Book 1 (Oxford, 1970), xlviixlix .

51 Porphyrio on Horace, Odes 3.29.6: turrim Maecenas dicitur in hortis suis extruxisse, unde haec omnia prospectabat.

52 Suetonius, Nero 38.2: hoc incendium e turre Maecenatiana prospectans laetusque flammae, ut aiebat, pulchritudine Halosin Ilii in illo suo scaenico habitu decantauit. Cf. Orosius 7.7.6, who merely repeats Suetonius with slight variations of phrase.

53 Note however that Nero did not say ‘the beauty of the flames (flammarum)’; the ‘beauty of flame’, the red glow in the sky, would have been visible even without a direct view to the west.

54 LTUR III.73 (Ch. Häuber, with previous bibliography); Purcell, ‘The Roman Garden’ (above, n. 25), 132; Häuber, The Eastern Part (above, n. 11), 213.

55 Conveniently illustrated in Vout, C., The Hills of Rome: Signature of an Eternal City (Cambridge, 2012), 148–9, figs 5.23 and 5.25.

56 Horace, Odes 3.29.1: Tyrrhena regum progenies. For Maecenas' Etruscan descent, see also Odes 1.1.1, Satires 1.6.1, Propertius 3.9.1, Augustus in Macrobius, Saturnalia 2.4.12.

57 First pointed out by Ian Du Quesnay, as quoted in Cairns, Sextus Propertius (above, n. 29), 258 n. 53.

58 Roman Antiquities 1.26.2: τοὺς δὲ Τυρρηνοὺς οἱ μὲν αὐτόχθονας Ἰταλίας ἀποφαίνουσιν, οἱ δὲ ἐπήλυδας· καὶ τὴν ἐπωνυμίαν αὐτοῖς ταύτην οἱ μὲν αὐθιγενὲς τὸ ἔθνος ποιοῦντες ἐπὶ τῶν ἐρυμάτων, ἃ πρῶτοι τῶν τῇδε οἰκοῦντων κατεσκευάσαντο, τεθῆναι λέγουσι· τύρσεις γὰρ καὶ παρὰ Τυρρηνοῖς αἱ ἐντείχιοι καὶ στεγαναὶ οἰκήσεις ὀνομάζονται ὥσπερ παρ’ Ἕλλησιν. Cf. 1.3.4 for the date of publication.

59 Virgil, Aeneid 2.437 (ad sedes Priami), 445–6 ( turris et tota domorum | culmina conuellunt).

60 Virgil, Aeneid 2.458–67, translation by David West (Penguin Classics): euado ad summi fastigia culminis, unde | tela manu miseri iactabant inrita Teucri.| turrim in praecipiti stantem summisque sub astra | eductam tectis, unde omnia Troia uideri | et Danaum solitae naues et Achaica castra, | adgressi ferro circum, qua summa labantis | iuncturas tabulata dabant, conuellimus altis | sedibus impulimusque; ea lapsa repente ruinam | cum sonitu trahit et Danaum super agmina late | incidit.

61 Virgil, Aeneid 8.347–8; Pliny, Natural History 33.18.

62 Häuber, The Eastern Part (above, n. 11), 109, 340–1, 343–4, 528–9, 626.

63 For instance, Peirano, The Rhetoric of the Roman Fake (above, n. 10), 224–5, who takes it as axiomatic that ‘the poem is a rhetorical virtuoso piece displaying the author's skill in finding arguments to defend Maecenas' personality’; cf. p. 228 (equally without argument) on ‘the rhetorical genre of the pseudo-historical consolatory impersonation’.

64 Elegiae in Maecenatem 33–6: maluit umbrosam quercum nymphasque cadentes[?] | paucaque pomosi iugera certa soli; | Pieridas Phoebumque colens in mollibus hortis | sederat argutas garrulus inter aues.

65 In line 33 nymphasque (‘nymphs’) is the reading of all manuscripts; that might just be a metaphor for water, but Wernsdorf in 1782 preferred to emend it to lymphasque (‘waters’); the following word is cadentes (‘falling’) in manuscripts B and P, canentes (‘singing’) in Z, M and V.

66 Festus 314 Lindsay: ‘Querquetulanae uirae is thought to signify the nymphs that preside over the oak-grove coming into leaf, because they think that there was a wood of that sort inside the gate that was called “Porta Querquetularia” from it.’

67 Tacitus, Annals 4.65. The gate was north of the Caelian, on the modern Via Labicana, probably close to the church of SS. Pietro e Marcellino (Häuber, The Eastern Part [above, n. 11], 106–10).

68 Seneca, De prouidentia 3.10: feliciorem ergo tu Maecenatem putas, cui amoribus anxio et morosae uxoris cotidiana repudia deflenti somnus per symphoniarum cantum ex longinquo lene resonantium quaeritur? mero se licet sopiat et aquarum fragoribus auocet et mille uoluptatibus mentem anxiam fallat, tam uigilabit in pluma quam ille in cruce.

69 Cassius Dio 55.7.6, where ‘in the city’ (ἐν τῇ πόλει) no doubt means only ‘within the walls’.

70 CIL I2 25–9 = ILLRP 771 = CIL Auctarium (1965) 298, omitting the last four lines, which record the reconstruction of the tomb: societatis cantor. Graecorum et quei in hac sunhodo sunt de pequnia commune. L. Maecenas D.f. Mae. designator patronus sunhodi probauit. M. Vaccius M.l. Theophilus Q. Vibius Q.l. Simus magistreis sunhodi Decumianorum locum sepulchri emendo aedificando curauerunt.

71 Liddell and Scott define σύνοδος as (1) an assembly or meeting, (2) a gathering, for instance for a festival, (3) a company or guild.

72 Was the company named after Decimus Maecenas, father of the patron named here?

73 Theatre: Plautus, Poenulus 19–20; CIL VI 32332.12; Ulpian, Digest Funeral: Horace, Epistles 1.7.6; Seneca, De beneficiis 6.38.4. Both: Tertullian, De spectaculis 10.2; ps.-Acro on Horace, Epistles 1.7.6. For the theatricality of funerals, see for instance Appian, Civil Wars 2.143.598 and 146.607–148.612 (44 bc); Suetonius, Diuus Vespasianus 19.2 (ad 79).

74 Ulpian, Digest The dissignator evidently had a staff of lictors (Plautus, Poenulus 18; Horace, Epistles 1.7.6).

75 CIL VI 10133 = ILS 5229 (Vatican Museum).

76 CIL VI 30980 = I2 160 = ILLRP 235, found between Via Machiavelli and Via Buonarotti: [Me]nerua dono de[det]. Full discussion in Häuber, The Eastern Part (above, n. 11), 110–34.

77 Liddell and Scott define ᾠδάριον as the diminutive of ᾠδή. Its one occurrence in Latin refers to a dance libretto (Petronius, Satyricon 53.11).

78 See nn. 64–5 above.

79 See for instance Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1.1222–5; Ovid, Metamorphoses 14.332–40; CIL VIII 27764.12–14 =  Courtney, E. (ed.), Musa Lapidaria: A Selection of Latin Verse Inscriptions (Atlanta, 1995), 144–5 no. 151.

80 See n. 52 above.

81 The extensive evidence for the scaenicus imperator (Pliny, Panegyricus 46.4) is collected and discussed by Champlin, E., Nero (Harvard, 2003), 5383 .

82 Tacitus, Annals 15.39.4: peruaserat rumor ipso tempore flagrantis urbis inisse eum domesticam scaenam et cecinisse Troianum excidium, praesentia mala uetustis cladibus adsimulantem.

83 Pliny, Natural History 37.19: theatrum peculiare trans Tiberim in hortis. For private theatres in gardens and villas see Sear, F., Roman Theatres: An Architectural Study (Oxford, 2006), 46–7. There were stages, but not full theatres, in the peristyle gardens of the House of the Faun (VI.xii) and the House of the Golden Cupids (VI.xvi.7) at Pompeii: see Jashemski, W. F., The Gardens of Pompeii, Herculaneum and the Villas Destroyed by Vesuvius (New Rochelle, 1993), 145–6, 159–60 (a reference I owe to one of the anonymous readers).

84 Cassius Dio 62.18.1: ὁ Νέρων ἔς τε τὸ ἄκρον τοῦ Παλατίου, ὅθεν μάλιστα σύνοπτα τὰ πολλὰ τῶν καιομένων ἦν, ἀνήλθε, καὶ τὴν σκευὴν τὴν κιθαρῳδικὴν λαβὼν ᾖσεν ἅλωσιν, ὡς μὲν αὐτὸς ἔλεγεν Ἰλίου, ὡς δὲ ἑωρᾶτο Ῥώμης.

85 Cassius Dio 53.16.6: ‘even if the emperor is staying somewhere else, his place of residence is called palation’.

86 Tacitus, Annals 15.39.1; Cassius Dio 62.18.2 (Palatine); Suetonius, Nero 31.1 (domus transitoria).

87 Wiseman, T.P., The Roman Audience (Oxford, 2015); for Virgil and the theatre see for instance Tacitus, Dialogus 13.2.

88 Lucretius 3.978–83: per multos itaque illa dies eadem obuersantur | ante oculos, etiam uigilantes ut uideantur | cernere saltantis et mollia membra mouentis | et citharae liquidum carmen chordasque loquentis | auribus accipere, et consessum cernere eundem | scaenaique simul uarios splendere decores.

89 Varro, Menippean Satires 513 Astbury (Nonius Marcellus 563 Lindsay): crede mihi, plures dominos serui comederunt quam canes. quod si Actaeon occupasset et ipse prius suos canes comedisset, non nugas saltatoribus in theatro fieret.

90 There was a special Actaeon mask, with antlers attached (Pollux 4.141).

91 Cf. Lucian, De saltatione 19 (metamorphosis), 41 (Actaeon).

92 Velleius Paterculus 2.83.2: … cum caeruleatus et nudus caputque redimitus arundine et caudam trahens genibus innixus Glaucum saltasset in conuiuio.

93 The evidence is mostly from disapproving sources: Cicero, In Catilinam 2.23, In Pisonem 22; Suetonius, Diuus Augustus 70.1.

94 Virgil, Aeneid 5.822–6; Ovid, Metamorphoses 13.900–14.74; for Cornificius see Hollis, A. S., Fragments of Roman Poetry c.60 bcad 20 (Oxford, 2007), 150–3.

95 Horace, Odes 2.12.13–20 (with ps.-Acro ad loc.): me dulces dominae Musa Licymniae | cantus, me uoluit dicere lucidum | fulgentes oculos et bene mutuis | fidum pectus amoribus; | quam nec ferre pedem dedecuit choris | nec certare ioco nec dare bracchia | ludentem nitidis uirginibus sacro | Dianae celebris die.

96 See nn. 45 and 68 above.

97 See nn. 64–5 above.

98 Cf. Horace, Satires 1.9.23–5, where the pest who wants to be introduced to Maecenas boasts of his ability not only to write poetry but also to sing and dance.

99 Cassius Dio 54.17.5 (slave and freedman); Tacitus, Annals 1.54.2 (lover); cf. Crinagoras 39 G–P (Anth. Pal. 9.542); Phaedrus 5.7.5; Seneca, Controuersiae 3.pref.16, 10.pref.8. On pantomimus see Hall, E. and Wyles, R. (eds), New Directions in Roman Pantomime (Oxford, 2008); Slater, W., ‘Sorting out pantomime (and mime) from top to bottom’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 23 (2010), 533–41; Wiseman, T.P., ‘Suetonius and the origin of pantomime’, in Power, T. and Gibson, R. K. (eds), Suetonius the Biographer: Studies in Roman Lives (Oxford 2014), 256–72.

100 Athenaeus 1.20d: τοῦτον τὸν Βάθυλλόν φησιν Ἀριστόνικος καὶ Πυλάδην, οὗ ἐστι καὶ σύγγραμμα περὶ ὀρχήσεως, τὴν Ἰταλικὴν ὄρχησιν συστήσασθαι ἐκ τῆς κωμικῆς, ἥ ἐκαλεῖτο κόρδαξ, καὶ τῆς τραγικῆς, ἥ ἐκαλεῖτο ἐμμέλεια, καὶ τῆς σατυρικῆς, ἥ ἐλέγετο σίκιννις.

101 Seneca, Controuersiae 3.pref.10; Persius 5.122 (with scholiast ad loc.).

102 Lucian, De saltatione 22: τριῶν γοῦν οὐσῶν τῶν γενικωτάτων ὀρχήσεων, κόρδακος καὶ σικιννίδος καὶ ἐμμελείας, οἱ Διονύσου θεράποντες οἱ σάτυροι ταύτας ἐφευρόντες ἀφ’ αὑτῶν ἑκάστην ὠνόμασαν, καὶ ταύτῃ τῇ τέχνῃ χρώμενος ὁ Διόνυσος, φασίν, Τυρρηνοὺς καὶ Ἰνδοὺς καὶ Λυδοὺς ἐχειρώσατο καὶ φῦλον οὗτω μάχιμον τοῖς αὑτοῦ θιάσοις κατωρχήσατο.

103 Lucian, De saltatione 34 (origin ‘in the time of Augustus’), 36 (subject-matter ‘everything from the beginning of the world to the time of Cleopatra of Egypt’).

104 First attested about 300 bc (Megasthenes, FGrH 715 F11–12; Cleitarchus, FGrH 137 F17); Strabo 11.5.5 C505 (‘late myth’), 15.1.9 C688 (created by ‘flatterers of Alexander’).

105 Diodorus Siculus 3.65.8; Pliny, Natural History 7.191; Arrian, Anabasis 6.28.2; Macrobius, Saturnalia 1.19.4.

106 Virgil, Georgics 2.172, Aeneid 6.794, 7.605, 8.705; Horace, Odes 1.12.25, 4.14.42, Carmen saeculare 56; Propertius 2.9.29, 3.4.1, 4.3.10.

107 See nn. 56–8 above. Lydian Tyrrhenians: Herodotus 1.94.2–7; Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities 1.27.1–28.1.

108 The date is given by Cassius Dio 55.7.

109 Elegiae in Maecenatem 1.41–4 (Philippi and Sicily), 45–56: cum freta Niliacae texerunt lata carinae, | fortis erat circa, fortis et ante ducem, | militis Eoi fugientia terga secutus, | territus ad Nili dum fugit ille caput. | pax erat: haec illos laxarunt otia cultus: | omnia uictores Marte sedente decent. | Actius ipse lyram plectro percussit eburno, | postquam uictrices conticuere tubae. | hic modo miles erat, ne posset femina Romam | dotalem stupri turpis habere sui.| hic tela in profugos (tantum curuauerat arcum) | misit ad extremos exorientis equos.

110 Cassius Dio 51.1.1, 19; Lydus, De mensibus 4.124; Inscriptiones Italiae XIII.2 32–3, 150–1, 192–3 (Fasti Arualium, Vallenses, Amiternini).

111 Elegiae in Maecenatem 1.57–68: Bacche, coloratos postquam deuicimus Indos, | potasti galea dulce iuuante merum, | et tibi securo tunicae flexere solutae — | te puto purpureas tunc habuisse duas. | sum memor et certe memini sic ducere thyrsos | bracchiapurpureacandidiora niue; | et tibi thyrsus erat gemmis ornatus et auro: | serpentes hederae uix habuere locum. | argentata tuos etiam talaria talos | uinxerunt certe nec puto, Bacche, negas. | mollius es solito mecum tum multa locutus, | et tibi consulto uerba fuere noua. In line 62 I translate F. Vollmer's emendation Hyperborea.

112 For Cleopatra's forces as Indi cf. Virgil, Georgics 2.172, Aeneid 8.705.

113 Elegiae in Maecenatem 1.21 (Maecenas discinctus, as in Seneca, Epistulae 114.4 and 6), cf. 59 (Bacchus' tunicae solutae).

114 See line 51 (above), and Suetonius, Diuus Augustus 70.1 for the young Caesar impersonating Apollo on an earlier occasion.

115 Elegiae in Maecenatem 1.69–80: impiger Alcide, multo defuncte labore, | sic memorant curas te posuisse tuas, | sic te cum tenera multum lusisse puella | oblitum Nemeae iamque, Erymanthe, tui. | ultra numquid erat? torsisti police fusos, | lenisti morsu leuia fila parum; | percussit crebros te propter Lydia nodos, | te propter dura stamina rupta manu; | Lydia te tunicas iussit lasciua fluentis | inter lanificas ducere saepe suas. | claua torosa tua pariter cum pelle iacebat, | quam pede suspenso percutiebat Amor.

116 Elegiae in Maecenatem 1.81–6.

117 For Omphale as ‘the Lydian girl’ see Sophocles, Trachiniae 432; Propertius 3.11.17–18; Ovid, Fasti 2.356; Statius, Thebaid 10.646; Tertullian, De pallio 43. For the story in general see Propertius 4.9.47–50; Ovid, Heroides 9.53–118, Fasti 2.303–58.

118 Maecenas: Seneca, Epistulae 114.4–8, cf. 19.9, 101.13. Terentia: Seneca, De prouidentia 3.10, Epistulae 114.6. See n. 95 above: Horace mentions Licymnia's ‘teasing cruelty’ at Odes 2.12.26 (facili saeuitia).

119 Diodorus Siculus 4.31.8; Ovid, Heroides 9.54; possibly the same Lamus who was king of the Laestrygonians (Homer, Odyssey 10.81) and legendary ancestor of the Roman Aelii Lamiae (Horace, Odes 3.17.1).

120 Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities 1.28.1 (‘others say …’), cf. Herodotus 1.94.5–7.

121 Fourth-century bc dancing satyrs: a selection in Wiseman, T.P., Unwritten Rome (Exeter, 2008), 89 fig. 19, 91 fig. 20, 114 fig. 39 (‘Praenestine’ bronze cistae), 112 fig. 37 (Etruscan red-figure cup). Fifth-century bc satyr-plays: Ion of Chios, TrGF 19 F17a–33a; Achaeus, TrGF 20 F32–5.

122 Jashemski, The Gardens of Pompeii (above, n. 83), 160–3.

123 See n. 101 above.

124 Elegiae in Maecenatem 1.87–92: fudit Aloidas postquam dominator Olympi, | dicitur in nitidum procubuisse diem. | atque aquilam misisse suam quae quaereret ecquid | posset amaturosignareferre Ioui, | ualle sub Idaea dum te, formose sacerdos, | inuenit et presso molliter ungue rapit. At line 90 I translate Heinsius' emendation digna.

125 Homer, Iliad 5.385–6; Virgil, Aeneid 6.582.

126 Most explicitly at Lucan 1.33–8, but already implied at Virgil, Georgics 4.560–2 (Caesar … fulminat … uiamque adfectat Olympo).

127 As at Ovid, Metamorphoses 10.155–6.

128 Virgil, Aeneid 1.28; Ovid, Fasti 6.43, Metamorphoses 10.161; Statius, Siluae 3.4.14–15.

129 Elegiae in Maecenatem 1.93–4, cf. 50 (above).

130 Horace, Odes 2.12.17–18 (above, n. 95).

131 See for instance LTUR III.406–8 figs 42–3 (Ch. Häuber); Häuber, The Eastern Part (above, n. 11), maps 11–14.

132 Elegiae in Maecenatem 1.34 (above, n. 64).

133 Nor, of course, do we have to suppose that they consisted entirely of orchards.

134 Sear, Roman Theatres (above, n. 83), 129–30; cf. Wiseman, The Roman Audience (above, n. 87), 143–5; the villa belonged to Vedius Pollio (Cassius Dio 54.23.5), who like Maecenas was a wealthy eques. It also featured a covered odeion: see Izenour, G. C., Roofed Theatres of Classical Antiquity (New Haven, 1992), 74–6.

135 Pliny, Natural History 19.50–1 (trans. A. Wallace-Hadrill): iam quidem hortorum nomine in ipsa urbe delicias agros uillasque possident. primus hoc instituit Athenis Epicurus otii magister; usque ad eum moris non fuerat in oppidis habitari rura.

136 Wallace-Hadrill, A., ‘Pliny the Elder and Man's Unnatural History’, Greece and Rome 37 (1990), 8096 , esp. 92 on horti, and ‘Horti and Hellenization’, in Cima and La Rocca, Horti Romani (above, n. 34), 1–12, esp. p. 5 on Pliny; Wallace-Hadrill, A., Rome's Cultural Revolution (Cambridge, 2008), 346–53.

137 Pliny, Natural History 35.10 (Pollio), 35.26 (Agrippa's speech), 36.121 (Agrippa as aedile).

138 See nn. 99–101 above.

139 Augustus, Res gestae 9.1, 20.1, 21.1, 22–3; Suetonius, Diuus Augustus 43–5.

140 Virgil, Georgics 3.41 (tua, Maecenas, haud mollia iussa); see White, P., Promised Verse: Poets in the Society of Augustan Rome (Harvard, 1993), esp. 266–8.

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