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Developing the social distress scale for head and neck cancer outpatients in Japan

  • Minako Deno (a1), Mie Tashiro (a2), Mitsunori Miyashita (a3), Takahiro Asakage (a4), Koji Takahashi (a5), Kenich Saito (a6), Yasunobu Busujima (a7), Yoshiyuki Mori (a8), Hiroto Saito (a9) and Yuji Ichikawa (a10)...



This study assessed the factor structure, internal consistency, and concurrent and discriminant validity of a scale used to measure social distress in Japanese head and neck cancer outpatients with facial disfigurement.


The sample included 225 Japanese outpatients with head and neck cancer, including 129 patients with facial disfigurement. Participants' level of social distress was assessed through our scale, the European Organization for Research and Treatment Cancer questionnaire (EORTC) QLQ-H&N35 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS).


Factor analyses confirmed the structure of two subscales of the social distress scale. Social distress was significantly correlated with the social contact subscale of the EORTC QLQ-H&N35 and the HADS.

Significance of results:

Results demonstrated preliminary reliability and validity of the social distress scale. This scale may extend social adjustment research by revealing its determinants and effects for head and neck cancer with facial disfigurement in Japan.


Corresponding author

Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Minako Deno, Ando Laboratory, Faculty of Letters, Keio University, 2-15-45 Mita, Minato-Ku, Tokyo, 108-8345 Japan. E-mail:


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