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Psychometric characteristics of the Muslim Religiosity Scale in Iranian patients with cancer

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 April 2016

Mohsen Saffari
Health Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Health Education Department, School of Health, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Amir H. Pakpour*
Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran
Seyed Fattah Mortazavi
Department of Islamic Studies, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran
Harold G. Koenig
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Address correspondence and reprint requests to Amir H. Pakpour, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran. E-mail:



Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Religiosity is a factor that may help cancer patients to cope with their disease. The aim of the current study was to validate a Persian translation of the Muslim Religiosity Scale (MRS) in a population of Iranian patients with cancer.


Two thousand patients were invited to participate in this multisite study, of whom 1,879 participated. Patients completed a demographic questionnaire, the MRS, and several scales, including the Patient Health Questionnaire–9, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Perceived Social Support Scale, and the SF–12 quality of life measure. Backward–forward translation was employed to develop a Persian-language version of the MRS. Cronbach's alpha and two-week test–retest reliability were also assessed. Convergent and discriminative validity as well as the factor structure of the scale were also examined.


The internal reliability (α) of the religious practices and beliefs subscales was 0.88 and 0.92, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.92 (range = 0.75–1.0). The scale demonstrated solid convergent and discriminative validity. Factor analysis indicated two main factors, as predicted, with an appropriate goodness of fit (χ2 = 76.23, RMSEA = 0.065). Such factors as marital status, quality of life, social support, and self-efficacy were positively associated with MRS total score, while anxiety, depression, and suicide ideation had negative associations.

Significance of results:

The MRS is a useful tool for assessing religiosity in Iranian patients with cancer and is associated with a number of important health outcomes.

Original Articles
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2016 

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