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Scanning electron microscopy and photomicrography

  • Walter C. Sweet (a1)

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In the last two decades, scanning electron miocroscopy has come to be the technique of choice in studies of microfossil structure and morphology. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) photomicrographs are easy to produce, have great depth of field, and resolve minute details over a wide range of magnifications. Hence photomicrographs of images produced in a SEM are now more widely used than ordinary photographs in the illustration of microfossils. Techniques for preparation, mounting and manipulation of specimens in the SEM vary with the instrument available, aims of the study, and skill of the operator. Hence attention is directed here primarily to general aspects of SEM technique.

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Burnett, R. D. 1987. A new technique for the examination of conodont ultrastructure by SEM, p. 148149. In Austin, R. L. (ed.), Conodonts: Investigative Techniques and Applications. Ellis Horwood Ltd., Chichester, 422 p.
Hall, M. G., and Lloyd, G. E. 1981. The SEM examination of geological materials with a semi-conductor back-scattered electron detector. American Mineralogist, 66:362368.
Hansen, H.J. 1968. A technique for removing gold from plated calcareous microfossils. Micropaleontology, 14:499500.
Repetski, J. E., and Brown, W. R. 1982. On illustrating conodont typespecimens using the scanning electron microscope – new techniques and a recommendation. Journal of Paleontology, 56:908911.
Smith, M. P. 1987. The use of back-scattered electron imaging in the photographic examination of bedding-plane assemblages, p. 149151. In Austin, R. L. (ed.), Conodonts: Investigative Techniques and Applications. Ellis Horwood Ltd., Chichester, 422 p.
Stone, J. 1987. Review of investigative techniques used in the study of conodonts, p. 1734. In Austin, R. L. (ed.), Conodonts: Investigative Techniques and Applications. Ellis Horwood Ltd., Chichester, 422 p.

Scanning electron microscopy and photomicrography

  • Walter C. Sweet (a1)

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