In the last two decades, scanning electron miocroscopy has come to be the technique of choice in studies of microfossil structure and morphology. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) photomicrographs are easy to produce, have great depth of field, and resolve minute details over a wide range of magnifications. Hence photomicrographs of images produced in a SEM are now more widely used than ordinary photographs in the illustration of microfossils. Techniques for preparation, mounting and manipulation of specimens in the SEM vary with the instrument available, aims of the study, and skill of the operator. Hence attention is directed here primarily to general aspects of SEM technique.