Ajzen, I. (1991) The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179–211.
Ajzen, I. (2002) Perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, locus of control, and the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32, 665–683.
Axinn, W.G. & Ghimire, D.J. (2007) Social Organization, Population, and Land Use. Population Studies Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA.
Baillie, J., Hilton-Taylor, C. & Stuart, S.N. (eds) (2004) 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: A Global Species Assessment. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Bohra, P. & Massey, D.S. (2009) Processes of internal and international migration from Chitwan, Nepal. International Migration Review, 43, 621–651.
Bruskotter, J.T., Vaske, J.J. & Schmidt, R.H. (2009) Social and cognitive correlates of Utah residents’ acceptance of the lethal control of wolves. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 14, 119–132.
Carpenter, L.H., Decker, D.J. & Lipscomb, J.F. (2000) Stakeholder acceptance capacity in wildlife management. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 5, 5–19.
CBS (Central Bureau of Statistics) (2001) Population Census 2001: Village Development Committee/Municipalities. Http://www.cbs.gov.np [accessed 1 August 2011].
Chardonnet, P., Soto, B., Fritz, H., Crosmary, W., Drouet-Hoguet, N., Mésochina, P.
et al. (2010) Managing the Conflicts Between People and Lion: Review and Insights from the Literature and Field Experience. Wildlife Management Working Paper 13. Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, Rome, Italy.
Curry, B., Moore, W., Bauer, J., Cosgriff, K. & Lipscombe, N. (2001) Modelling impacts of wildlife tourism on animal communities: a case study from Royal Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 9, 514–529.
Decker, D.J. & Purdy, K.G. (1988) Toward a concept of wildlife acceptance capacity in wildlife management. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 16, 53–57.
Dickman, A.J., Macdonald, E.A. & Macdonald, D.W. (2011) A review of financial instruments to pay for predator conservation and encourage human–carnivore coexistence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 108, 13937–13944.
Eagly, A.H. & Chaiken, S. (1993) The Psychology of Attitudes. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers, Fort Worth, USA.
Fulton, D.C., Manfredo, M.J. & Lipscomb, J. (1996) Wildlife value orientations: a conceptual and measurement approach. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 1, 24–47.
GoN (Government of Nepal) (2009) Nepal Tourism Statistics 2009 Annual Statistical Report. Ministry of Tourism and Civil Aviation, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Gore, M.L. & Knuth, B.A. (2009) Mass media effect on the operating environment of a wildlife-related risk-communication campaign. Journal of Wildlife Management, 73, 1407–1413.
Gore, M.L., Knuth, B.A., Curtis, P.D. & Shanahan, J.E. (2006) Stakeholder perceptions of risk associated with human–black bear conflicts in New York's Adirondack Park campgrounds: implications for theory and practice. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 34, 36–43.
Gurung, B., Smith, J.L.D., McDougal, C., Karki, J.B. & Barlow, A. (2008) Factors associated with human-killing tigers in Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Biological Conservation, 141, 3069–3078.
Hu, L. & Bentler, P.M. (1999) Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6, 1–55.
Inskip, C. & Zimmermann, A. (2009) Human–felid conflict: a review of patterns and priorities worldwide. Oryx, 43, 18–34.
Kaczensky, P., Blazic, M. & Gossow, H. (2004) Public attitudes towards brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Slovenia. Biological Conservation, 118, 661–674.
Kasperson, R.E., Renn, O., Slavic, P., Brown, H.S., Emel, J., Goble, R.
et al. (1988) The social amplification of risk: a conceptual framework. Risk Analysis, 8, 177–187.
Kellert, S.R. (1985) Social and perceptual factors in endangered species management. Journal of Wildlife Management, 49, 528–536.
Kissui, B.M. (2008) Livestock predation by lions, leopards, spotted hyenas, and their vulnerability to retaliatory killing in the Maasai steppe, Tanzania. Animal Conservation, 11, 422–432.
Laurie, A. (1982) Behavioural ecology of the greater one-horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis). Journal of Zoology, 196, 307–341.
Lischka, S.A., Riley, S.J. & Rudolph, B.A. (2008) Effects of impact perception on acceptance capacity for white-tailed deer. Journal of Wildlife Management, 72, 502–509.
Manfredo, M.J., Vaske, J.J., Brown, P.J., Decker, D.J. & Duke, E.A. (2009) Wildlife and Society: The Science of Human Dimensions. Island Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Marker, L., Mills, M. & Macdonald, D. (2003) Factors influencing perceptions of conflict and tolerance toward cheetahs on Namibian farmlands. Conservation Biology, 17, 1290–1298.
McLean, J. (1999) Conservation and the impact of relocation on the Tharus of Chitwan, Nepal. Himalayan Research Bulletin, 19, 8.
NSD (Nepal Survey Department) (1996) Ministry of Land Reform and Management. Survey Department. Http://www.dos.gov.np [accessed 15 May 2012].
Ogada, M.O., Woodroffe, R., Oguge, N.O. & Frank, L.G. (2003) Limiting depredation by African carnivores: the role of livestock husbandry. Conservation Biology, 17, 1521–1530.
Peyton, B., Bull, P., Reis, T. & Visser, L. (2001) Public Views on Bear and Bear Management in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan. Report to the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife Division, Lansing, USA.
Preacher, K.J. & Hayes, A.F. (2008) Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40, 879–891.
Reisinger, Y. & Mavondo, F. (2007) Structural equation modeling. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 21, 41–71.
Riley, S.J. (1998) Integration of environmental, biological, and human dimensions for management of mountain lions (Puma concolor) in Montana. PhD thesis. Cornell University, Ithaca, USA.
Riley, S.J. & Decker, D.J. (2000a) Risk perception as a factor in wildlife stakeholder acceptance capacity for cougars in Montana. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 5, 50–62.
Riley, S.J. & Decker, D.J. (2000b) Wildlife stakeholder acceptance capacity for cougars in Montana. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 28, 931–939.
Romañach, S.S., Lindsey, P.A. & Woodroffe, R. (2007) Determinants of attitudes towards predators in central Kenya and suggestions for increasing tolerance in livestock dominated landscapes. Oryx, 41, 185–195.
Saberwal, V.K., Gibbs, J.P., Chellam, R. & Johnsingh, A.J.T. (1994) Lion–human conflict in the Gir forest, India. Conservation Biology, 8, 501–507.
Schafer, J.L. (1999) Multiple imputation: a primer. Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 8, 3–15.
Seidensticker, J., Jackson, P. & Christie, S. (1999) Riding the Tiger: Tiger Conservation in Human-Dominated Landscapes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Sharma, U.R. (1990) An overview of park–people interactions in Royal Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Landscape and Urban Planning, 19, 133–144.
Sjöberg, L. (1998) Worry and risk perception. Risk Analysis, 18, 85–94.
Slovic, P. (1987) Perception of risk. Science, 236, 280–285.
Slovic, P. (1993) Perceived risk, trust, and democracy. Risk Analysis, 13, 675–682.
Straede, S. & Treue, T. (2006) Beyond buffer zone protection: a comparative study of park and buffer zone products’ importance to villagers living inside Royal Chitwan National Park and to villagers living in its buffer zone. Journal of Environmental Management, 78, 251–267.
Terborgh, J., Estes, J.A., Paquet, P., Ralls, K., Boyd-Heger, D., Miller, B.J. & Noss, R.F. (1999) The role of top carnivores in regulating terrestrial ecosystems. In Continental Conservation: Scientific Foundations of Regional Reserve Networks (eds Soule, M.E. & Terborgh, J.), pp. 39–64. Island Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Treves, A., Jurewicz, R.R., Naughton-Treves, L., Rose, R.A., Willging, R.C. & Wydeven, A.P. (2002) Wolf depredation on domestic animals in Wisconsin, 1976–2000. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 30, 231–241.
Treves, A. & Karanth, K.U. (2003) Human–carnivore conflict and perspectives on carnivore management worldwide. Conservation Biology, 17, 1491–1499.
Treves, A., Wallace, R.B., Naughton-Treves, L. & Morales, A. (2006) Co-managing human–wildlife conflicts: a review. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 11, 383–396.
Vaske, J.J. (2008) Survey Research and Analysis: Application in Parks, Recreation and Human Dimensions. Venture Publishing, State College, USA.
Walston, J., Robinson, J.G., Bennett, E.L., Breitenmoser, U., da Fonseca, G.A.B., Goodrich, J.
et al. (2010) Bringing the tiger back from the brink—the six percent solution. PLoS Biology, 8, 493–506.
Wang, S.W., Lassoie, J.P. & Curtis, P.D. (2006) Farmer attitudes towards conservation in Jigme Singye Wangchuck National Park, Bhutan. Environmental Conservation, 33, 148–156.
Wang, S.W. & Macdonald, D.W. (2006) Livestock predation by carnivores in Jigme Singye Wangchuck National Park, Bhutan. Biological Conservation, 129, 558–565.
Whittaker, D., Vaske, J.J. & Manfredo, M.J. (2006) Specificity and the cognitive hierarchy: value orientations and the acceptability of urban wildlife management actions. Society and Natural Resources, 19, 515–530.
Woodroffe, R. (2000) Predators and people: using human densities to interpret declines of large carnivores. Animal Conservation, 3, 165–173.
Woodroffe, R. (2001) Strategies for carnivore conservation: lessons from contemporary extinctions. In Carnivore Conservation (eds Gittleman, J.L., Funk, S., Macdonald, D.W. & Wayne, R.K.), pp. 61–92. Cambridge University Press, New York, USA.
Woodroffe, R. & Ginsberg, J.R. (1998) Edge effects and the extinction of populations inside protected areas. Science, 280, 2126–2128.
Woodroffe, R., Thirgood, S. & Rabinowitz, A. (2005) People and Wildlife: Conflict or Coexistence?
Cambridge University Press, New York, USA.
Zinn, H., Manfredo, M. & Decker, D. (2008) Human conditioning to wildlife: steps toward theory and research. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 13, 388–399.
Zinn, H.C., Manfredo, M.J. & Vaske, J.J. (2000) Social psychological bases for stakeholder acceptance capacity. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 5, 20–33.