Skip to main content Accessibility help

Human–wildlife interactions and attitudes towards wildlife and wildlife reserves in Rajasthan, India

  • Krithi K. Karanth (a1), Shivangi Jain (a2) and Erika Weinthal (a3)


Human–wildlife interactions affect people's livelihoods, attitudes and tolerance towards wildlife and wildlife reserves. To investigate the effect of such interactions on people's attitudes and livelihoods, we surveyed 2,233 households located around four wildlife reserves in Rajasthan, India. We modelled respondents’ attitudes towards wildlife and wildlife reserves, experience of crop damage and livestock predation, and likelihood of mitigation use. Crop damage was reported by 76% of surveyed households, and livestock predation was reported by 15%. Seventy-one percent of households used at least one of eight mitigation measures against crop damage, and 19% used at least one of seven mitigation measures against livestock predation. We found that male respondents and households with a higher level of education valued wildlife and wildlife reserves more. Households at higher elevations and growing a greater variety of crops were more prone to crop damage. Proximity to reserves, elevation and larger livestock herds were associated with a higher incidence of livestock predation. Households in which a member had > 12 years of schooling and households with a history (6–10 years) of interaction with wildlife (i.e. crop damage) were most likely to use mitigation against crop damage. Households that owned more livestock and had a history of interaction (1–5 years and > 10 years) were most likely to mitigate against predation. Our comparative study provides insights into factors that influence interaction and tolerance, which could be used to improve existing management and prevention efforts in Rajasthan.


Corresponding author

(Corresponding author) Email


Hide All

Also at: Nicholas School of Environment, Duke University, Durham, USA, and Centre for Wildlife Studies, Bengaluru, India

Supplementary material for this article can be found at



Hide All
Bradley, E.H. & Pletscher, D.H. (2005) Assessing factors related to wolf depredation of cattle in fenced pastures in Montana and Idaho. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 33, 12561265.
Browne-Nuñez, C., Jacobson, S.K. & Vaske, J.J. (2013) Beliefs, attitudes, and intentions for allowing elephants in group ranches around Amboseli National Park, Kenya. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 37, 639648.
Burnham, K.P. & Anderson, D. (2002) Model Selection and Multimodel Inference: A Practical Information-Theoretic Approach. Springer-Verlag, New York, USA.
Chhangani, A.K., Robbins, P. & Mohnot, S.M. (2008) Crop raiding and livestock predation at Kumbhalgarh Wildlife Sanctuary, Rajasthan India. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 13, 305316.
Davies, T.E., Wilson, S., Hazarika, N., Chakrabarty, J., Das, D., Hodgson, D.J. & Zimmermann, A. (2011) Effectiveness of intervention methods against crop-raiding elephants. Conservation Letters, 4, 346354.
Dhanwatey, H.S., Crawford, J.C., Abade, L.A.S., Dhanwatey, P.H., Nielsen, C.K. & Sillero-Zubiri, C. (2013) Large carnivore attacks on humans in central India: a case study from the Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve. Oryx, 47, 221227.
Dickman, A.J. (2010) Complexities of conflict: the importance of considering social factors for effectively resolving human–wildlife conflict. Animal Conservation, 13, 458466.
Fernando, P., Wikramanayake, E., Weerakoon, D., Jayasinghe, L.K.A., Gunawardene, M. & Janaka, H.K. (2005) Perceptions and patterns of human–elephant conflict in old and new settlements in Sri Lanka: insights for mitigation and management. Biodiversity and Conservation, 14, 24652481.
Fisher, M. (2016) Whose conflict is it anyway? Mobilizing research to save lives. Oryx, 50, 377378.
Gore, M.L. & Kahler, J.S. (2012) Gendered risk perceptions associated with human–wildlife conflict: implications for participatory conservation. PLoS ONE, 7(3), e32901.
Government of India (2011) Primary census abstract [data file]. Http:// [accessed 14 July 2016].
Government of India (2012) 19th livestock census [data file]. Http:// [accessed 14 July 2016].
Holmern, T., Nyahongo, J. & Røskaft, E. (2007) Livestock loss caused by predators outside the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Biological Conservation, 135, 518526.
Karanth, K.K. (2016) Wildlife in the matrix: spatio-temporal patterns of herbivore occurrence in Karnataka, India. Environmental Management, 57, 189206.
Karanth, K.K., Gopalaswamy, A.M., DeFries, R. & Ballal, N. (2012) Assessing patterns of human–wildlife conflicts and compensation around a Central Indian Protected Area. PLoS ONE, 7(12), e50433.
Karanth, K.K., Gopalaswamy, A.M., Prasad, P.K. & Dasgupta, S. (2013a) Patterns of human–wildlife conflicts and compensation: insights from Western Ghats protected areas. Biological Conservation, 166, 175185.
Karanth, K.K. & Kudalkar, S. (2017) History, location, and species matter: insights for human–wildlife conflict mitigation from India. Human Dimensions of Wildlife,
Karanth, K.K., Naughton-Treves, L., Defries, R. & Gopalaswamy, A.M. (2013b) Living with wildlife and mitigating conflicts around three Indian protected areas. Environmental Management, 52, 13201332.
Karanth, K.K. & Nepal, S.K. (2012) Local residents’ perception of benefits and losses from protected areas in India and Nepal. Environmental Management, 49, 372386.
Karanth, K.K., Nichols, J.D., Karanth, K.U., Hines, J.E. & Christensen, N.L. (2010) The shrinking ark: patterns of large mammal extinctions in India. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 277, 19711979.
Karanth, K.K. & Surendhra, A. (2018) Species and sites matter: understanding human–wildlife interactions from 5000 surveys in India. In Conservation and Development in India: Reimagining Wilderness (ed. Bhagwat, Shonil), pp. 6182. Routledge, Abingdon, UK.
Kissui, B.M. (2008) Livestock predation by lions, leopards, spotted hyenas, and their vulnerability to retaliatory killing in the Maasai steppe, Tanzania. Animal Conservation, 11, 422432.
Michalski, F., Boulhosa, R.L.P., Faria, A. & Peres, C.A. (2006) Human–wildlife conflicts in a fragmented Amazonian forest landscape: determinants of large felid depredation on livestock. Animal Conservation, 9, 179188.
NASA (2011) AsterGDEM version 2. NASA Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center, USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, Sioux Falls, USA. Https:// [accessed 14 July 2016].
National Remote Sensing Centre (2014) Multi-temporal satellite data of 2011–12 from Resourcesat-2 LISS III. Http:// [accessed 14 July 2016].
Naughton-Treves, L. & Treves, A. (2005) Socio-ecological factors shaping local support for wildlife: crop-raiding by elephants and other wildlife in Africa. In People and Wildlife: Conflict or Coexistence? (eds Woodroffe, R., Thirgood, S. & Rabinowitz, A.), pp. 252277. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Ogada, M.O., Woodroffe, R., Oguge, N.O. & Frank, L.G. (2003) Limiting depredation by African carnivores: the role of livestock husbandry. Conservation Biology, 17, 15211530.
Ogra, M. & Badola, R. (2008) Compensating human–wildlife conflict in protected area communities: ground-level perspectives from Uttarakhand, India. Human Ecology, 36, 717729.
Pearson, K. (1895) Note on regression and inheritance in the case of two parents. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 58, 240242.
Redpath, S.M., Bhatia, S. & Young, J. (2015) Tilting at wildlife: reconsidering human–wildlife conflict. Oryx, 49, 222225.
Robbins, P., McSweeney, K., Chhangani, A.K. & Rice, J.L. (2009) Conservation as it is: illicit resource use in a wildlife reserve in India. Human Ecology, 37, 559575.
Sitati, N.W., Walpole, M.J. & Leader-Williams, N. (2005) Factors affecting susceptibility of farms to crop raiding by African elephants: using a predictive model to mitigate conflict. Journal of Applied Ecology, 42, 11751182.
Treves, A., Jurewicz, R.L., Naughton-Treves, L. & Wilcove, D.S. (2009) The price of tolerance: wolf damage payments after recovery. Biodiversity and Conservation, 18, 40034021.
Woodroffe, R., Frank, L.G., Lindsey, P.A., ole Ranah, S.M.K. & Romañach, S. (2007) Livestock husbandry as a tool for carnivore conservation in Africa's community rangelands: a case–control study. Biodiversity and Conservation, 16, 12451260.
Zhang, W., Ricketts, T.H., Kremen, C., Carney, K. & Swinton, S.M. (2007) Ecosystem services and dis-services to agriculture. Ecological Economics, 64, 253260.


Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Karanth et al supplementary material 1
Supplementary Table

 PDF (400 KB)
400 KB

Human–wildlife interactions and attitudes towards wildlife and wildlife reserves in Rajasthan, India

  • Krithi K. Karanth (a1), Shivangi Jain (a2) and Erika Weinthal (a3)


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.