A survey of Vulnerable Barbary macaque Macaca sylvanus populations in the Djebela region of northern Morocco was conducted in October-November 2004 and the species' presence verified in four areas. This macaque occurs in habitat types ranging from matorral (shrub vegetation) to higher altitude fir forest. A total of 89 individuals were observed in nine groups. Comparisons of our survey with the previous one undertaken in the same area in 1980 indicate that group sizes are similar but the total population size may have decreased. We estimate there is a population of 200–300 Barbary macaques in the Djebela. Although some areas where the species is found are now protected, further work will be crucial to safeguarding this species in northern Morocco.