Ahrends, A., Burgess, N.D., Milledge, A.H., Bulling, M.T., Fisher, B., Smart, J.C.R. et al. (2010) Predictable waves of sequential forest degradation and biodiversity loss spreading from an African city. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107, 14556–14561.
Ajwad, M.I., Hut, S., Abdulloev, I., Audy, R., Kataoka, S., Larrison, J. & Torracchi, F. (2014) The Skills Road: Skills for Employability in Tajikistan. World Bank, Washington, DC, USA.
Badreldin, N. & Sanchez-Azofeifa, A. (2015) Estimating forest biomass dynamics by integrating multi-temporal landsat satellite images with ground and airborne LiDAR Data in the Coal Valley Mine, Alberta, Canada. Remote Sensing, 7, 2832–2839.
Ball, J., Carle, J. & Del Lungo, A. (2005) Contribution of poplars and willows to sustainable forestry and development. Unasylva, 56, 3–9.
Beer, R., Kaiser, F., Schmidt, K., Ammann, B., Carraro, G., Grisa, E. & Tinner, W. (2008) Vegetation history of the walnut forests in Kyrgyzstan. Quaternary Science Reviews, 27, 621–632.
Bond, W.J. (1994) Do mutualisms matter? Assessing the impact of pollinator and disperser disruption on plant extinction. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 344, 83–90.
Bongers, F., Poorter, L., Hawthorne, W. & Sheil, D. (2009) The intermediate disturbance hypothesis applies to tropical forests, but disturbance contributes little to tree diversity. Ecology Letters, 12, 1–8.
Breiman, L. (2001) Random forests. Machine Learning, 45, 5–32.
Cantarello, E., Lovegrove, A., Orozumbekov, A., Birch, J., Brouwers, N. & Newton, A.C. (2014) Human impacts on forest biodiversity in protected walnut–fruit forests in Kyrgyzstan. Journal of Sustainable Forestry, 33, 454–481.
Chambers, R. (1992) Rural Appraisal: Rapid, Relaxed and Participatory. Institute for Development Studies, Brighton, UK.
Chilonda, P. & Otte, J. (2006) Indicators to monitor trends in livestock production at national, regional and international levels. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 18, 117.
Colding, J. & Folke, C. (2001) Social taboos: ‘invisible’ systems of local resource management and biological conservation. Ecological Applications, 11, 584–600.
Curtis, J. & McIntosh, R. (1950) The interrelations of certain analytic and synthetic phytosociological characters. Ecology, 3, 434–455.
Darwin Initiative (2017) Enhancing Forest Biodiversity and Community Resilience to Tajikistan's Changing Climate. Darwin Initiative, Penicuik, UK. darwininitiative.org.uk/project/24006 [accessed 11 February 2020].
Dytham, C. (2015) Choosing and Using Statistics: A Biologist's Guide, 3rd edition. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, UK.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (2007) People, Forests and Trees in West and Central Asia: Outlook for 2020. FAO Forestry Paper 152, Rome, Italy.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (2010) Global Forest Resources Assessment Country Reports: Tajikistan. FAO, Rome, Italy.
FFI (Fauna & Flora International) (2018) Conserving Threatened Fruit-and-Nut Forests in Tajikistan. Fauna & Flora International, Cambridge, UK. fauna-flora.org/projects/conserving-threatened-fruit-nut-forests-tajikistan [accessed 11 February 2020].
Fletcher, R. & Fortin, M.-J. (2018) Spatial Ecology and Conservation Modeling: Applications with R. Springer International Publishing, Springer Nature, Switzerland.
Gordon, J.E., Hawthorne, W.D., Reyes-García, A., Sandoval, G. & Barrance, A.J. (2004) Assessing landscapes: a case study of tree and shrub diversity in the seasonally dry tropical forests of Oaxaca, Mexico and southern Honduras. Biological Conservation, 117, 429–442.
Grime, J.P. (1998) Benefits of plant diversity to ecosystems. Journal of Ecology, 86, 902–910.
Halimova, N. (2012) Land Tenure Reform in Tajikistan: Implications for Land Stewardship and Social Sustainability: A Case Study. In Rangeland Stewardship in Central Asia: Balancing Improved Livelihoods, Biodiversity Conservation and Land Protection (ed. Squires, V.), pp. 305–329. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Husch, B., Beers, T.W. & Kershaw, J.A. (2003) Forest Mensuration. 4th edition.Wiley, Hoboken, USA.
Jones, J.P.G., Andriamarovololona, M.M. & Hockley, N. (2008) The importance of taboos and social norms to conservation in Madagascar. Conservation Biology, 22, 976–986.
Kenkel, N. & Podani, J. (1991) Plot size and estimation efficiency in plant community studies. Journal of Vegetation Science, 2, 539–544.
Keyser, T.L. & Loftis, D.L. (2013) Long-term effects of single-tree selection cutting on structure and composition in upland mixed-hardwood forests of the southern Appalachian Mountains. Forestry, 86, 255–265.
Korhonen, L., Korhonen, K.T., Rautiainen, M. & Stenberg, P. (2006) Estimation of forest canopy cover. Silva Fennica, 40, 577–588.
Lade, S.J., Tavoni, A., Levin, S.A. & Schlüter, M. (2013) Regime shifts in a social-ecological system. Theoretical Ecology, 6, 359–372.
Lerman, Z. (2011) Tajikistan's Vulnerability to Climate Change. Discussion Paper No. 7.11. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.
Lerman, Z. (2012) Rangeland stewardship in Central Asia. In Rangeland Stewardship in Central Asia (ed. Squires, V.), pp. 165–187. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Lindenmayer, D.B., Margules, C.R. & Botkin, D.B. (2000) Indicators of biodiversity for ecologically sustainable forest management. Conservation Biology, 14, 941–950.
Lovett, J.C., Marshall, A.R. & Carr, J. (2006) Changes in tropical forest vegetation along an altitudinal gradient in the Udzungwa Mountains National Park, Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology, 44, 478–490.
Maselli, D. & Rahim, I. (2012) Setting the stage. In Rangeland Stewardship in Central Asia (ed. Squires, V.), pp. 3–31. Springer, New York, USA.
McIntosh, R.P. (1967) An index of diversity and the relation of certain concepts to diversity. Ecology, 48, 392–404.
Mislimshoeva, B., Herbst, P. & Koellner, T. (2016) Current pathways towards good forest governance for ecosystem services in the former soviet republic Tajikistan. Forest Policy and Economics, 63, 11–19.
Moreno, C.E. & Halffter, G. (2000) Assessing the completeness of bat biodiversity inventories using species accumulation curves. Journal of Applied Ecology, 37, 149–158.
Nagendra, H. (2002) Opposite trends in response for the Shannon and Simpson indices of landscape diversity. Applied Geography, 22, 175–186.
Newton, A.C. (2007) Forest Ecology and Conservation. Oxford University Press, New York, USA.
Newton, A.C. & Echeverría, C. (2014) Analysis of anthropogenic impacts on forest biodiversity as a contribution to empirical theory. In Forests and Global Change (eds Coomes, D., Burslem, D. & Simonson, W.D.), pp. 417–446. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Nowak, A., Nowak, S. & Nobis, M. (2011) Distribution patterns, ecological characteristic and conservation status of endemic plants of Tadzhikistan. Journal for Nature Conservation, 19, 296–305.
Orozumbekov, A., Cantarello, E. & Newton, A.C. (2014) Status, distribution and use of threatened tree species in the walnut–fruit forests of Kyrgyzstan. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods, 24, 1–17.
Ostrom, E. (1999) Sel f-Governance and Forest Resources. Occasional Paper No. 20: Center For International Forestry Research, Bogor, Indonesia.
Peet, R.K. (1974) The measurement of species diversity. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 5, 285–307.
Peters, C.M. (1994) Sustainable Harvest of Non-Timber Plant Resources in Tropical Moist Forest: an Ecological Primer. Biodiversity Support Program, Washington, DC, USA.
QGIS Development Team (2020) QGIS Geographic Information System. Open Source Geospatial Foundation Project. qgis.osgeo.org [accessed 20 March 2020].
Reimoser, F., Armstrong, H. & Suchant, R. (1999) Measuring forest damage of ungulates. Forest Ecology and Management, 120, 47–58.
Safarov, N. (2003) Republic of Tajikistan: Natural Strategy and Action Plan on Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity. Government of the Republic of Tajikistan, Dushanbe, Tajikistan.
Safarov, N., Novikova, T. & Shermatov, K. (2014) Fifth National Report on Preservation of Biodiversity of the Republic of Tajikistan. Republic of Tajikistan, Dushanbe, Tajikistan.
Squires, V. & Safarov, N. (2013) High altitude ecosystems and biodiversity of Tajikistan: conservation and management. In High-Altitude Rangelands and their Interfaces in the Hindu Kush Himalayas (eds Ning, W., Rawat, G.S., Joshi, S., Ismail, M. & Sharma, E.), pp. 78–88. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Shannon, C.E. & Weaver, W. (1949) The Mathematical Theory of Communication. The University of Illinois Press, Urbana, USA.
Simpson, E.H. (1949) Measurement of diversity. Nature, 163, 688.
Singh, M., Evans, D., Friess, D.A., Tan, B.S. & Nin, C.S. (2015) Mapping above-ground biomass in a tropical forest in Cambodia using canopy textures derived from Google Earth. Remote Sensing, 7, 5057–5076.
Southwood, T.R.E. & Henderson, P.A. (2015) Ecological Methods. 3rd edition. Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, USA.
Sutton, W., Block, R. & Srivastava, J. (2009) Adaptation to Climate Change in Europe and Central Asia Agriculture, pp. 1–61. World Bank Group, Washington, DC, USA.
Vera, F. (2000) Grazing Ecology and Forest History. CABI, Wallingford, UK.
Waylen, K.A., Fischer, A., McGowan, P.J.K. & Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2013) Deconstructing community for conservation. Human Ecology, 41, 575–585.
Wolfgramm, B., Stevenson, S., Lerman, Z.Zähringer, J., Liniger, H. (2011) Tajikistan – Pilot Programme for Climate Resilience, Sustainable Land Management and Climate Change Adaptation, PPCR Component A5. Centre for Development and Environment, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
World Bank (2004) Tajikistan: Dashtidzhum Biodiversity Conservation Project. Vol. 1. World Bank, Washington, DC, USA.
Zhupankhan, A., Tussupova, K. & Berndtsson, R. (2017) Could changing power relationships lead to better water sharing in Central Asia? Water, 9, 139.