Balme, G.A., Hunter, L.T. & Slotow, R. (2009a) Evaluating methods for counting cryptic carnivores. Journal of Wildlife Management, 73, 433–441.
Balme, G.A., Slotow, R. & Hunter, L.T. (2009b) Impact of conservation interventions on the dynamics and persistence of a persecuted leopard (Panthera pardus) population. Biological Conservation, 142, 2681–2690.
Balme, G.A., Slotow, R. & Hunter, L.T.B. (2010) Edge effects and the impact of non-protected areas in carnivore conservation: leopards in the Phinda-Mkhuze Complex, South Africa. Animal Conservation, 13, 315–323.
Borchers, D.L. & Efford, M.G. (2008) Spatially explicit maximum likelihood methods for capture–recapture studies. Biometrics, 64, 377–385.
Boron, V., Tzanopoulos, J., Gallo, J., Barragan, J., Jaimes-Rodriguez, L., Schaller, G. & Payán, E. (2016) Jaguar densities across human-dominated landscapes in Colombia: the contribution of unprotected areas to long term conservation. PLOS ONE, 11, e0153973.
Braczkowski, A.R., Balme, G.A., Dickman, A., Fattebert, J., Johnson, P., Dickerson, T. et al. (2016) Scent lure effect on camera-trap based leopard density estimates. PLOS ONE, 11, e0151033.
Cardillo, M., Purvis, A., Sechrest, W., Gittleman, J.L., Bielby, J. & Mace, G.M. (2004) Human population density and extinction risk in the world's carnivores. PLOS Biology, 2, e197.
CapeNature (2014) .
Chapman, S. & Balme, G. (2010) An estimate of leopard population density in a private reserve in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, using camera traps and capture–recapture models. South African Journal of Wildlife Research, 40, 114–120.
Chase Grey, J.N., Kent, V.T. & Hill, R.A. (2013) Evidence of a high density population of harvested leopards in a montane environment. PLOS ONE, 8, 1–11.
Crooks, K.R. (2002) Relative sensitivities of mammalian carnivores to habitat fragmentation. Conservation Biology, 16, 488–502.
Devens, C., Tshabalala, T., McManus, J. & Smuts, B. (2018) Counting the spots: the use of a spatially explicit capture–recapture technique and GPS data to estimate leopard (Panthera pardus) density in the Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa. African Journal of Ecology, 56, 1–10.
Efford, M.G. & Fewster, R.M. (2013) Estimating population size by spatially explicit capture–recapture. Oikos, 122, 918–928.
Efford, M.G., Borchers, D.L. & Byron, A.E. (2009) Density estimation by spatially explicit capture–recapture: likelihood-based methods. In Modeling Demographic Processes in Marked Populations (eds Thomson, D.L., Cooch, E.G. & Conroy, M.J.), pp. 255–269. Springer, New York, USA.
Ellis, E.C. & Ramankutty, N. (2008) Putting people in the map: anthropogenic biomes of the world. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 6, 439–447.
Estes, J.A., Terborgh, J., Brashares, J.S., Power, M.E., Berger, J., Bond, W.J. et al. (2011) Trophic downgrading of planet Earth. Science, 333, 301–306.
Foster, R.J. & Harmsen, B.J. (2012) A critique of density estimation from camera-trap data. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 76, 224–236.
Gerber, B.D., Karpanty, S.M. & Kelly, M.J. (2012) Evaluating the potential biases in carnivore capture–recapture studies associated with the use of lure and varying density estimation techniques using photographic-sampling data of the Malagasy civet. Population Ecology, 54, 43–54.
Gopalaswamy, A.M., Royle, J.A., Hines, J.E., Singh, P., Jathanna, D., Kumar, N.S. & Karanth, K.U. (2012) Program SPACECAP: software for estimating animal density using spatially explicit capture–recapture models. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 3, 1067–1072.
Griffiths, M. & van Schaik, C.P. (1993) The impact of human traffic on the abundance and activity periods of Sumatran rain forest wildlife. Conservation Biology, 7, 623–626.
Harcourt, A., Parks, S. & Woodroffe, R. (2001) Human density as an influence on species/area relationships: double jeopardy for small African reserves? Biodiversity & Conservation, 10, 1011–1026.
Hayward, M.W., Boitani, L., Burrows, N.D., Funston, P., Karanth, K.U., MacKenzie, D. et al. (2015) Ecologists need to use robust survey design, sampling and analysis methods. Journal of Applied Ecology, 52, 286–290.
Hijmans, R.J., Cameron, S.E., Parra, J.L., Jones, P.G., Jarvis, A. (2005) Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas. International Journal of Climatology: a Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 25, 1965–1978.
Jacobson, A.P., Gerngross, P., Lemeris, J.R. Jr, Schoonover, R.F., Anco, C., Breitenmoser-Würsten, C. et al. (2016) Leopard (Panthera pardus) status, distribution, and the research efforts across its range. PeerJ, 4, e1974.
Jenks, G.F. (1967) The data model concept in statistical mapping. International Yearbook of Cartography, 7, 186–190.
Kalle, R., Ramesh, T., Qureshi, Q. & Sankar, K. (2011) Density of tiger and leopard in a tropical deciduous forest of Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, southern India, as estimated using photographic capture–recapture sampling. Acta Theriologica, 56, 335–342.
Karanth, K.U. (1995) Estimating tiger (Panthera tigris) populations from camera-trap data using capture–recapture models. Biological Conservation, 71, 333–338.
Karanth, K.U. & Chellam, R. (2009) Carnivore conservation at the crossroads. Oryx, 43, 1–2.
Karanth, K.U. & Nichols, J.D. (1998) Estimation of tiger densities in India using photographic captures and recaptures. Ecology, 79, 2852–2862.
Karanth, K.U. & Nichols, J.D. (2000) .
Mann, G. (2014) Aspects of the ecology of leopards (Panthera pardus) in the Little Karoo, South Africa. PhD thesis, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa.
Maputla, N.W., Chimimba, C.T. & Ferreira, S.M. (2013) Calibrating a camera-trap based biased mark–recapture sampling design to survey the leopard population in the N'wanetsi concession, Kruger National Park, South Africa. African Journal of Ecology, 51, 422–430.
Martins, Q.E. (2010) The ecology of the leopard Panthera pardus in the Cederberg Mountains. PhD thesis, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
McManus, J., Dickman, A., Gaynor, D., Smuts, B. & Macdonald, D. (2014) Dead or alive? Comparing costs and benefits of lethal and non-lethal human–wildlife conflict mitigation on livestock farms. Oryx, 49, 687–695.
McManus, J., Dalton, D.L., Kotzé, A., Smuts, B. & Dickman, A. (2015) Gene flow and population structure of a solitary top carnivore in a human-dominated landscape. Ecology and Evolution, 5, 335–344.
Mucina, L. & Rutherford, M.C. (eds) (2006) The Vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria, South Africa.
Noss, A.J., Gardener, B., Maffei, L., Cuéllar, E., Montaño, R. et al. (2012) Comparison of density estimation methods for mammal populations with camera traps in the Kaa-lya del Gran Chaco landscape. Animal Conservation, 15, 527–535.
Obbard, M.E., Howe, E.J. & Kyle, C.J. (2010) Empirical comparison of density estimators for large carnivores. Journal of Applied Ecology, 47, 76–84.
Phillips, S.J., Anderson, R.P. & Schapire, R.E. (2006) Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions. Ecological Modelling, 190, 231–259.
QGIS Development Team (2013) QGIS Geographic Information System. Open Source Geospatial Foundation, Beaverton, USA. http://qgis.osgeo.org [accessed 11 March 2019]. R Core Team (2017) R: a Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. http://www.R-project.org [accessed 23 July 2019].
Ray, J.C., Hunter, L.T.B. & Zigouris, J. (2005) Setting Conservation and Research Priorities for Larger African Carnivores. Wildlife Conservation Society, New York, USA.
Rouget, M., Reyers, B., Jonas, Z., Desmet, P., Driver, A., Maze, K. et al. (2004) .
Ripple, W.J., Estes, J.A., Beschta, R.L., Wilmers, C.C., Ritchie, E.G., Hebblewhite, M. et al. (2014) Status and ecological effects of the world's largest carnivores. Science, 343, 1241484.
R Studio Team (2015) R Studio: Integrated Development for R RStudio, Inc. Boston, USA. http://www.rstudio.com [accessed 11 March 2019].
Silver, S.C., Ostro, L.E.T., Marsh, L.K., Maffei, L., Noss, A.J., Kelly, M.J. et al. (2004) The use of camera traps for estimating jaguar Panthera onca abundance and density using capture/recapture analysis. Oryx, 38, 148–154.
Soisalo, M.K. & Cavalcanti, S.M.C. (2006) Estimating the density of a jaguar population in the Brazilian Pantanal using camera traps and capture–recapture sampling in combination with GPS radio-telemetry. Biological Conservation, 129, 487–496.
Swanepoel, L.H., Lindsey, P., Somers, M.J., Hoven, W.V. & Dalerum, F. (2013) Extent and fragmentation of suitable leopard habitat in South Africa. Animal Conservation, 16, 41–50.
Swanepoel, L.H., Somers, M.J. & Dalerum, F. (2015) Density of leopards Panthera pardus on protected and non-protected land in the Waterberg Biosphere, South Africa. Wildlife Biology, 21, 263–268.
Thamm, A.G. & Johnson, M.R. (2006) The Cape Supergroup. In The Geology of South Africa (eds Johnson, M.R., Anhaeusser, C.R. & Thomas, R.J.), pp. 443–460. Geological Society of South Africa, Johannesburg/Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa.
Thapa, K., Shrestha, R., Karki, J., Thapa, G.J., Subedi, N., Pradhan, N.M.B. et al. (2014) Leopard Panthera pardus fusca density in the seasonally dry, subtropical forest in the Bhabhar of Terai Arc, Nepal. Advances in Ecology, 2014, 1–12.
Treves, A. & Karanth, K.U. (2003) Human–carnivore conflict and perspectives on carnivore management worldwide. Conservation Biology, 17, 1491–1499.
Treves, A. & Naughton-Treves, L. (2005) Evaluating lethal control in the management of human–wildlife conflict. Conservation Biology, 9, 86–106.
Treves, A., Naughton-Treves, L., Harper, E.K., Mladenoff, D.J., Rose, R.A., Sickley, T.A. & Wydeven, A.P. (2004) Predicting human–carnivore conflict: a spatial model derived from 25 years of data on wolf predation on livestock. Conservation Biology, 18, 114–125.
Traill, L.W., Bradshaw, C.J.A. & Brook, B.W. (2007) Minimum viable population size: a meta-analysis of 30 years of published estimates. Biological Conservation, 139, 159–166.
WCS (Wildlife Conservation Society) & CIESIN (Center for International Earth Science Information Network) (2005) . https://doi.org/10.7927/H4M61H5F [accessed 13 June 2019].
Wolf, C. & Ripple, W.J. (2017) Range contractions of the world's large carnivores. Royal Society Open Science, 4, 170052.
Woodroffe, R. (2000) Predators and people: using human densities to interpret declines of large carnivores. Animal Conservation, 3, 165–173.
Woodroffe, R. & Ginsberg, J.R. (1998) Edge effects and the extinction of populations inside protected areas. Science, 280, 2126–2128.