Anderson, J.T., Nuttle, T., Rojas, J.S.S., Pendergast, T.H. & Flecker, A.S. (2011) Extremely long-distance seed dispersal by an overfished Amazonian frugivore. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 278, 3329–3335.
Angelsen, A., Brockhaus, M., Sunderlin, W.D. & Verchot, L. (2012) Analysing REDD+ Challenges and Choices. Center for International Forestry Research, Bogor, Indonesia.
Aragão, L.E. & Shimabukuro, Y.E. (2011) The incidence of fire in Amazonian forests with implications for REDD. Science, 328, 1275–1278.
Asner, G., Hughes, F., Varga, T., Knapp, D. & Kennedy-Bowdoin, T. (2009) Environmental and biotic controls over aboveground biomass throughout a tropical rain forest. Ecosystems, 12, 261–278.
Barlow, J., Patty, L., Gardnera, T., Ferreira, J., Aragão, L., Carmenta, R.
et al. (2012) The critical importance of considering fire in REDD+ programs. Biological Conservation, 154, 1–8.
Brodie, J.F. & Gibbs, H.K. (2009) Bushmeat hunting as climate threat. Science, 326, 364–365.
Brodie, J.F., Helmy, O.E., Brockelman, W.Y. & Maron, J.L. (2009) Bushmeat poaching reduces the seed dispersal and population growth rate of a mammal-dispersed tree. Ecological Applications, 19, 854–863.
Bunker, D.E., DeClerck, F., Bradford, J.C., Colwell, R.K., Perfecto, I., Phillips, O.L.
et al. (2005) Species loss and aboveground carbon storage in a tropical forest. Science, 310, 1029–1031.
Burgess, N.D., Bahane, B., Clairs, T., Danielsen, F., Dalsgaard, S., Funder, M.
et al. (2010) Getting ready for REDD+ in Tanzania: a case study of progress and challenges. Oryx, 44, 339–351.
Campos-Arceiz, A. & Blake, S. (2011) Megagardeners of the forest–the role of elephants in seed dispersal. Acta Oecologica, 37, 542–553.
Campos-Arceiz, A., Traeholt, C., Jaffar, R., Santamaria, L. & Corlett, R.T. (2012) Asian tapirs are no elephants when it comes to seed dispersal. Biotropica, 44, 220–227.
Canale, G.R., Peres, C.A., Guidorizzi, C.E., Gatto, C.A.F. & Kierulff, M.C.M. (2012) Pervasive defaunation of forest remnants in a tropical biodiversity hotspot. PLoS ONE, 7(8), e41671.
Cavanaugh, K.C., Gosnell, J.S., Davis, S.L., Ahumada, J., Boundja, P., Clark, D.B.
et al. (2014) Carbon storage in tropical forests correlates with taxonomic diversity and functional dominance on a global scale. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 23
Clements, T. (2010) Reduced expectations: the political and institutional challenges of REDD+. Oryx, 44, 309–310.
Elmqvist, T.M., Folke, C., Nyström, M., Peterson, G., Bengtsson, J., Walker, B. & Norberg, J. (2003) Response diversity, ecosystem change, and resilience. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 1, 488–494.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN) (2010) Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010. FAO, Rome, Italy.
Forget, P.M. & Jansen, P.A. (2007) Hunting increases dispersal limitation in the tree Carapa procera, a non-timber forest product. Conservation Biology, 21, 106–113.
Fragoso, J.M.V., Silvius, K.M. & Correa, J.A. (2003) Long-distance seed dispersal by tapirs increases seed survival and aggregates tropical trees. Ecology, 84, 1998–2006.
GCP, IPAM, FFI, UNEP FI & UNORCID (2014) Stimulating Interim Demand for REDD+ Emissions Reductions: The Need for a Strategic Intervention from 2015 to 2020. Global Canopy Programme, Oxford, UK, the Amazon Environmental Research Institute, Brasilia, Brazil; Fauna & Flora International, Cambridge, UK; UN Environment Programme Finance Initiative, Geneva, Switzerland; UN Office for REDD+ Coordination in Indonesia, Indonesia.
Harrison, R.D. (2011) Emptying the forest: hunting and the extirpation of wildlife from tropical nature reserves. BioScience, 919, 919–924.
Holbrook, K.M. & Loiselle, B.A. (2009) Dispersal in a Neotropical tree, Virola flexuosa (Myristicaceae): does hunting of large vertebrates limit seed removal?
Ecology, 90, 1449–1455.
Howe, H.F. & Smallwood, J. (1982) Ecology of seed dispersal. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 13, 201–228.
Jansen, P.A., Muller-Landau, H.C. & Wright, S.J. (2010) Bushmeat hunting and climate: an indirect link. Science, 327, 30.
Kilgore, A., Lambert, T.D. & Adler, G.H. (2010) Lianas influence fruit and seed use by rodents in a tropical forest. Tropical Ecology, 52, 265–271.
Kurten, E.L. (2013) Cascading effects of contemporaneous defaunation on tropical forest communities. Biological Conservation, 163, 22–32.
Maisels, F., Keming, E., Kemei, M. & Toh, C. (2001) The extirpation of large mammals and implications for montane forest conservation: the case of the Kilum-ljim Forest, North-west Province, Cameroon. Oryx, 35, 322–331.
Muller-Landau, H.C. (2007) Predicting the long-term effects of hunting on plant species composition and diversity in tropical forests. Biotropica, 39, 372–384.
Nuñez-Iturri, G. & Howe, H.F. (2007) Bushmeat and the fate of trees with seeds dispersed by large primates in a lowland rain forest in western Amazonia. Biotropica, 39, 348–354.
Paoli, G.D., Wells, P.L., Meijaard, E., Struebig, M. J., Marshall, A.J., Obidzinski, K.
et al. (2010) Biodiversity conservation in the REDD. Carbon Balance Management, 5, 1–9.
Parker, C., Mitchell, A., Trivedi, M., Mardas, N. & Sosis, K. (2009) The Little REDD+ Book: An Updated Guide to Governmental and Non-governmental Proposals for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation. Global Canopy Programme, Oxford, UK. Http://www.globalcanopy.org/materials/little-redd-book [accessed September 2012].
Peltzer, D.A., Allen, R.B., Lovett, G.M., Whitehead, D. & Wardle, D.A. (2010) Effects of biological invasions on forest carbon sequestration. Global Change Biology, 16, 732–746.
Peres, C.A. & Palacios, E. (2007) Basin-wide effects of game harvest on vertebrate population densities in Amazonian forests: implications for animal-mediated seed dispersal. Biotropica, 39, 304–315.
Phelps, J., Webb, E.L. & Adams, W. (2012) Biodiversity co-benefits of policies to reduce forest-carbon emissions. Nature Climate Change, 2, 497–503.
Phillips, O.L., Vásquez Martínez, R., Arroyo, L., Baker, T.R., Killeen, T., Lewis, S.L.
et al. (2002) Increasing dominance of large lianas in Amazonian forests. Nature, 418, 770–774.
Plan Vivo Foundation (2013) The Plan Vivo Standard for Community Payments for Ecosystem Services Programmes, Version: 2013. Plan Vivo Foundation, Edinburgh, UK.
Poulsen, J.R., Clark, C.J. & Palmer, T.M. (2013) Ecological erosion of an Afrotropical forest and potential consequences for tree recruitment and forest biomass. Biological Conservation, 163, 122–130.
Redford, K. (1992) The empty forest. Bioscience, 42, 412–422.
Roubik, D.W. (1978) Competitive interactions between Neotropical pollinators and Africanized honeybees. Science, 201, 1030–1032.
Sasaki, N. & Putz, F.E. (2009) Critical need for new definitions of ‘forest’ and ‘forest degradation’ in global climate change agreements. Conservation Letters, 2, 226–232.
Scharlemann, J.P., Kapos, V., Campbell, A., Lysenko, I., Burgess, N.D., Hansen, M.C.
et al. (2010) Securing tropical forest carbon: the contribution of protected areas to REDD. Oryx, 44, 352–357.
Schnitzer, S.A. & Bongers, F. (2011) Increasing liana abundance and biomass in tropical forests: emerging patterns and putative mechanisms. Ecology Letters, 14, 397–406.
Schoene, D., Killmann, W., von Lüpke, H. & LoycheWilkie, M. (2007) Definitional Issues Related to Reducing Emissions from Deforestation in Developing Countries. Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, Rome, Italy.
Strassburg, B.B.N., Kelly, A., Balmford, A., Davies, R.G., Gibbs, H.K., Lovett, A.
et al. (2010) Global congruence of carbon storage and biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems. Conservation Letters, 3, 98–105.
Terborgh, J., Nuñez-Iturri, G., Pitman, N.C., Valverde, F.H.C., Alvarez, P., Swamy, V.
et al. (2008) Tree recruitment in an empty forest. Ecology, 89, 1757–1768.
Thompson, I., Mackey, B., McNulty, S. & Mosseler, A. (2009) Forest Resilience, Biodiversity, and Climate Change. A Synthesis of the Biodiversity/Resilience/Stability Relationship in Forest Ecosystems. Technical Series no. 43. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal, Canada.
UNFCCC (UN Framework Convention On Climate Change) (2008) Report of the Conference of the Parties on its Thirteenth Session, held in Bali from 3 to 15 December 2007. Addendum. Part Two: Action taken by the Conference of the Parties at its Thirteenth Session. March 2008. Http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2007/cop13/eng/06a01.pdf#page=3 [accessed September 2012].
van der Heijden, G.M.F. & Phillips, O.L. (2009) Liana infestation impacts tree growth in a lowland tropical moist forest. Biogeosciences Discuss, 6, 3133–3158.
van der Werf, G.R., Morton, D.C., DeFries, R.S., Olivier, J.G., Kasibhatla, P.S., Jackson, R.B.
et al. (2009) CO2 emissions from forest loss. Nature Geoscience, 2, 737–738.
Vanthomme, H., Bellé, B. & Forget, P.M. (2010) Bushmeat hunting alters recruitment of large-seeded plant species in Central Africa. Biotropica, 42, 67–679.
VCS & CCB (Verified Carbon Standard & The Climate, Community & Biodiversity Alliance) (2013) Project Description Template, VCS Version 3, CCB Standards Second Edition. Washington, DC, USA.
Venter, O. & Koh, L.P. (2012) Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+): game changer or just another quick fix?
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1249, 137–150.
Vidal, M.M., Pires, M.M. & Guimarães, P.R. Jr (2013) Large vertebrates as the missing components of seed-dispersal networks. Biological Conservation, 163, 42–44.
Wang, B.C., Sork, V.L., Leong, M.T. & Smith, T.B. (2007) Hunting of mammals reduces seed removal and dispersal of the Afrotropical tree Antrocaryon klaineanum (Anacardiaceae). Biotropica, 39, 340–347.
Wilkie, D.S., Bennett, E.L., Peres, C.A. & Cunningham, A.A. (2011) The empty forest revisited. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1223, 120–128.
Wright, S., Hernandez, A. & Condit, R. (2007) The bushmeat harvest alters seedling banks by favoring lianas, large seeds, and seeds dispersed by bats, birds, and wind. Biotropica, 39, 363–371.