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Artificial Intelligence in Organised Sound

  • Eduardo R. Miranda (a1) and Duncan Williams (a1)


Artificial Intelligence is a rich and still-developing field with a number of musical applications. This paper surveys the use of Artificial Intelligence in music in the pages of Organised Sound, from the first issue to the latest, at the time of writing. Traditionally, Artificial Intelligence systems for music have been designed with note-based composition in mind, but the research we present here finds that Artificial Intelligence has also had a significant impact in electroacoustic music, with contributions in the fields of sound analysis, real-time sonic interaction and interactive performance-driven composition, to cite but three. Two distinct categories emerged in the Organised Sound papers: on the one hand, philosophically and/or psychologically inspired, symbolic approaches and, on the other hand, biologically inspired approaches, also referred to as Artificial Life approaches. The two approaches are not mutually exclusive in their use, and in some cases are combined to achieve ‘best of both’ solutions. That said, as Organised Sound is uniquely positioned in the electroacoustic music community, it is somewhat surprising that work addressing important compositional issues such as musical form and structure, which Artificial Intelligence can be readily applied to, is not more present in these pages.


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Blackwell, T. and Young, M. 2004. Self-Organised Music. Organised Sound 9(2): 123136.
Bosma, H. 2003. Bodies of Evidence, Singing Cyborgs and Other Gender Issues in Electrovocal Music. Organised Sound 8(1): 517, doi:10.1017/S135577180300102X.
Bourotte, R. and Delhaye, C. 2013. Learn to Think for Yourself: Impelled by UPIC to Open New Ways of Composing. Organised Sound 18(2): 134145, doi:10.1017/S1355771813000058.
Brown, A. R. 2004. An Aesthetic Comparison of Rule-Based and Genetic Algorithms for Generating Melodies. Organised Sound 9(2): 191197, doi:10.1017/S1355771804000275.
Casey, M. 2001. General Sound Classification and Similarity in MPEG-7. Organised Sound 6(2): 153164.
Collins, N. 2002. Experiments with a New Customisable Interactive Evolution Framework. Organised Sound 7(3): 267273.
Collins, N. 2008. The Analysis of Generative Music Programs. Organised Sound 13(3): 237248, doi:10.1017/S1355771808000332.
Cunha, U. S. and Ramalho, G. 1999. An Intelligent Hybrid Model for Chord Prediction. Organised Sound 4(2): 115119.
Dahlstedt, P. 2001. A MutaSynth in Parameter Space: Interactive Composition Through Evolution. Organised Sound 6(2): 121124.
Eigenfeldt, A. 2011. Real-time Composition as Performance Ecosystem. Organised Sound 16(2): 145153, doi:10.1017/S1355771811000094.
Eigenfeldt, A. and Pasquier, P. 2010. Real-Time Timbral Organisation: Selecting Samples Based upon Similarity. Organised Sound 15(2): 159166, doi:10.1017/S1355771810000154.
Godøy, R. I. 2006. Gestural-Sonorous Objects: Embodied Extensions of Schaeffer’s Conceptual Apparatus. Organised Sound 11(2): 149157, doi:10.1017/S1355771806001439.
Impett, J. 2000. Situating the Invention in Interactive Music. Organised Sound 5(1): 2734.
Jacob, B. L. 1996. Algorithmic Composition as a Model of Creativity. Organised Sound 1(3): 157165, doi:10.1017/S1355771896000222.
Manzolli, J., Moroni, A., Von Zuben, F. and Gudwin, R. 1999. An Evolutionary Approach to Algorithmic Composition. Organised Sound 4(2): 121125.
Miranda, E. R. 2010. Organised Sound, Mental Imageries and the Future of Music Technology: A Neuroscience Outlook. Organised Sound 15(1): 1325.
Nelson, P. 1997. The UPIC System as an Instrument of Learning. Organised Sound 2(1): 3542.
Orton, R. 2000. Review of David Cope: The Algorithmic Composer. Organised Sound 5(2): 111116.
Visell, Y. 2004. Spontaneous Organisation, Pattern Models, and Music. Organised Sound 9(2): 151165.
Whalley, I. 2004. PIWeCS: Enhancing Human/Machine Agency in an Interactive Composition System. Organised Sound 9(2): 167174.
Whalley, I. 2009. Software Agents in Music and Sound Art Research/Creative Work: Current State and a Possible Direction. Organised Sound 14(2): 156167, doi:10.1017/S1355771809000260.
Xenakis, I. 1996. Tutorial Article: Determinacy and Indeterminacy. Organised Sound 1(3): 143155.

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Artificial Intelligence in Organised Sound

  • Eduardo R. Miranda (a1) and Duncan Williams (a1)


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