Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Redefining the impact of nutrition on breast cancer incidence: is epigenetics involved?

  • Dorothy Teegarden (a1) (a2), Isabelle Romieu (a3) and Sophie A. Lelièvre (a2) (a4)

Abstract

Breast cancer incidence is rising worldwide with an increase in aggressive neoplasias in young women. Possible factors involved include lifestyle changes, notably diet that is known to make an impact on gene transcription. However, among dietary factors, there is sufficient support for only greater body weight and alcohol consumption whereas numerous studies revealing an impact of specific diets and nutrients on breast cancer risk show conflicting results. Also, little information is available from middle- and low-income countries. The diversity of gene expression profiles found in breast cancers indicates that transcription control is critical for the outcome of the disease. This suggests the need for studies on nutrients that affect epigenetic mechanisms of transcription, such as DNA methylation and post-translational modifications of histones. In the present review, a new examination of the relationship between diet and breast cancer based on transcription control is proposed in light of epidemiological, animal and clinical studies. The mechanisms underlying the impact of diets on breast cancer development and factors that impede reaching clear conclusions are discussed. Understanding the interaction between nutrition and epigenetics (gene expression control via chromatin structure) is critical in light of the influence of diet during early stages of mammary gland development on breast cancer risk, suggesting a persistent effect on gene expression as shown by the influence of certain nutrients on DNA methylation. Successful development of breast cancer prevention strategies will require appropriate models, identification of biological markers for rapid assessment of preventive interventions, and coordinated worldwide research to discern the effects of diet.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Redefining the impact of nutrition on breast cancer incidence: is epigenetics involved?
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Redefining the impact of nutrition on breast cancer incidence: is epigenetics involved?
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Redefining the impact of nutrition on breast cancer incidence: is epigenetics involved?
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Sophie A. Lelièvre, fax +1 765 494 0781, email lelievre@purdue.edu

References

Hide All
1Ferlay, J, Shin, H-R, Bray, F, et al. . (2010) Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. Int J Cancer 127, 28932917.
2Franco-Marina, F, Lazcano-Ponce, E & Lopez-Carrillo, L (2009) Breast cancer mortality in Mexico: an age–period–cohort analysis. Salud Publica Mex 51, Suppl. 2, s157s164.
3Velasquez-De Charry, LC, Carrasquilla, G & Roca-Garavito, S (2009) Equity in access to treatment for breast cancer in Colombia (article in Spanish). Salud Publica Mex 51, Suppl. 2, s246s253.
4Lozano-Ascencio, R, Gomez-Dantes, H, Lewis, S, et al. . (2009) Breast cancer trends in Latin America and the Caribbean (article in Spanish). Salud Publica Mex 51, Suppl. 2, s147s156.
5Porter, P (2008) “Westernizing” women's risks? Breast cancer in lower-income countries. N Engl J Med 358, 213216.
6Dunn, BK, Agurs-Collins, T, Browne, D, et al. . (2010) Health disparities in breast cancer: biology meets socioeconomic status. Breast Cancer Res Treat 121, 281292.
7Prentice, RL (2008) Women's health initiative studies of postmenopausal breast cancer. Adv Exp Med Biol 617, 151160.
8Zeisel, SH (2007) Nutrigenomics and metabolomics will change clinical nutrition and public health practice: insights from studies on dietary requirements for choline. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 542548.
9International Agency for Research on Cancer and World Health Organization (2008) In World Cancer Report 2008, [Boyle, P and Levin, B, editors]. Lyon: IARC.
10Michels, KB, Mohllajee, AP, Roset-Bahmanyar, E, et al. . (2007) Diet and breast cancer: a review of the prospective observational studies. Cancer 109, 27122749.
11Weigelt, B, Baehner, FL & Reis-Filho, JS (2010) The contribution of gene expression profiling to breast cancer classification, prognostication and prediction: a retrospective of the last decade. J Pathol 220, 263280.
12Lelievre, SA (2010) Tissue polarity-dependent control of mammary epithelial homeostasis and cancer development: an epigenetic perspective. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 15, 4963.
13Plachot, C & Lelievre, SA (2004) DNA methylation control of tissue polarity and cellular differentiation in the mammary epithelium. Exp Cell Res 298, 122132.
14Takai, D & Jones, PA (2002) Comprehensive analysis of CpG islands in human chromosomes 21 and 22. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99, 37403745.
15Abad, PC, Yagci, B & Lelièvre, SA (2011) Nanocellular processes. In Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vols 11–20 [Nalwa, HS, editor]. Valencia, CA: American Scientific Publishers.
16Hublitz, P, Albert, M & Peters, AH (2009) Mechanisms of transcriptional repression by histone lysine methylation. Int J Dev Biol 53, 335354.
17Mohammad, HP, Cai, Y, McGarvey, KM, et al. . (2009) Polycomb CBX7 promotes initiation of heritable repression of genes frequently silenced with cancer-specific DNA hypermethylation. Cancer Res 69, 63226330.
18Mathews, LA, Crea, F & Farrar, WL (2009) Epigenetic gene regulation in stem cells and correlation to cancer. Differentiation 78, 117.
19Hatziapostolou, M & Iliopoulos, D (2011) Epigenetic aberrations during oncogenesis. Cell Mol Life Sci 68, 16811702.
20Law, JA & Jacobsen, SE (2010) Establishing, maintaining and modifying DNA methylation patterns in plants and animals. Nat Rev Genet 11, 204220.
21Justin, N, De Marco, V, Aasland, R, et al. . (2010) Reading, writing and editing methylated lysines on histone tails: new insights from recent structural studies. Curr Opin Struct Biol 20, 730738.
22Sharma, S, Kelly, TK & Jones, PA (2010) Epigenetics in cancer. Carcinogenesis 31, 2736.
23Mani, S & Herceg, Z (2010) DNA demethylating agents and epigenetic therapy of cancer. Adv Genet 70, 327340.
24Struewing, JP, Hartge, P, Wacholder, S, et al. . (1997) The risk of cancer associated with specific mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2 among Ashkenazi Jews. N Engl J Med 336, 14011408.
25Ford, D, Easton, DF, Stratton, M, et al. . (1998) Genetic heterogeneity and penetrance analysis of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in breast cancer families. The Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium. Am J Hum Genet 62, 676689.
26Suijkerbuijk, KP, Fackler, MJ, Sukumar, S, et al. . (2008) Methylation is less abundant in BRCA1-associated compared with sporadic breast cancer. Ann Oncol 19, 18701874.
27Ai, L, Tao, Q, Zhong, S, et al. . (2006) Inactivation of Wnt inhibitory factor-1 (WIF1) expression by epigenetic silencing is a common event in breast cancer. Carcinogenesis 27, 13411348.
28Veeck, J, Bektas, N, Hartmann, A, et al. . (2008) Wnt signalling in human breast cancer: expression of the putative Wnt inhibitor Dickkopf-3 (DKK3) is frequently suppressed by promoter hypermethylation in mammary tumours. Breast Cancer Res 10, R82.
29Klarmann, GJ, Decker, A & Farrar, WL (2008) Epigenetic gene silencing in the Wnt pathway in breast cancer. Epigenetics 3, 5963.
30Polyak, K & Kalluri, R (2010) The role of the microenvironment in mammary gland development and cancer. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2, a003244.
31Lin, HJ, Zuo, T, Chao, JR, et al. . (2009) Seed in soil, with an epigenetic view. Biochim Biophys Acta 1790, 920924.
32Conway, KE, McConnell, BB, Bowring, CE, et al. . (2000) TMS1, a novel proapoptotic caspase recruitment domain protein, is a target of methylation-induced gene silencing in human breast cancers. Cancer Res 60, 62366242.
33Parsons, MJ, Patel, P, Brat, DJ, et al. . (2009) Silencing of TMS1/ASC promotes resistance to anoikis in breast epithelial cells. Cancer Res 69, 17061711.
34Bray, GA (2002) The underlying basis for obesity: relationship to cancer. J Nutr 132, 3451S3455S.
35Lehmann, U, Hasemeier, B, Christgen, M, et al. . (2008) Epigenetic inactivation of microRNA gene hsa-mir-9-1 in human breast cancer. J Pathol 214, 1724.
36Chen, J & Xu, X (2010) Diet, epigenetic, and cancer prevention. Adv Genet 71, 237255.
37Burdge, GC, Slater-Jefferies, J, Torrens, C, et al. . (2007) Dietary protein restriction of pregnant rats in the F0 generation induces altered methylation of hepatic gene promoters in the adult male offspring in the F1 and F2 generations. Br J Nutr 97, 435439.
38Kovacheva, VP, Davison, JM, Mellott, TJ, et al. . (2009) Raising gestational choline intake alters gene expression in DMBA-evoked mammary tumors and prolongs survival. FASEB J 23, 10541063.
39Collins, JA, Blake, JM & Crosignani, PG (2005) Breast cancer risk with postmenopausal hormonal treatment. Hum Reprod Update 11, 545560.
40Howell, A & Evans, GD (2011) Hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer. Recent Results Cancer Res 188, 115124.
41Holmquist, GP & Ashley, T (2006) Chromosome organization and chromatin modification: influence on genome function and evolution. Cytogenet Genome Res 114, 96125.
42Warri, A, Saarinen, NM, Makela, S, et al. . (2008) The role of early life genistein exposures in modifying breast cancer risk. Br J Cancer 98, 14851493.
43Kim, SW & Wu, G (2009) Regulatory role for amino acids in mammary gland growth and milk synthesis. Amino Acids 37, 8995.
44Maclennan, M & Ma, DW (2010) Role of dietary fatty acids in mammary gland development and breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res 12, 211.
45Choi, SW & Friso, S (2011) Epigenetics: a new bridge between nutrition and health. Adv Nutr 1, 816.
46World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research (2007) Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective, pp. 289298. Washington, DC: American Institute for Cancer Research.
47Newmark, HL (1994) Vitamin D adequacy: a possible relationship to breast cancer. Adv Exp Med Biol 364, 109114.
48Colditz, GA & Frazier, AL (1995) Models of breast cancer show that risk is set by events of early life: prevention efforts must shift focus. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 4, 567571.
49de Assis, S, Wang, M, Goel, S, et al. . (2006) Excessive weight gain during pregnancy increases carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis in Sprague–Dawley and lean and obese Zucker rats. J Nutr 136, 9981004.
50de Assis, S, Cruz, I, Warri, A, et al. . (2010) Exposure of rat dams to a high-fat or estradiol-supplemented diet during pregnancy alters mammary gland morphology and increases mammary cancer risk in their daughters and granddaughters. American Association of Cancer Research 101st Annual Meeting, 2931, abstract no. 2931.
51Tuma, RS (2002) Retinoids and lung cancer: targeting the right population. J Natl Cancer Inst 94, 969970.
52Adissu, HA, Asem, EK & Lelievre, SA (2007) Three-dimensional cell culture to model epithelia in the female reproductive system. Reprod Sci 14, 1119.
53Harvie, M, Hooper, L & Howell, AH (2003) Central obesity and breast cancer risk: a systematic review. Obes Rev 4, 157173.
54Berstad, P, Coates, RJ, Bernstein, L, et al. . (2010) A case–control study of body mass index and breast cancer risk in white and African-American women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 19, 15321544.
55Harris, HR, Willett, WC, Terry, KL, et al. . (2010) Body fat distribution and risk of premenopausal breast cancer in the Nurses' Health Study II. J Natl Cancer Inst 103, 273278.
56Trentham-Dietz, A, Newcomb, PA, Egan, KM, et al. . (2000) Weight change and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer (United States). Cancer Causes Control 11, 533542.
57Harvie, M, Howell, A, Vierkant, RA, et al. . (2005) Association of gain and loss of weight before and after menopause with risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in the Iowa Women's Health Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14, 656661.
58Eliassen, AH, Colditz, GA, Rosner, B, et al. . (2006) Adult weight change and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. JAMA 296, 193201.
59Gluckman, PD & Hanson, MA (2008) Developmental and epigenetic pathways to obesity: an evolutionary–developmental perspective. Int J Obes (Lond) 32, Suppl. 7, S62S71.
60Catalano, PM, Farrell, K, Thomas, A, et al. . (2009) Perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity and metabolic dysregulation. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 13031313.
61Danielzik, S, Langnase, K, Mast, M, et al. . (2002) Impact of parental BMI on the manifestation of overweight 5–7 year old children. Eur J Nutr 41, 132138.
62Silva, IS, De Stavola, B & McCormack, V (2008) Birth size and breast cancer risk: re-analysis of individual participant data from 32 studies. PLoS Med 5, e193.
63Allison, DB, Paultre, F, Heymsfield, SB, et al. . (1995) Is the intra-uterine period really a critical period for the development of adiposity? Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 19, 397402.
64Loos, RJ, Beunen, G, Fagard, R, et al. . (2001) Birth weight and body composition in young adult men – a prospective twin study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 25, 15371545.
65Loos, RJ, Beunen, G, Fagard, R, et al. . (2002) Birth weight and body composition in young women: a prospective twin study. Am J Clin Nutr 75, 676682.
66Dirx, MJ, Zeegers, MP, Dagnelie, PC, et al. . (2003) Energy restriction and the risk of spontaneous mammary tumors in mice: a meta-analysis. Int J Cancer 106, 766770.
67Lorincz, AM & Sukumar, S (2006) Molecular links between obesity and breast cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer 13, 279292.
68Calle, EE & Kaaks, R (2004) Overweight, obesity and cancer: epidemiological evidence and proposed mechanisms. Nat Rev Cancer 4, 579591.
69Barb, D, Williams, CJ, Neuwirth, AK, et al. . (2007) Adiponectin in relation to malignancies: a review of existing basic research and clinical evidence. Am J Clin Nutr 86, s858s866.
70Schaffler, A, Scholmerich, J & Buechler, C (2007) Mechanisms of disease: adipokines and breast cancer – endocrine and paracrine mechanisms that connect adiposity and breast cancer. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 3, 345354.
71Mantzoros, C, Petridou, E, Dessypris, N, et al. . (2004) Adiponectin and breast cancer risk. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89, 11021107.
72Ouchi, N, Parker, JL, Lugus, JJ, et al. . (2011) Adipokines in inflammation and metabolic disease. Nat Rev Immunol 11, 8597.
73Ouchi, N & Walsh, K (2007) Adiponectin as an anti-inflammatory factor. Clin Chim Acta 380, 2430.
74Miyoshi, Y, Funahashi, T, Kihara, S, et al. . (2003) Association of serum adiponectin levels with breast cancer risk. Clin Cancer Res 9, 56995704.
75Cleary, MP, Ray, A, Rogozina, OP, et al. . (2009) Targeting the adiponectin:leptin ratio for postmenopausal breast cancer prevention. Front Biosci (Schol Ed) 1, 329357.
76Grossmann, ME, Ray, A, Dogan, S, et al. . (2008) Balance of adiponectin and leptin modulates breast cancer cell growth. Cell Res 18, 11541156.
77Grossmann, ME, Nkhata, KJ, Mizuno, NK, et al. . (2008) Effects of adiponectin on breast cancer cell growth and signaling. Br J Cancer 98, 370379.
78Vona-Davis, L & Rose, DP (2007) Adipokines as endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine factors in breast cancer risk and progression. Endocr Relat Cancer 14, 189206.
79Kabat, GC, Kim, M, Caan, BJ, et al. . (2009) Repeated measures of serum glucose and insulin in relation to postmenopausal breast cancer. Int J Cancer 125, 27042710.
80Novosyadlyy, R, Lann, DE, Vijayakumar, A, et al. . (2010) Insulin-mediated acceleration of breast cancer development and progression in a nonobese model of type 2 diabetes. Cancer Res 70, 741751.
81Rabe, K, Lehrke, M, Parhofer, KG, et al. . (2008) Adipokines and insulin resistance. Mol Med 14, 741751.
82Subbaramaiah, K, Howe, LR, Bhardwaj, P, et al. . (2011) Obesity is associated with inflammation and elevated aromatase expression in the mouse mammary gland. Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 4, 329346.
83Heerwagen, MJ, Miller, MR, Barbour, LA, et al. . (2010) Maternal obesity and fetal metabolic programming: a fertile epigenetic soil. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 299, R711R722.
84Lo, CY, Hsieh, PH, Chen, HF, et al. . (2009) A maternal high-fat diet during pregnancy in rats results in a greater risk of carcinogen-induced mammary tumors in the female offspring than exposure to a high-fat diet in postnatal life. Int J Cancer 125, 767773.
85Zhang, J, Zhang, F, Didelot, X, et al. . (2009) Maternal high fat diet during pregnancy and lactation alters hepatic expression of insulin like growth factor-2 and key microRNAs in the adult offspring. BMC Genomics 10, 478.
86Vickers, MH, Breier, BH, Cutfield, WS, et al. . (2000) Fetal origins of hyperphagia, obesity, and hypertension and postnatal amplification by hypercaloric nutrition. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 279, E83E87.
87Velie, EM, Schairer, C, Flood, A, et al. . (2005) Empirically derived dietary patterns and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in a large prospective cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr 82, 13081319.
88Waterland, RA, Travisano, M, Tahiliani, KG, et al. . (2008) Methyl donor supplementation prevents transgenerational amplification of obesity. Int J Obes (Lond) 32, 13731379.
89Milagro, FI, Campion, J, Garcia-Diaz, DF, et al. . (2009) High fat diet-induced obesity modifies the methylation pattern of leptin promoter in rats. J Physiol Biochem 65, 19.
90Thornburg, KL, Shannon, J, Thuillier, P, et al. . (2010) In utero life and epigenetic predisposition for disease. Adv Genet 71, 5778.
91Michels, KB & Xue, F (2006) Role of birthweight in the etiology of breast cancer. Int J Cancer 119, 20072025.
92Malin, AS, Qi, D, Shu, XO, et al. . (2003) Intake of fruits, vegetables and selected micronutrients in relation to the risk of breast cancer. Int J Cancer 105, 413418.
93Bessaoud, F, Daures, JP & Gerber, M (2008) Dietary factors and breast cancer risk: a case control study among a population in Southern France. Nutr Cancer 60, 177187.
94Mattisson, I, Wirfalt, E, Johansson, U, et al. . (2004) Intakes of plant foods, fibre and fat and risk of breast cancer – a prospective study in the Malmo Diet and Cancer cohort. Br J Cancer 90, 122127.
95Agurs-Collins, T, Rosenberg, L, Makambi, K, et al. . (2009) Dietary patterns and breast cancer risk in women participating in the Black Women's Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 621628.
96Sieri, S, Krogh, V, Bolelli, G, et al. . (2009) Sex hormone levels, breast cancer risk, and cancer receptor status in postmenopausal women: the ORDET cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18, 169176.
97Terry, P, Suzuki, R, Hu, FB, et al. . (2001) A prospective study of major dietary patterns and the risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 10, 12811285.
98Adebamowo, CA, Hu, FB, Cho, E, et al. . (2005) Dietary patterns and the risk of breast cancer. Ann Epidemiol 15, 789795.
99Gonzalez, CA & Riboli, E (2010) Diet and cancer prevention: contributions from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Eur J Cancer 46, 25552562.
100van Gils, CH, Peeters, PH, Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB, et al. . (2005) Consumption of vegetables and fruits and risk of breast cancer. JAMA 293, 183193.
101Brennan, SF, Cantwell, MM, Cardwell, CR, et al. . (2010) Dietary patterns and breast cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 91, 12941302.
102Smith-Warner, SA, Spiegelman, D, Yaun, SS, et al. . (2001) Intake of fruits and vegetables and risk of breast cancer: a pooled analysis of cohort studies. JAMA 285, 769776.
103Sieri, S, Krogh, V, Pala, V, et al. . (2004) Dietary patterns and risk of breast cancer in the ORDET cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13, 567572.
104Cottet, V, Touvier, M, Fournier, A, et al. . (2009) Postmenopausal breast cancer risk and dietary patterns in the E3N-EPIC prospective cohort study. Am J Epidemiol 170, 12571267.
105Lissowska, J, Gaudet, MM, Brinton, LA, et al. . (2008) Intake of fruits, and vegetables in relation to breast cancer risk by hormone receptor status. Breast Cancer Res Treat 107, 113117.
106Olsen, A, Tjonneland, A, Thomsen, BL, et al. . (2003) Fruits and vegetables intake differentially affects estrogen receptor negative and positive breast cancer incidence rates. J Nutr 133, 23422347.
107Fung, TT, Hu, FB, McCullough, ML, et al. . (2006) Diet quality is associated with the risk of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer in postmenopausal women. J Nutr 136, 466472.
108Edefonti, V, Decarli, A, La Vecchia, C, et al. . (2008) Nutrient dietary patterns and the risk of breast and ovarian cancers. Int J Cancer 122, 609613.
109de Stefani, E, Deneo-Pellegrini, H, Boffetta, P, et al. . (2009) Dietary patterns and risk of cancer: a factor analysis in Uruguay. Int J Cancer 124, 13911397.
110Cui, X, Dai, Q, Tseng, M, et al. . (2007) Dietary patterns and breast cancer risk in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16, 14431448.
111Murtaugh, MA, Sweeney, C, Giuliano, AR, et al. . (2008) Diet patterns and breast cancer risk in Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women: the Four-Corners Breast Cancer Study. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 978984.
112Hirose, K, Matsuo, K, Iwata, H, et al. . (2007) Dietary patterns and the risk of breast cancer in Japanese women. Cancer Sci 98, 14311438.
113Larsson, SC, Bergkvist, L & Wolk, A (2009) Long-term meat intake and risk of breast cancer by oestrogen and progesterone receptor status in a cohort of Swedish women. Eur J Cancer 45, 30423046.
114Steinmetz, KA & Potter, JD (1996) Vegetables, fruit, and cancer prevention: a review. J Am Diet Assoc 96, 10271039.
115Batra, S, Sahu, RP, Kandala, PK, et al. . (2010) Benzyl isothiocyanate-mediated inhibition of histone deacetylase leads to NF-κB turnoff in human pancreatic carcinoma cells. Mol Cancer Ther 9, 15961608.
116Prentice, RL, Caan, B, Chlebowski, RT, et al. . (2006) Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of invasive breast cancer: the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial. JAMA 295, 629642.
117Martin, LJ, Li, Q, Melnichouk, O, et al. . (2011) A randomized trial of dietary intervention for breast cancer prevention. Cancer Res 71, 123133.
118Geisel, J, Schorr, H, Bodis, M, et al. . (2005) The vegetarian lifestyle and DNA methylation. Clin Chem Lab Med 43, 11641169.
119Lillycrop, KA, Phillips, ES, Torrens, C, et al. . (2008) Feeding pregnant rats a protein-restricted diet persistently alters the methylation of specific cytosines in the hepatic PPARα promoter of the offspring. Br J Nutr 100, 278282.
120Mathers, JC & McKay, JA (2009) Epigenetics – potential contribution to fetal programming. Adv Exp Med Biol 646, 119123.
121Wu, AH, Yu, MC, Tseng, CC, et al. . (2008) Epidemiology of soy exposures and breast cancer risk. Br J Cancer 98, 914.
122Messina, M, McCaskill-Stevens, W & Lampe, JW (2006) Addressing the soy and breast cancer relationship: review, commentary, and workshop proceedings. J Natl Cancer Inst 98, 12751284.
123Wu, AH, Ziegler, RG, Nomura, AM, et al. . (1998) Soy intake and risk of breast cancer in Asians and Asian Americans. Am J Clin Nutr 68, 1437S1443S.
124Henderson, BE & Bernstein, L (1991) The international variation in breast cancer rates: an epidemiological assessment. Breast Cancer Res Treat 18, Suppl. 1, S11S17.
125Ziegler, RG, Hoover, RN, Pike, MC, et al. . (1993) Migration patterns and breast cancer risk in Asian-American women. J Natl Cancer Inst 85, 18191827.
126Trock, BJ, Hilakivi-Clarke, L & Clarke, R (2006) Meta-analysis of soy intake and breast cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 98, 459471.
127Korde, LA, Wu, AH, Fears, T, et al. . (2009) Childhood soy intake and breast cancer risk in Asian American women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18, 10501059.
128Thanos, J, Cotterchio, M, Boucher, BA, et al. . (2006) Adolescent dietary phytoestrogen intake and breast cancer risk (Canada). Cancer Causes Control 17, 12531261.
129Shu, XO, Jin, F, Dai, Q, et al. . (2001) Soyfood intake during adolescence and subsequent risk of breast cancer among Chinese women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 10, 483488.
130Dong, JY & Qin, LQ (2011) Soy isoflavones consumption and risk of breast cancer incidence or recurrence: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Breast Cancer Res Treat 125, 315323.
131Lamartiniere, CA, Moore, JB, Brown, NM, et al. . (1995) Genistein suppresses mammary cancer in rats. Carcinogenesis 16, 28332840.
132Barnes, S, Peterson, TG & Coward, L (1995) Rationale for the use of genistein-containing soy matrices in chemoprevention trials for breast and prostate cancer. J Cell Biochem Suppl 22, 181187.
133Barnes, S (1997) The chemopreventive properties of soy isoflavonoids in animal models of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 46, 169179.
134Constantinou, AI, Mehta, RG & Vaughan, A (1996) Inhibition of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mammary tumors in rats by the soybean isoflavones. Anticancer Res 16, 32933298.
135Constantinou, AI, White, BE, Tonetti, D, et al. . (2005) The soy isoflavone daidzein improves the capacity of tamoxifen to prevent mammary tumours. Eur J Cancer 41, 647654.
136Constantinou, AI, Lantvit, D, Hawthorne, M, et al. . (2001) Chemopreventive effects of soy protein and purified soy isoflavones on DMBA-induced mammary tumors in female Sprague–Dawley rats. Nutr Cancer 41, 7581.
137Gotoh, T, Yamada, K, Yin, H, et al. . (1998) Chemoprevention of N-nitroso-N-methylurea-induced rat mammary carcinogenesis by soy foods or biochanin A. Jpn J Cancer Res 89, 137142.
138Lamartiniere, CA, Cotroneo, MS, Fritz, WA, et al. . (2002) Genistein chemoprevention: timing and mechanisms of action in murine mammary and prostate. J Nutr 132, 552S558S.
139Lamartiniere, CA, Wang, J, Smith-Johnson, M, et al. . (2002) Daidzein: bioavailability, potential for reproductive toxicity, and breast cancer chemoprevention in female rats. Toxicol Sci 65, 228238.
140Hsieh, CY, Santell, RC, Haslam, SZ, et al. . (1998) Estrogenic effects of genistein on the growth of estrogen receptor-positive human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Res 58, 38333838.
141Cohen, LA, Zhao, Z, Pittman, B, et al. . (2000) Effect of intact and isoflavone-depleted soy protein on NMU-induced rat mammary tumorigenesis. Carcinogenesis 21, 929935.
142Wood, CE, Kaplan, JR, Stute, P, et al. . (2006) Effects of soy on the mammary glands of premenopausal female monkeys. Fertil Steril 85, Suppl. 1, 11791186.
143Kim, H, Hall, P, Smith, M, et al. . (2004) Chemoprevention by grape seed extract and genistein in carcinogen-induced mammary cancer in rats is diet dependent. J Nutr 134, 3445S3452S.
144Stedman, L, Nickel, KP, Castillo, SS, et al. . (2003) 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D inhibits vitamin E succinate-induced apoptosis in C3H10T1/2 cells but not Harvey ras-transfected cells. Nutr Cancer 45, 93100.
145de Souza, PL, Russell, PJ, Kearsley, JH, et al. . (2010) Clinical pharmacology of isoflavones and its relevance for potential prevention of prostate cancer. Nutr Rev 68, 542555.
146Pavese, JM, Farmer, RL & Bergan, RC (2010) Inhibition of cancer cell invasion and metastasis by genistein. Cancer Metastasis Rev 29, 465482.
147Hooper, L, Madhavan, G, Tice, JA, et al. . (2010) Effects of isoflavones on breast density in pre- and post-menopausal women: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Hum Reprod Update 16, 745760.
148Maskarinec, G, Verheus, M, Steinberg, FM, et al. . (2009) Various doses of soy isoflavones do not modify mammographic density in postmenopausal women. J Nutr 139, 981986.
149Verheus, M, van Gils, CH, Kreijkamp-Kaspers, S, et al. . (2008) Soy protein containing isoflavones and mammographic density in a randomized controlled trial in postmenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 17, 26322638.
150Powles, TJ, Howell, A, Evans, DG, et al. . (2008) Red clover isoflavones are safe and well tolerated in women with a family history of breast cancer. Menopause Int 14, 612.
151Maskarinec, G, Takata, Y, Franke, AA, et al. . (2004) A 2-year soy intervention in premenopausal women does not change mammographic densities. J Nutr 134, 30893094.
152Hilakivi-Clarke, L, Cho, E, Raygada, M, et al. . (1997) Alterations in mammary gland development following neonatal exposure to estradiol, transforming growth factor α, and estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780. J Cell Physiol 170, 279289.
153Hilakivi-Clarke, L, Onojafe, I, Raygada, M, et al. . (1999) Prepubertal exposure to zearalenone or genistein reduces mammary tumorigenesis. Br J Cancer 80, 16821688.
154Hilakivi-Clarke, L, Cho, E, Onojafe, I, et al. . (1999) Maternal exposure to genistein during pregnancy increases carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis in female rat offspring. Oncol Rep 6, 10891095.
155Petersen, OW & Polyak, K (2010) Stem cells in the human breast. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2, a003160.
156Dolinoy, DC, Weidman, JR, Waterland, RA, et al. . (2006) Maternal genistein alters coat color and protects Avy mouse offspring from obesity by modifying the fetal epigenome. Environ Health Perspect 114, 567572.
157Dolinoy, DC, Huang, D & Jirtle, RL (2007) Maternal nutrient supplementation counteracts bisphenol A-induced DNA hypomethylation in early development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104, 1305613061.
158Qin, W, Zhu, W, Shi, H, et al. . (2009) Soy isoflavones have an antiestrogenic effect and alter mammary promoter hypermethylation in healthy premenopausal women. Nutr Cancer 61, 238244.
159Berner, C, Aumuller, E, Gnauck, A, et al. . (2010) Epigenetic control of estrogen receptor expression and tumor suppressor genes is modulated by bioactive food compounds. Ann Nutr Metab 57, 183189.
160Kabat, GC, Kim, M, Shikany, JM, et al. . (2010) Alcohol consumption and risk of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast in a cohort of postmenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 19, 20662072.
161Engeset, D, Dyachenko, A, Ciampi, A, et al. . (2009) Dietary patterns and risk of cancer of various sites in the Norwegian European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort: the Norwegian Women and Cancer study. Eur J Cancer Prev 18, 6975.
162Smith-Warner, SA, Spiegelman, D, Yaun, SS, et al. . (1998) Alcohol and breast cancer in women: a pooled analysis of cohort studies. JAMA 279, 535540.
163Viel, JF, Perarnau, JM, Challier, B, et al. . (1997) Alcoholic calories, red wine consumption and breast cancer among premenopausal women. Eur J Epidemiol 13, 639643.
164Zhang, SM, Lee, IM, Manson, JE, et al. . (2007) Alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk in the Women's Health Study. Am J Epidemiol 165, 667676.
165Vachon, CM, Kuni, CC, Anderson, K, et al. . (2000) Association of mammographically defined percent breast density with epidemiologic risk factors for breast cancer (United States). Cancer Causes Control 11, 653662.
166Newcomb, PA, Nichols, HB, Beasley, JM, et al. . (2009) No difference between red wine or white wine consumption and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18, 10071010.
167Berstad, P, Ma, H, Bernstein, L, et al. . (2008) Alcohol intake and breast cancer risk among young women. Breast Cancer Res Treat 108, 113120.
168Ellison, RC, Zhang, Y, McLennan, CE, et al. . (2001) Exploring the relation of alcohol consumption to risk of breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol 154, 740747.
169Key, J, Hodgson, S, Omar, RZ, et al. . (2006) Meta-analysis of studies of alcohol and breast cancer with consideration of the methodological issues. Cancer Causes Control 17, 759770.
170Tjonneland, A, Christensen, J, Olsen, A, et al. . (2007) Alcohol intake and breast cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Cancer Causes Control 18, 361373.
171Lew, JQ, Freedman, ND, Leitzmann, MF, et al. . (2009) Alcohol and risk of breast cancer by histologic type and hormone receptor status in postmenopausal women: the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Am J Epidemiol 170, 308317.
172Poschl, G & Seitz, HK (2004) Alcohol and cancer. Alcohol Alcohol 39, 155165.
173Boffetta, P & Hashibe, M (2006) Alcohol and cancer. Lancet Oncol 7, 149156.
174Seitz, HK & Stickel, F (2007) Molecular mechanisms of alcohol-mediated carcinogenesis. Nat Rev Cancer 7, 599612.
175Reichman, ME, Judd, JT, Longcope, C, et al. . (1993) Effects of alcohol consumption on plasma and urinary hormone concentrations in premenopausal women. J Natl Cancer Inst 85, 722727.
176Ginsburg, ES, Walsh, BW, Gao, X, et al. . (1995) The effect of acute ethanol ingestion on estrogen levels in postmenopausal women using transdermal estradiol. J Soc Gynecol Investig 2, 2629.
177Brooks, PJ (1997) DNA damage, DNA repair, and alcohol toxicity – a review. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 21, 10731082.
178Christensen, BC, Kelsey, KT, Zheng, S, et al. . (2010) Breast cancer DNA methylation profiles are associated with tumor size and alcohol and folate intake. PLoS Genet 6, e1001043.
179Hursting, SD, Thornquist, M & Henderson, MM (1990) Types of dietary fat and the incidence of cancer at five sites. Prev Med 19, 242253.
180Armstrong, B & Doll, R (1975) Environmental factors and cancer incidence and mortality in different countries, with special reference to dietary practices. Int J Cancer 15, 617631.
181Lea, AJ (1966) Dietary factors associated with death-rates from certain neoplasms in man. Lancet ii, 332333.
182Rose, DP, Boyar, AP & Wynder, EL (1986) International comparisons of mortality rates for cancer of the breast, ovary, prostate, and colon, and per capita food consumption. Cancer 58, 23632371.
183Howe, GR, Hirohata, T, Hislop, TG, et al. . (1990) Dietary factors and risk of breast cancer: combined analysis of 12 case–control studies. J Natl Cancer Inst 82, 561569.
184Smith-Warner, SA, Spiegelman, D, Adami, HO, et al. . (2001) Types of dietary fat and breast cancer: a pooled analysis of cohort studies. Int J Cancer 92, 767774.
185Willett, WC (1990) Epidemiologic studies of diet and cancer. Prog Clin Biol Res 346, 159168.
186Willett, WC, Hunter, DJ, Stampfer, MJ, et al. . (1992) Dietary fat and fiber in relation to risk of breast cancer. An 8-year follow-up. JAMA 268, 20372044.
187Schulz, M, Hoffmann, K, Weikert, C, et al. . (2008) Identification of a dietary pattern characterized by high-fat food choices associated with increased risk of breast cancer: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study. Br J Nutr 100, 942946.
188Alexander, DD, Morimoto, LM, Mink, PJ, et al. . (2010) A review and meta-analysis of red and processed meat consumption and breast cancer. Nutr Res Rev 23, 349365.
189Bougnoux, P, Hajjaji, N & Couet, C (2008) The lipidome as a composite biomarker of the modifiable part of the risk of breast cancer. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 79, 9396.
190Chajes, V, Thiebaut, AC, Rotival, M, et al. . (2008) Association between serum trans-monounsaturated fatty acids and breast cancer risk in the E3N-EPIC Study. Am J Epidemiol 167, 13121320.
191Kim, EH, Willett, WC, Colditz, GA, et al. . (2006) Dietary fat and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in a 20-year follow-up. Am J Epidemiol 164, 990997.
192Linos, E, Willett, WC, Cho, E, et al. . (2010) Adolescent diet in relation to breast cancer risk among premenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 19, 689696.
193Fay, MP & Freedman, LS (1997) Meta-analyses of dietary fats and mammary neoplasms in rodent experiments. Breast Cancer Res Treat 46, 215223.
194Freedman, LS, Clifford, C & Messina, M (1990) Analysis of dietary fat, calories, body weight, and the development of mammary tumors in rats and mice: a review. Cancer Res 50, 57105719.
195Welsch, CW, House, JL, Herr, BL, et al. . (1990) Enhancement of mammary carcinogenesis by high levels of dietary fat: a phenomenon dependent on ad libitum feeding. J Natl Cancer Inst 82, 16151620.
196Welsch, CW (1992) Dietary fat, calories, and mammary gland tumorigenesis. Adv Exp Med Biol 322, 203222.
197Kritchevsky, D, Weber, MM & Klurfeld, DM (1984) Dietary fat versus caloric content in initiation and promotion of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats. Cancer Res 44, 31743177.
198Klurfeld, DM, Weber, MM & Kritchevsky, D (1987) Inhibition of chemically induced mammary and colon tumor promotion by caloric restriction in rats fed increased dietary fat. Cancer Res 47, 27592762.
199Woutersen, RA, Appel, MJ, Van Garderen-Hoetmer, A, et al. . (1999) Dietary fat and carcinogenesis. Mutat Res 443, 111127.
200Chapkin, RS, Wang, N, Fan, YY, et al. . (2008) Docosahexaenoic acid alters the size and distribution of cell surface microdomains. Biochim Biophys Acta 1778, 466471.
201Simopoulos, AP (2010) Genetic variants in the metabolism of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids: their role in the determination of nutritional requirements and chronic disease risk. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 235, 785795.
202Larsson, SC, Kumlin, M, Ingelman-Sundberg, M, et al. . (2004) Dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids for the prevention of cancer: a review of potential mechanisms. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 935945.
203de Assis, S, Khan, G & Hilakivi-Clarke, L (2006) High birth weight increases mammary tumorigenesis in rats. Int J Cancer 119, 15371546.
204Vucetic, Z, Kimmel, J, Totoki, K, et al. . (2010) Maternal high-fat diet alters methylation and gene expression of dopamine and opioid-related genes. Endocrinology 151, 47564764.
205Yenbutr, P, Hilakivi-Clarke, L & Passaniti, A (1998) Hypomethylation of an exon I estrogen receptor CpG island in spontaneous and carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis in the rat. Mech Ageing Dev 106, 93102.
206Mahoney, MC, Bevers, T, Linos, E, et al. . (2008) Opportunities and strategies for breast cancer prevention through risk reduction. CA Cancer J Clin 58, 347371.
207Romieu, I, Lazcano-Ponce, E, Sanchez-Zamorano, LM, et al. . (2004) Carbohydrates and the risk of breast cancer among Mexican women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13, 12831289.
208Gomez, LM, Hernandez-Prado, B, Morales, MC, et al. . (2009) Physical activity and overweight/obesity in adult Mexican population: the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006. Salud Publica Mex 51, Suppl. 4, S621S629.
209Frazier, AL, Li, L, Cho, E, et al. . (2004) Adolescent diet and risk of breast cancer. Cancer Causes Control 15, 7382.
210Larsson, SC, Bergkvist, L & Wolk, A (2009) Glycemic load, glycemic index and breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort of Swedish women. Int J Cancer 125, 153157.
211Lajous, M, Boutron-Ruault, MC, Fabre, A, et al. . (2008) Carbohydrate intake, glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in a prospective study of French women. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 13841391.
212Nielsen, TG, Olsen, A, Christensen, J, et al. . (2005) Dietary carbohydrate intake is not associated with the breast cancer incidence rate ratio in postmenopausal Danish women. J Nutr 135, 124128.
213Yanochko, GM & Eckhart, W (2006) Type I insulin-like growth factor receptor over-expression induces proliferation and anti-apoptotic signaling in a three-dimensional culture model of breast epithelial cells. Breast Cancer Res 8, R18.
214Key, TJ, Appleby, PN, Reeves, GK, et al. . (2010) Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), and breast cancer risk: pooled individual data analysis of 17 prospective studies. Lancet Oncol 11, 530542.
215Lewis, SJ, Harbord, RM, Harris, R, et al. . (2006) Meta-analyses of observational and genetic association studies of folate intakes or levels and breast cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 98, 16071622.
216Zhang, S, Hunter, DJ, Hankinson, SE, et al. . (1999) A prospective study of folate intake and the risk of breast cancer. JAMA 281, 16321637.
217Larsson, SC, Giovannucci, E & Wolk, A (2007) Folate and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst 99, 6476.
218Mason, JB & Choi, SW (2000) Folate and carcinogenesis: developing a unifying hypothesis. Adv Enzyme Regul 40, 127141.
219Stolzenberg-Solomon, RZ, Chang, SC & Leitzmann, MF (2006) Folate intake, alcohol use, and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 895904.
220Chen, J, Gammon, MD, Chan, W, et al. . (2005) One-carbon metabolism, MTHFR polymorphisms, and risk of breast cancer. Cancer Res 65, 16061614.
221Lajous, M, Lazcano-Ponce, E, Hernandez-Avila, M, et al. . (2006) Vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 intake and the risk of breast cancer among Mexican women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15, 443448.
222Levi, F, Pasche, C, Lucchini, F, et al. . (2001) Dietary intake of selected micronutrients and breast-cancer risk. Int J Cancer 91, 260263.
223Negri, E, La Vecchia, C & Franceschi, S (2000) Re: dietary folate consumption and breast cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 92, 12701271.
224Ronco, A, de Stefani, E, Boffetta, P, et al. . (1999) Vegetables, fruits, and related nutrients and risk of breast cancer: a case–control study in Uruguay. Nutr Cancer 35, 111119.
225Shrubsole, MJ, Gao, YT, Cai, Q, et al. . (2004) MTHFR polymorphisms, dietary folate intake, and breast cancer risk: results from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13, 190196.
226Lajous, M, Romieu, I, Sabia, S, et al. . (2006) Folate, vitamin B12 and postmenopausal breast cancer in a prospective study of French women. Cancer Causes Control 17, 12091213.
227Shrubsole, MJ, Jin, F, Dai, Q, et al. . (2001) Dietary folate intake and breast cancer risk: results from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study. Cancer Res 61, 71367141.
228Zhang, SM, Willett, WC, Selhub, J, et al. . (2003) Plasma folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, homocysteine, and risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 95, 373380.
229Ericson, U, Borgquist, S, Ivarsson, MI, et al. . (2010) Plasma folate concentrations are positively associated with risk of estrogen receptor β negative breast cancer in a Swedish nested case control study. J Nutr 140, 16611668.
230Kim, YI (2005) Nutritional epigenetics: impact of folate deficiency on DNA methylation and colon cancer susceptibility. J Nutr 135, 27032709.
231Kim, YI (2004) Will mandatory folic acid fortification prevent or promote cancer? Am J Clin Nutr 80, 11231128.
232Choi, SW & Mason, JB (2000) Folate and carcinogenesis: an integrated scheme. J Nutr 130, 129132.
233Kotsopoulos, J, Medline, A, Renlund, R, et al. . (2005) Effects of dietary folate on the development and progression of mammary tumors in rats. Carcinogenesis 26, 16031612.
234Kotsopoulos, J, Sohn, KJ, Martin, R, et al. . (2003) Dietary folate deficiency suppresses N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats. Carcinogenesis 24, 937944.
235Baggott, JE, Vaughn, WH, Juliana, MM, et al. . (1992) Effects of folate deficiency and supplementation on methylnitrosourea-induced rat mammary tumors. J Natl Cancer Inst 84, 17401744.
236Mason, JB & Choi, SW (2005) Effects of alcohol on folate metabolism: implications for carcinogenesis. Alcohol 35, 235241.
237Lin, J, Lee, IM, Cook, NR, et al. . (2008) Plasma folate, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and risk of breast cancer in women. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 734743.
238Williams, KT & Schalinske, KL (2007) New insights into the regulation of methyl group and homocysteine metabolism. J Nutr 137, 311314.
239Mehedint, MG, Niculescu, MD, Craciunescu, CN, et al. . (2010) Choline deficiency alters global histone methylation and epigenetic marking at the Re1 site of the calbindin 1 gene. FASEB J 24, 184195.
240Ly, A, Lee, H, Chen, J, et al. . (2011) Effect of maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on mammary tumor risk in the offspring. Cancer Res 71, 988997.
241Sie, KK, Chen, J, Sohn, KJ, et al. . (2009) Folic acid supplementation provided in utero and during lactation reduces the number of terminal end buds of the developing mammary glands in the offspring. Cancer Lett 280, 7277.
242Steegers-Theunissen, RP, Obermann-Borst, SA, Kremer, D, et al. . (2009) Periconceptional maternal folic acid use of 400 microg per day is related to increased methylation of the IGF2 gene in the very young child. PLoS One 4, e7845.
243Lelievre, SA (2009) Contributions of extracellular matrix signaling and tissue architecture to nuclear mechanisms and spatial organization of gene expression control. Biochim Biophys Acta 1790, 925935.
244Stempak, JM, Sohn, KJ, Chiang, EP, et al. . (2005) Cell and stage of transformation-specific effects of folate deficiency on methionine cycle intermediates and DNA methylation in an in vitro model. Carcinogenesis 26, 981990.
245Song, J, Medline, A, Mason, JB, et al. . (2000) Effects of dietary folate on intestinal tumorigenesis in the apcMin mouse. Cancer Res 60, 54345440.
246Garland, CF, Gorham, ED, Mohr, SB, et al. . (2007) Vitamin D and prevention of breast cancer: pooled analysis. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 103, 708711.
247Cui, Y & Rohan, TE (2006) Vitamin D, calcium, and breast cancer risk: a review. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15, 14271437.
248Garland, FC, Garland, CF, Gorham, ED, et al. . (1990) Geographic variation in breast cancer mortality in the United States: a hypothesis involving exposure to solar radiation. Prev Med 19, 614622.
249Lowe, LC, Guy, M, Mansi, JL, et al. . (2005) Plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations, vitamin D receptor genotype and breast cancer risk in a UK Caucasian population. Eur J Cancer 41, 11641169.
250Chen, P, Hu, P, Xie, D, et al. . (2010) Meta-analysis of vitamin D, calcium and the prevention of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 121, 469477.
251Lin, J, Manson, JE, Lee, IM, et al. . (2007) Intakes of calcium and vitamin D and breast cancer risk in women. Arch Intern Med 167, 10501059.
252Shin, MH, Holmes, MD, Hankinson, SE, et al. . (2002) Intake of dairy products, calcium, and vitamin D and risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 94, 13011311.
253Robien, K, Cutler, GJ & Lazovich, D (2007) Vitamin D intake and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women: the Iowa Women's Health Study. Cancer Causes Control 18, 775782.
254Blot, WJ, Fraumeni, JF Jr & Stone, BJ (1977) Geographic patterns of breast cancer in the United States. J Natl Cancer Inst 59, 14071411.
255McCullough, ML, Rodriguez, C, Diver, WR, et al. . (2005) Dairy, calcium, and vitamin D intake and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14, 28982904.
256Zierold, C, Mings, JA & Deluca, HF (2003) Regulation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-24-hydroxylase mRNA by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and parathyroid hormone. J Cell Biochem 88, 234237.
257Armbrecht, HJ, Boltz, MA & Hodam, TL (2003) PTH increases renal 25(OH)D3-1α-hydroxylase (CYP1α) mRNA but not renal 1,25(OH)2D3 production in adult rats. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 284, F1032F1036.
258Li, J, Byrne, ME, Chang, E, et al. . (2008) 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D hydroxylase in adipocytes. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 112, 122126.
259Kemmis, CM, Salvador, SM, Smith, KM, et al. . (2006) Human mammary epithelial cells express CYP27B1 and are growth inhibited by 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3, the major circulating form of vitamin D-3. J Nutr 136, 887892.
260Zehnder, D, Bland, R, Williams, MC, et al. . (2001) Extrarenal expression of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1α-hydroxylase. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86, 888894.
261Norman, AW (2008) From vitamin D to hormone D: fundamentals of the vitamin D endocrine system essential for good health. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 491S499S.
262Haussler, MR, Haussler, CA, Bartik, L, et al. . (2008) Vitamin D receptor: molecular signaling and actions of nutritional ligands in disease prevention. Nutr Rev 66, S98S112.
263Bernardi, RJ, Johnson, CS, Modzelewski, RA, et al. . (2002) Antiproliferative effects of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and vitamin D analogs on tumor-derived endothelial cells. Endocrinology 143, 25082514.
264Wali, RK, Baum, CL, Bolt, MJ, et al. . (1992) 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits Na(+)-H+ exchange by stimulating membrane phosphoinositide turnover and increasing cytosolic calcium in CaCo-2 cells. Endocrinology 131, 11251133.
265Wali, RK, Baum, CL, Sitrin, MD, et al. . (1992) Effect of vitamin D status on the rapid actions of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in rat colonic membranes. Am J Physiol 262, G945G953.
266Li, W & Farach-Carson, MC (2001) Parathyroid hormone-stimulated resorption in calvaria cultured in serum-free medium is enhanced by the calcium-mobilizing activity of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Bone 29, 231235.
267Norman, AW, Okamura, WH, Bishop, JE, et al. . (2002) Update on biological actions of 1α,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 (rapid effects) and 24R,25(OH)2-vitamin D3. Mol Cell Endocrinol 197, 113.
268Matthews, D, LaPorta, E, Zinser, GM, et al. . (2010) Genomic vitamin D signaling in breast cancer: insights from animal models and human cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 121, 362367.
269Zinser, GM & Welsh, J (2004) Vitamin D receptor status alters mammary gland morphology and tumorigenesis in MMTV-neu mice. Carcinogenesis 25, 23612372.
270Zinser, GM, Suckow, M & Welsh, J (2005) Vitamin D receptor (VDR) ablation alters carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis in mammary gland, epidermis and lymphoid tissues. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 97, 153164.
271Kurihara, N, Fan, K, Thaler, HT, et al. . (2008) Effect of a Western-style diet fortified with increased calcium and vitamin D on mammary gland of C57BL/6 mice. J Med Food 11, 201206.
272Jacobson, EA, James, KA, Newmark, HL, et al. . (1989) Effects of dietary fat, calcium, and vitamin D on growth and mammary tumorigenesis induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Cancer Res 49, 63006303.
273Welsh, J (2007) Vitamin D and prevention of breast cancer. Acta Pharmacol Sin 28, 13731382.
274Chlebowski, RT, Johnson, KC, Kooperberg, C, et al. . (2008) Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 100, 15811591.
275Lappe, JM, Travers-Gustafson, D, Davies, KM, et al. . (2007) Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces cancer risk: results of a randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 15861591.
276Banwell, CM, MacCartney, DP, Guy, M, et al. . (2006) Altered nuclear receptor corepressor expression attenuates vitamin D receptor signaling in breast cancer cells. Clin Cancer Res 12, 20042013.
277Kim, MS, Fujiki, R, Kitagawa, H, et al. . (2007) 1α,25(OH)2D3-induced DNA methylation suppresses the human CYP27B1 gene. Mol Cell Endocrinol 265–266, 168173.
278Novakovic, B, Sibson, M, Ng, HK, et al. . (2009) Placenta-specific methylation of the vitamin D 24-hydroxylase gene: implications for feedback autoregulation of active vitamin D levels at the fetomaternal interface. J Biol Chem 284, 1483814848.
279Luo, W, Karpf, AR, Deeb, KK, et al. . (2010) Epigenetic regulation of vitamin D 24-hydroxylase/CYP24A1 in human prostate cancer. Cancer Res 70, 59535962.
280Deeb, KK, Luo, W, Karpf, AR, et al. . (2011) Differential vitamin D 24-hydroxylase/CYP24A1 gene promoter methylation in endothelium from benign and malignant human prostate. Epigenetics 6, 9941000.
281Margolis, RN & Christakos, S (2010) The nuclear receptor superfamily of steroid hormones and vitamin D gene regulation. An update. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1192, 208214.
282Giovannucci, E (1999) Tomatoes, tomato-based products, lycopene, and cancer: review of the epidemiologic literature. J Natl Cancer Inst 91, 317331.
283Rohan, TE (2001) Invited Commentary: serum carotenoids and breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol 153, 11481150.
284Toniolo, P, Van Kappel, AL, Akhmedkhanov, A, et al. . (2001) Serum carotenoids and breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol 153, 11421147.
285Zhang, S, Hunter, DJ, Forman, MR, et al. . (1999) Dietary carotenoids and vitamins A, C, and E and risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 91, 547556.
286Hulten, K, Van Kappel, AL, Winkvist, A, et al. . (2001) Carotenoids, α-tocopherols, and retinol in plasma and breast cancer risk in northern Sweden. Cancer Causes Control 12, 529537.
287Nissen, SB, Tjonneland, A, Stripp, C, et al. . (2003) Intake of vitamins A, C, and E from diet and supplements and breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Cancer Causes Control 14, 695704.
288Wald, NJ, Boreham, J, Hayward, JL, et al. . (1984) Plasma retinol, β-carotene and vitamin E levels in relation to the future risk of breast cancer. Br J Cancer 49, 321324.
289Epplein, M, Shvetsov, YB, Wilkens, LR, et al. . (2009) Plasma carotenoids, retinol, and tocopherols and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in the Multiethnic Cohort Study: a nested case–control study. Breast Cancer Res 11, R49.
290Mignone, LI, Giovannucci, E, Newcomb, PA, et al. . (2009) Dietary carotenoids and the risk of invasive breast cancer. Int J Cancer 124, 29292937.
291Sato, R, Helzlsouer, KJ, Alberg, AJ, et al. . (2002) Prospective study of carotenoids, tocopherols, and retinoid concentrations and the risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11, 451457.
292Kabat, GC, Kim, M, Adams-Campbell, LL, et al. . (2009) Longitudinal study of serum carotenoid, retinol, and tocopherol concentrations in relation to breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 162169.
293Rabi, T & Bishayee, A (2009) Terpenoids and breast cancer chemoprevention. Breast Cancer Res Treat 115, 223239.
294Okuno, M, Kojima, S, Matsushima-Nishiwaki, R, et al. . (2004) Retinoids in cancer chemoprevention. Curr Cancer Drug Targets 4, 285298.
295Black, HS (2004) Pro-carcinogenic activity of β-carotene, a putative systemic photoprotectant. Photochem Photobiol Sci 3, 753758.
296Valko, M, Izakovic, M, Mazur, M, et al. . (2004) Role of oxygen radicals in DNA damage and cancer incidence. Mol Cell Biochem 266, 3756.
297King-Batoon, A, Leszczynska, JM & Klein, CB (2008) Modulation of gene methylation by genistein or lycopene in breast cancer cells. Environ Mol Mutagen 49, 3645.
298Bistulfi, G, Pozzi, S, Ren, M, et al. . (2006) A repressive epigenetic domino effect confers susceptibility to breast epithelial cell transformation: implications for predicting breast cancer risk. Cancer Res 66, 1030810314.
299Ndiaye, M, Kumar, R & Ahmad, N (2011) Resveratrol in cancer management: where are we and where we go from here? Ann N Y Acad Sci 1215, 144149.
300Koo, SH & Montminy, M (2006) In vino veritas: a tale of two sirt1s? Cell 127, 10911093.
301Binda, O, Nassif, C & Branton, PE (2008) SIRT1 negatively regulates HDAC1-dependent transcriptional repression by the RBP1 family of proteins. Oncogene 27, 33843392.
302Miller, A, Chen, J, Takasuka, TE, et al. . (2010) Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is required for cell-cycle regulated silent chromatin on replicated and nonreplicated genes. J Biol Chem 285, 3514235154.
303Abad, PC, Lewis, J, Mian, IS, et al. . (2007) NuMA influences higher order chromatin organization in human mammary epithelium. Mol Biol Cell 18, 348361.
304Vasanthi, D & Mishra, RK (2008) Epigenetic regulation of genes during development: a conserved theme from flies to mammals. J Genet Genomics 35, 413429.
305Plachot, C, Chaboub, LS, Adissu, HA, et al. . (2009) Factors necessary to produce basoapical polarity in human glandular epithelium formed in conventional and high-throughput three-dimensional culture: example of the breast epithelium. BMC Biol 7, 77.