Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Potential benefits of satiety to the consumer: scientific considerations

  • M. M. Hetherington (a1), K. Cunningham (a2), L. Dye (a1), E. L. Gibson (a3), N. T. Gregersen (a4), J. C. G. Halford (a5), C. L. Lawton (a1), A. Lluch (a6), D. J. Mela (a7) and H. C. M. Van Trijp (a8)...

Abstract

Foods and dietary patterns that enhance satiety may provide benefit to consumers. The aim of the present review was to describe, consider and evaluate research on potential benefits of enhanced satiety. The proposal that enhanced satiety could only benefit consumers by a direct effect on food intake should be rejected. Instead, it is proposed that there is a variety of routes through which enhanced satiety could (indirectly) benefit dietary control or weight-management goals. The review highlights specific potential benefits of satiety, including: providing appetite control strategies for consumers generally and for those who are highly responsive to food cues; offering pleasure and satisfaction associated with low-energy/healthier versions of foods without feeling ‘deprived’; reducing dysphoric mood associated with hunger especially during energy restriction; and improved compliance with healthy eating or weight-management efforts. There is convincing evidence of short-term satiety benefits, but only probable evidence for longer-term benefits to hunger management, possible evidence of benefits to mood and cognition, inadequate evidence that satiety enhancement can promote weight loss, and no evidence on which consumers would benefit most from satiety enhancement. The appetite-reducing effects of specific foods or diets will be much more subtle than those of pharmaceutical compounds in managing hunger; nevertheless, the experience of pharmacology in producing weight loss via effects on appetite suggests that there is potential benefit of satiety enhancement from foods incorporated into the diet to the consumer.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Potential benefits of satiety to the consumer: scientific considerations
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Potential benefits of satiety to the consumer: scientific considerations
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Potential benefits of satiety to the consumer: scientific considerations
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Corresponding author: ILSI Europe a.i.s.b.l., Avenue E. Mounier 83, Box 6, B-1200, Brussels, Belgium, fax +32 2 762 00 44, email publications@ilsieurope.be

References

Hide All
1 International Food Information Council (2007) Consumer attitudes toward functional foods: foods for health. http://www.ific.org/research/foodandhealthsurvey.cfm (accessed July 2009).
2 Thomas S (2009) Satiety: feeling full. http://www.preparedfoods.com/articles/article-satiety-feeling-full-july-2009 (accessed February 2012).
3 Unilever (2006) US Strategic Segmentation Study (unpublished).
4 Danone (2008) TNS Sofres Marketing Survey “Hungry Moments” (unpublished industry documentation).
5Blundell, J (2010) Making claims: functional foods for managing appetite and weight. Nat Rev Endocrinol 6, 5356.
6Booth, DA & Nouwen, A (2010) Satiety. No way to slim. Appetite 55, 718721.
7Bellisle, F & Tremblay, A (2011) Satiety and body weight control. Promise and compromise. Comment on ‘Satiety. No way to slim’. Appetite 57, 769771.
8Smeets, P & Van der Laan, LN (2011) Satiety. Not the problem, nor a solution. Comment on ‘Satiety. No way to slim’. Appetite 57, 772773.
9Mela, DJ (2011) Satiety. Let's put claims in the right context. Comment on ‘Satiety. No way to slim’. Appetite 57, 774777.
10de Graaf, C (2011) Trustworthy satiety claims are good for science and society. Comment on ‘Satiety. No way to slim’. Appetite 57, 778783.
11 European Parliament and the Council of the European Union (2007) Corrigendum to Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods. Off J Eur Union L 12 (18 January), 1-16. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2007:012:0003:0018:EN:PDF (accessed April 2013).
12Blundell, J, de Graaf, C, Hulshof, T, et al. (2010) Appetite control: methodological aspects of the evaluation of foods. Obes Rev 11, 251270.
13Womble, LG, Williamson, DA, Greenway, FL, et al. (2001) Psychological and behavioral predictors of weight loss during drug treatment for obesity. Int J Obes 25, 340345.
14Markowitz, JT, Butryn, ML & Lowe, MR (2008) Perceived deprivation, restrained eating and susceptibility to weight gain. Appetite 51, 720722.
15Zijlstra, N, Mars, M, Stafleu, A, et al. (2010) The effect of texture differences on satiation in 3 pairs of solid foods. Appetite 55, 490497.
16Bertenshaw, EJ, Lluch, A & Yeomans, MR (2009) Dose-dependent effects of beverage protein content upon short-term intake. Appetite 52, 580587.
17Lyly, M, Liukkonen, KH, Salmenkallio-Marttila, M, et al. (2009) Fibre in beverages can enhance perceived satiety. Eur J Nutr 48, 251258.
18Tsuchiya, A, Almiron-Roig, E, Lluch, A, et al. (2006) Higher satiety ratings following yogurt consumption relative to fruit drink or dairy fruit drink. J Am Diet Assoc 106, 550557.
19Hoch, SJ & Deighton, J (1989) Managing what consumers learn from experience. J Market 53, 120.
20Herman, CP & Polivy, J (2008) External cues in the control of food intake in humans: the sensory-normative direction. Physiol Behav 94, 722728.
21Van Strien, TJ, Frijters, ER, Bergers, GP, et al. (1986) The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) for assessment of restraint emotional and external eating behavior. Int J Eat Disord 5, 295315.
22Lowe, MR, Burtryn, ML, Didie, ER, et al. (2009) The Power of Food Scale: a new measure of the psychological influence of the food environment. Appetite 53, 114118.
23Cappelleri, JC, Bushmakin, AC, Gerber, RA, et al. (2009) Evaluating the Power of Food Scale in obese subjects and a general population of individuals: development and measurement properties. Int J Obes 33, 913922.
24Lowe, MR & Butryn, ML (2007) Hedonic hunger: a new dimension of appetite? Physiol Behav 91, 432439.
25Murray, M & Vickers, Z (2009) Consumer views of hunger and fullness: a qualitative approach. Appetite 53, 174182.
26Wansink, B (2004) Environmental factors that increase the food intake and consumption volume of unknowing consumers. Annu Rev Nutr 24, 455479.
27Mann, T & Ward, A (2004) To eat or not to eat: implications of the attentional myopia model for restrained eaters. J Abnorm Psych 113, 9098.
28Hetherington, MM, Anderson, AS, Norton, GNM, et al. (2006) Situational effects on meal intake: a comparison of eating alone and eating with others. Physiol Behav 88, 498505.
29Brunstrom, JM & Mitchell, GL (2006) Effects of distraction on the development of satiety. Br J Nutr 96, 761769.
30Wansink, B (2006) Mindless Eating: Why We Eat More Than We Think. New York: Bantam Books Dell.
31Framson, C, Kristal, AR, Schenk, JM, et al. (2009) Development and validation of the mindful eating questionnaire. J Am Diet Assoc 109, 14391444.
32Tylka, TL (2006) Development and psychometric evaluation of a measure of intuitive eating. J Counseling Psychol 53, 226240.
33Westenhoefer, J, Stunkard, AJ & Pudel, V (1999) Validation of the flexible and rigid control dimensions of dietary restraint. Int J Eat Disord 26, 5364.
34Petty, RE & Cacioppo, JT (editors) (1986) Communication and Persuasion: Central and Peripheral Routes to Attitude Change. New York: Springer-Verlag.
35Drichoutis, AC, Lazaridis, P & Nayga, RM (2006) Consumers' use of nutritional labels: a review of research studies and issues. Acad Marketing Sci Rev 9, 122.
36Pothoulakim, M & Chryssochoidis, G (2009) Health claims: consumers' matters. J Functional Foods 1, 222228.
37Leatherhead Food International (2010) The Perceived and Physiological Effects of Dietary Proteins and Peptides on Satiety. Leatherhead: Leatherhead Food Research.
38Bilman, EM, van Kleef, E, Mela, DJ, et al. (2012) Consumer understanding, interpretation and ascription of personal responsibility in relation to satiety-related claims. Appetite 59, 912920.
39Van Trijp, HCM (2009) Consumer understanding and nutritional communication: key issues in the context of the new EU legislation. Eur J Nutr 48, S41S48.
40Dykes, J, Brunner, EJ, Martikainen, PT, et al. (2004) Socioeconomic gradient in body size and obesity among women: the role of dietary restraint disinhibition and hunger in the Whitehall II study. Int J Obes 28, 262268.
41 Health Survey for England (2010) Statistics on obesity physical activity and diet. Department of Health. http://www.ic.nhs.uk/statistics-and-data-collections (accessed February 2012).
42Van Trijp, HCM & Van der Lans, IA (2007) Consumer perceptions of nutrition and health claims. Appetite 48, 305324.
43Goldstone, AP, Prechtl de Hernandez, CG, Beaver, JD, et al. (2009) Fasting biases brain reward systems towards high-calorie foods. Eur J Neurosci 30, 16251635.
44Booth, DA (2009) The basics of quantitative judgment. How to rate the strength of appetite for food and its sating. Appetite 53, 438441.
45Havermans, RC (2011) “You say it's liking, I say it's wanting”. On the difficulty of disentangling food reward in man. Appetite 57, 286294.
46Finlayson, G & Dalton, M (2012) Current progress in the assessment of ‘liking’ vs. ‘wanting’ food in human appetite. Comment on “You say it's liking, I say it's wanting…”. On the difficulty of disentangling food reward in man. Appetite 58, 373378.
47Booth, DA, O'Leary, G, Li, LX, et al. (2011) Aversive viscerally referred states and thirst accompanying the sating of hunger motivation by rapid digestion of glucosaccharides. Physiol Behav 102, 373381.
48Hetherington, MM (1996) Sensory-specific satiety and its importance in meal termination. Neurosc Biobehav Rev 20, 113117.
49Rozin, P & Gohar, D (2011) The pleasures and memory of food and meals. In Handbook of Behavior, Food and Nutrition, pp. 659672 [Preedy, VR, Watson, RR and Martin, CR, editors]. New York: Springer.
50Booth, DA (1985) Food-conditioned eating preferences and aversions with interoceptive elements: conditioned appetites and satieties. Ann N Y Acad Sci 443, 2241.
51Zheng, H, Lenard, NR, Shin, AC, et al. (2009) Appetite control and energy balance regulation in the modern world: reward-driven brain overrides repletion signals. Int J Obes 33, Suppl. 2, S8S13.
52Ahn, S & Phillips, AG (1999) Dopaminergic correlates of sensory-specific satiety in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens of the rat. J Neurosci 19, RC29.
53Gibson, EL & Desmond, E (1999) Chocolate craving and hunger state: implications for the acquisition and expression of appetite and food choice. Appetite 32, 219240.
54Gibson, EL & Wardle, J (2003) Energy density predicts preferences for fruit and vegetables in 4-year-old children. Appetite 41, 9798.
55de Graaf, C, Schreurs, S & Blauw, YH (1993) Short-term effects of different amounts of sweet and nonsweet carbohydrates on satiety and energy intake. Physiol Behav 54, 833843.
56Booth, DA, Mather, P & Fuller, J (1982) Starch content of ordinary foods associatively conditions human appetite and satiation indexed by intake and eating pleasantness of starch-paired flavours. Appetite 3, 163184.
57Kern, DL, Mcphee, L, Fisher, J, et al. (1993) The postingestive consequences of fat condition preferences for flavors associated with high dietary fat. Physiol Behav 54, 7176.
58Gibson, EL & Brunstrom, JM (2007) Learned influences on appetite and food intake: evidence in human beings. In Progress in Brain Research: Appetite and Body Weight – Integrative Systems and the Development of Anti-Obesity Drugs, pp. 271300 [Cooper, SJ and Kirkham, TC, editors]. London: Elsevier.
59Durlach, PJ, Elliman, NA & Rogers, PJ (2002) Drinking while thirsty can lead to conditioned increases in consumption. Appetite 39, 119125.
60de Graaf, C (2011) Why liquid energy results in overconsumption. Proc Nutr Soc 70, 162170.
61Brunstrom, JM & Fletcher, HZ (2008) Flavour-flavour learning occurs automatically and only in hungry participants. Physiol Behav 93, 1319.
62Yeomans, MR (1996) Palatability and the micro-structure of feeding in humans: the appetizer effect. Appetite 27, 119133.
63Yeomans, MR, Gray, RW & Conyers, THB (1998) Maltodextrin preloads reduce food intake without altering the appetiser effect. Physiol Behav 64, 501506.
64Carbonnel, F, Lemann, M, Rambaud, JC, et al. (1994) Effect of the energy density of a solid-liquid meal on gastric-emptying and satiety. Am J Clin Nutr 60, 307311.
65Brunstrom, JM & Rogers, PJ (2009) How many calories are on our plate? Expected fullness not liking determines meal-size selection. Obesity 17, 18841890.
66Yeomans, MR, Weinberg, L & James, S (2005) Effects of palatability and learned satiety on energy density influences on breakfast intake in humans. Physiol Behav 86, 487499.
67Gibson, EL & Wardle, J (2001) Effect of contingent hunger state on development of appetite for a novel fruit snack. Appetite 37, 91101.
68Zandstra, EH, Stubenitsky, K, De Graaf, C, et al. (2002) Effects of learned flavour cues on short-term regulation of food intake in a realistic setting. Physiol Behav 75, 8390.
69O'Sullivan, HL, Alexander, E, Ferriday, D, et al. (2010) Effects of repeated exposure on liking for a reduced-energy-dense food. Am J Clin Nutr 91, 15841589.
70Brunstrom, JM (2011) The control of meal size in human subjects: a role for expected satiety expected satiation and premeal planning. Proc Nutr Soc 70, 155161.
71De Graaf, C, De Jong, LS & Lambers, AC (1999) Palatability affects satiation but not satiety. Physiol Behav 66, 681688.
72Davis, JF, Choi, DL & Benoit, SC (2010) Insulin leptin and reward. Trends Endocrin Metab 21, 6874.
73Batterham, RL, Ffytche, DH, Rosenthal, JM, et al. (2007) PYY modulation of cortical and hypothalamic brain areas predicts feeding behaviour in humans. Nature 450, 106109.
74Dossat, AM, Lilly, N, Kay, K, et al. (2011) Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptors in nucleus accumbens affect food intake. J Neurosci 31, 1445314457.
75Figlewicz, DP & Sipols, AJ (2010) Energy regulatory signals and food reward. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 97, 1524.
76Yeomans, MR & Mobini, S (2006) Hunger alters the expression of acquired hedonic but not sensory qualities of food-paired odors in humans. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 32, 460466.
77Rode, E, Rozin, P & Durlach, P (2007) Experienced and remembered pleasure for meals: duration neglect but minimal peak, end (recency) or primacy effects. Appetite 49, 1829.
78Barkeling, B, Rossner, S & Sjoberg, A (1995) Methodological studies on single meal food intake characteristics in normal-weight and obese men and women. Int J Obes 19, 284290.
79de Castro, JM & Elmore, DK (1988) Subjective hunger relationships with meal patterns in the spontaneous feeding-behavior of humans - evidence for a causal connection. Physiol Behav 43, 159165.
80Drapeau, V, Blundell, J, Therrien, F, et al. (2005) Appetite sensations as a marker of overall intake. Br J Nutr 93, 273280.
81Drapeau, V, King, N, Hetherington, M, et al. (2007) Appetite sensations and satiety quotient: predictors of energy intake and weight loss. Appetite 48, 159166.
82Flint, A, Raben, A, Blundell, JE, et al. (2000) Reproducibility, power and validity of visual analogue scares in assessment of appetite sensations in single test meal studies. Int J Obes 24, 3848.
83Hulshof, T, Degraaf, C & Weststrate, JA (1993) The effects of preloads varying in physical state and fat content on satiety and energy intake. Appetite 21, 273286.
84Parker, BA, Sturm, K, MacIntosh, C, et al. (2004) Relation between food intake and visual analogue scale ratings of appetite and other sensations in healthy older and young subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 212218.
85Porrini, M, Crovetti, R, Testolin, G, et al. (1995) Evaluation of satiety sensations and food intake after different preloads. Appetite 25, 1730.
86Veldhorst, MA, Nieuwenhuizen, AG, Hochstenbach-Waelen, A, et al. (2009) A breakfast with alpha-lactalbumin, gelatin, or gelatin plus TRP lowers energy intake at lunch compared with a breakfast with casein, soy, whey, or whey-GMP. Clin Nutr 28, 147155.
87Mattes, R (1990) Hunger ratings are not a valid proxy measure of reported food intake in humans. Appetite 15, 103113.
88Sadoul, B, Schuring, EAH, Mela, DJ, et al. (2012) The relationship between appetite scores and food intake: an analysis based on 25 studies. Obes Facts 5, Suppl. 1, 62(abstract 205).
89Li, M & Cheung, BMY (2009) Pharmacotherapy for obesity. Br J Clin Phamacol 68, 804810.
90Rolls, BJ, Shide, DJ, Thorwart, ML, et al. (1998) Sibutramine reduces food intake in non-dieting women with obesity. Obes Res 6, 111.
91Barkeling, B, Elfhag, K, Rooth, P, et al. (2003) Short-term effects of sibutramine (Reductil) on appetite and eating behaviour and the long-term therapeutic outcome. Int J Obes 27, 693700.
92Keim, NL, Stern, JS & Havel, PJ (1998) Relation between circulating leptin concentrations and appetite during a prolonged, moderate energy deficit in women. Am J Clin Nutr 68, 794801.
93Doucet, E, Imbeault, P, St-Pierre, S, et al. (2000) Appetite after weight loss by energy restriction and a low-fat diet-exercise follow-up. Int J Obes 24, 906914.
94Sumithran, P, Prendergast, LA, Delbridge, E, et al. (2011) Long-term persistence of hormonal adaptations to weight loss. N Engl J Med 365, 15971604.
95Bellisle, F, Dalix, AM, De Assis, MA, et al. (2007) Motivational effects of 12-week moderately restrictive diets with or without special attention to the Glycaemic Index of foods. Br J Nutr 97, 790798.
96Blaney, PH (1986) Affect and memory: a review. Psychol Bull 99, 229246.
97Gibson, EL & Green, MW (2002) Nutritional influences on cognitive function: mechanisms of susceptibility. Nutr Res Rev 15, 169206.
98Dye, L & Blundell, J (2002) Functional foods: psychological and behavioural functions. Br J Nutr 88, Suppl. 2, S187S211.
99Lloyd, HM, Green, MW & Rogers, PJ (1994) Mood and cognitive performance effects of isocaloric lunches differing in fat and carbohydrate content. Physiol Behav 56, 5157.
100Lloyd, HM, Rogers, PJ, Hedderley, DI, et al. (1996) Acute effects on mood and cognitive performance of breakfasts differing in fat and carbohydrate content. Appetite 27, 151164.
101Wells, AS, Read, NW & Craig, A (1995) Influences of dietary and intraduodenal lipid on alertness mood and sustained concentration. Br J Nutr 74, 115123.
102Wells, AS & Read, NW (1996) Influences of fat energy and time of day on mood and performance. Physiology 59, 10691076.
103Hoyland, A, Dye, L & Lawton, CL (2009) A systematic review of the effect of breakfast on the cognitive performance of children and adolescents. Nutr Res Rev 22, 220243.
104Polivy, J (1996) Psychological consequences of food restriction. J Am Diet Assoc 96, 589592.
105Bandura, A (1982) The assessment and predictive generality of self-percepts of efficacy. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 13, 195199.
106Pearson, N, Ball, K & Crawford, D (2011) Predictors of changes in adolescents' consumption of fruits vegetables and energy-dense snacks. Br J Nutr 105, 795803.
107Bas, M & Donmez, S (2009) Self-efficacy and restrained eating in relation to weight loss among overweight men and women in Turkey. Appetite 52, 209216.
108Wamsteker, EW, Geenen, R, Iestra, J, et al. (2005) Obesity-related beliefs predict weight loss after an 8-week low-calorie diet. J Am Diet Assoc 105, 441444.
109Clark, MM & King, TK (2000) Eating self-efficacy and weight cycling: a prospective clinical study. Eat Behav 1, 4752.
110Duckworth, LC, Gately, PJ, Radley, D, et al. (2009) RCT of a high-protein diet on hunger motivation and weight-loss in obese children: an extension and replication. Obesity 17, 18081810.
111Klem, ML, Wing, RR, McGuire, MT, et al. (1997) A descriptive study of individuals successful at long-term maintenance of substantial weight loss. Am J Clin Nutr 66, 239246.
112Karlsson, J, Hallgren, P, Kral, J, et al. (1994) Predictors and effects of long-term dieting on mental well-being and weight loss in obese women. Appetite 23, 1526.
113Bryant, EJ, King, NA & Blundell, JE (2008) Disinhibition: its effects on appetite and weight regulation. Obes Rev 9, 409419.
114Das, SK, Saltzman, E, Gilhooly, CH, et al. (2009) Low or moderate dietary energy restriction for long-term weight loss: what works best? Obesity 17, 20192024.
115Teixeira, PJ, Silva, MN, Coutinho, SR, et al. (2010) Mediators of weight loss and weight loss maintenance in middle-aged women. Obesity 18, 725735.
116Delzenne, N, Blundell, J, Brouns, F, et al. (2010) Gastrointestinal targets of appetite regulation in humans. Obes Rev 11, 234250.
117Oliván, B, Teixeira, J, Bose, M, et al. (2009) Effect of weight loss by diet or gastric bypass surgery on peptide YY3-36 levels. Ann Surg 249, 948953.
118Le Roux, C, Patterson, M, Vincent, RP, et al. (2005) Postprandial plasma ghrelin is suppressed proportional to meal calorie content in normal-weight but not obese subjects. J Clin Endocrin Metab 90, 10681071.
119de Luis, DA, Sagrado, MG, Conde, R, et al. (2008) Changes of ghrelin and leptin in response to hypocaloric diet in obese patients. Nutrition 24, 162166.
120Heinonen, MV, Laaksonen, DE, Karhu, T, et al. (2009) Effect of diet-induced weight loss on plasma apelin and cytokine levels in individuals with the metabolic syndrome. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 19, 626633.
121Lejeune, MP, Hukshorn, CJ, Saris, WH, et al. (2007) Effects of very low calorie diet induced body weight loss with or without human pegylated recombinant leptin treatment on changes in ghrelin and adiponectin concentrations. Physiol Behav 91, 274280.
122Drazen, DL, Vahl, TP, D'Alessio, DA, et al. (2006) Effects of a fixed meal pattern on ghrelin secretion: evidence for a learned response independent of nutrient status. Endocrinology 147, 2330.
123Chearskul, S, Delbridge, E, Shulkes, A, et al. (2008) Effect of weight loss and ketosis on postprandial cholecystokinin and free fatty acid concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 12381246.
124Degen, L, Drewe, J, Piccoli, F, et al. (2007) Effect of CCK-1 receptor blockade on ghrelin and PYY secretion in men. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 292, R1391R1399.
125Chan, JL, Stoyneva, V, Kelesidis, T, et al. (2006) Peptide YY levels are decreased by fasting and elevated following caloric intake but are not regulated by leptin. Diabetologia 49, 169173.
126Geliebter, A, Schachter, S, Lohmann-Walter, C, et al. (1996) Reduced stomach capacity in obese subjects after dieting. Am J Clin Nutr 63, 170173.
127Raynor, HA & Epstein, LH (2003) The relative-reinforcing value of food under differing levels of food deprivation and restriction. Appetite 40, 1524.
128Epstein, LH, Truesdale, R, Wojcik, A, et al. (2003) Effects of deprivation on hedonics and reinforcing value of food. Physiol Behav 78, 221227.
129Dumesnil, JG, Turgeon, J, Tremblay, A, et al. (2001) Effect of a low-glycaemic index-low-fat-high protein diet on the atherogenic metabolic risk profile of abdominally obese men. Br J Nutr 86, 557568.
130Rodriguez-Rodriguez, E, Aparicio, A, Bermejo, LM, et al. (2009) Changes in the sensation of hunger and well-being before and after meals in overweight/obese women following two types of hypoenergetic diet. Public Health Nutr 12, 4450.
131Pasman, WJ, Saris, WH & Westerterp-Plantenga, MS (1999) Predictors of weight maintenance. Obes Res 7, 4350.
132Franklin, JC, Scheile, BC, Brožek, J, et al. (1948) Observations on human behavior in experimental semi-starvation and rehabilitation. J Clin Psychol 4, 2845.
133Lowe, MR (1993) The effects of dieting on eating behavior: a three-factor model. Psychol Bull 114, 100121.
134Lieberman, HR, Caruso, CM, Niro, PJ, et al. (2008) A double-blind, placebo-controlled test of 2 d of calorie deprivation: effects on cognition, activity, sleep, and interstitial glucose concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 667676.
135Hill, AJ (2007) The psychology of food craving. Proc Nutr Soc 66, 277285.
136Harvey, J, Wing, RR & Mullen, M (1993) Effects on food cravings of a very low calorie diet or a balanced, low calorie diet. Appetite 21, 105115.
137Martin, CK, O'Neil, PM & Pawlow, L (2006) Changes in food cravings during low-calorie and very-low-calorie diets. Obesity 14, 115121.
138Burley, VJ, Kreitzman, SN, Hill, AJ, et al. (1992) Across-the-day monitoring of mood and energy intake before, during and after a very-low-calorie diet. Am J Clin Nutr 56, Suppl. 1, 277S278S.
139Gibson, EL (2011) Emotional and behavioral aspects of chocolate eating. In Handbook of Behavior, Food and Nutrition, pp. 601620 [Preedy, VR, Watson, RR and Martin, CR, editors]. New York: Springer.
140Nederkoorn, C, Guerrieri, R, Havermans, RC, et al. (2009) The interactive effect of hunger and impulsivity on food intake and purchase in a virtual supermarket. Int J Obes 33, 905912.
141Jones, N & Rogers, PJ (2003) Preoccupation, food, and failure: an investigation of cognitive performance deficits in dieters. Int J Eat Disord 33, 185192.
142Kemps, E, Tiggemann, M & Grigg, M (2008) Food cravings consume limited cognitive resources. J Exp Psychol Appl 14, 247254.
143Stewart, SH & Samoluk, SB (1997) Effects of short-term food deprivation and chronic dietary restraint on the selective processing or appetitive-related cues. Int J Eat Disord 21, 129135.
144Francis, JA, Stewart, SH & Hounsell, S (1997) Dietary restraint and the selective processing of forbidden and nonforbidden food words. Cogn Ther Res 21, 633646.
145Stockburger, J, Schmälzle, R, Flaisch, T, et al. (2009) The impact of hunger on food cue processing: an event-related brain potential study. Neuroimage 47, 18191829.
146Timmerman, GM & Gregg, EK (2003) Dieting, perceived deprivation, and preoccupation with food. West J Nurs Res 25, 405418.
147Anderson, IM, Parry-Billings, M, Newsholme, EA, et al. (1990) Dieting reduces plasma tryptophan and alters brain 5-HT function in women. Psychol Med 20, 785791.
148Bryan, J & Tiggemann, M (2001) The effect of weight-loss dieting on cognitive performance and psychological well-being in overweight women. Appetite 36, 147156.
149Halford, JC, Boyland, EJ, Blundell, JE, et al. (2010) Pharmacological management of appetite expression in obesity. Nat Rev Endocrinol 6, 255269.
150Hill, AJ, Lawton, CL, Wales, JK, et al. (1995) Dexfenfluramine and the control of eating: effects on obese women living at home. Int J Obes 19, Suppl. 2, 142(abstract).
151Dixon, AFR, Dixon, JB & O'Brien, PE (2005) Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding induces prolonged satiety: a randomized blind crossover study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90, 813819.
152Karamanakos, SN, Vagenas, K, Kalfarentzos, F, et al. (2008) Weight loss appetite suppression and changes in fasting and postprandial ghrelin and peptide-YY levels after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy: a prospective double blind study. Ann Surg 247, 401407.
153Halton, TL & Hu, FB (2004) The effects of high protein diets on thermogenesis satiety and weight loss: a critical review. J Am Coll Nutr 23, 373385.
154Paddon-Jones, D, Westman, E, Mattes, RD, et al. (2008) Protein weight management and satiety. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 1558S1561S.
155Weigle, DS, Breen, PA, Matthys, CC, et al. (2005) A high-protein diet induces sustained reductions in appetite ad libitum caloric intake and body weight despite compensatory changes in diurnal plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 82, 4148.
156Nickols-Richardson, SM, Coleman, MD, Volpe, JJ, et al. (2005) Perceived hunger is lower and weight loss is greater in overweight premenopausal women consuming a low-carbohydrate/high-protein vs high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet. J Am Diet Assoc 105, 14331437.
157Due, A, Toubro, S, Skov, AR, et al. (2004) Effect of normal-fat diets either medium or high in protein on body weight in overweight subjects: a randomised 1-year trial. Int J Obes 28, 12831290.
158Johnstone, AM, Horgan, GW, Murison, SD, et al. (2008) Effects of a high-protein ketogenic diet on hunger, appetite and weight loss in obese men feeding ad libitum. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 4455.
159Westerterp-Plantenga, MS, Lejeune, MP, Nijs, I, et al. (2004) High protein intake sustains weight maintenance after body weight loss in humans. Int J Obes 28, 5764.
160Kovacs, EM, Westerterp-Plantenga, MS, Saris, WH, et al. (2001) The effect of addition of modified guar gum to a low-energy semisolid meal on appetite and body weight loss. Int J Obes 25, 307315.
161Greenway, F, O'Neil, CE, Stewart, L, et al. (2007) Fourteen weeks of treatment with Viscofiber increased fasting levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide-YY. J Med Food 10, 720724.
162Salas-Salvadó, J, Farrés, X, Luque, X, et al. (2008) Effect of two doses of a mixture of soluble fibres on body weight and metabolic variables in overweight or obese patients: a randomised trial. Br J Nutr 99, 13801387.
163Wanders, AJ, van den Borne, JJ, de Graaf, C, et al. (2011) Effects of dietary fibre on subjective appetite, energy intake and body weight: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Obes Rev 12, 724739.
164Anton, SD, Han, H, York, E, et al. (2009) Effect of calorie restriction on subjective ratings of appetite. J Hum Nutr Diet 22, 141147.
165Booth, DA (1977) Satiety and appetite are conditioned reactions. Psychosom Med 39, 7681.

Keywords

Potential benefits of satiety to the consumer: scientific considerations

  • M. M. Hetherington (a1), K. Cunningham (a2), L. Dye (a1), E. L. Gibson (a3), N. T. Gregersen (a4), J. C. G. Halford (a5), C. L. Lawton (a1), A. Lluch (a6), D. J. Mela (a7) and H. C. M. Van Trijp (a8)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed