Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Phytate and phytase: consequences for protein utilisation

  • P H Selle (a1) (a2), V Ravindran (a3), A Caldwell (a4) and W. L Bryden (a1)

Abstract

The excretion of large amounts of P in effluent from intensive pig and poultry units is indicative of the poor availability of phytate-bound P in plant-derived feed ingredients. This environmental problem prompted the development and acceptance of microbial phytase feed enzymes for single-stomached animals. Their introduction led to an increasing recognition that phytate may have adverse effects on protein utilisation in addition to P. Consequently, the nutritional relevance of protein–phytate interactions for pigs and poultry is considered in the present review. Since the current understanding of the effects of protein–phytate interactions comes mainly from responses obtained to added phytase, literature on the influence of microbial phytases on amino acid digestibility and utilisation is summarised, followed by a discussion of possible mechanisms contributing to the negative effects of phytate. However, the rationale for the protein responses to added phytase remains largely speculative, and several modes of action are probably involved. It may be that the release of protein from protein–phytate complexes occurring naturally in feed ingredients, the prevention of formation of binary and ternary protein–phytate complexes within the gut, the alleviation of the negative impact of phytate on digestive enzymes and the reduction in endogenous amino acid losses are all contributing factors. A better understanding of the mechanisms of protein–phytate interactions and the modes of action of exogenous phytase enzymes is clearly desirable. Studies are also needed to identify and quantify the factors that contribute to the variable amino acid responses to added phytase. It appears that the relative solubilities of phytate salts and proteins from different feed ingredients and their effects on the extent of protein–phytate complex formation, coupled with variations in the effectiveness of phytase in different dietary contexts, may be the major factors responsible.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Phytate and phytase: consequences for protein utilisation
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Phytate and phytase: consequences for protein utilisation
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Phytate and phytase: consequences for protein utilisation
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Peter Selle, fax +61 2 9735 5404, email: sellep@basf-australia.com.au

References

Hide All
Anderson, PA (1985) Interactions between proteins and constituents that affect protein quality. In Digestibility and Amino Acid Availability in Cereals and Oilseeds, pp. 3145 [Finley, JW and Hopkins, DT, editors]. St Paul, MN: American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc.
Angkanaporn, K, Choct, M, Bryden, WL & Annison, EF (1994) Effects of wheat pentosans on endogenous amino acid losses in chickens. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 66, 399404.
Arnone, A & Perutz, MF (1974) Structure of inositol hexaphosphate-human deoxyhaemoglobin complex. Nature 249, 3436.
Ballam, GC, Nelson, TS & Kirby, LB (1984) Effect ofiber and phytate source and of calcium and phosphorus level on phytate hydrolysis in the chick. Poultry Science 63, 333338.
Barnett, BJ, Clarke, WA & Batterham, ES (1993) Has phytase a proteolytic effect in diets for weaner pigs? In Manipulating Pig Production, vol. 4, p. 227 [Batterham, ES, editor]. Werribee, Victoria: Australasian Pig Science Association.
Barré, R & Nguyen-van-Huot, N (1965) Etudé de la combination de l'acide phytique avec la serum-albumine humaine native, acetylee et des amine (Study of the combination of phytic acid and native human serum albumin, acetylate and amines). Bulletin de Société de Chimie Biologique 47, 3991417.
Barrier-Guillot, B, Casado, P, Maupetit, P, Jondreville, C & Gatel, F (1996) Wheat phosphorus availability: 1 -In vitro study: factors affecting endogenous phytasic activity and phytic phosphorous content. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 70, 6268.
Barth, CA, Lunding, B, Schmitz, M & Hagemeister, H (1993) Soybean trypsin inhibitor(s) reduce absorption of exogenous and increase loss of endogenous protein in miniature pigs. Journal of Nutrition 123, 21952200.
Beers, S & Jongbloed, AW (1992) Effect of supplementary Aspergillus niger phytase in diets for piglets on their performance and apparent digestibility of phosphorus. Animal Production 55, 425430.
Biehl, RR & Baker, DH (1996) Effcacy of supplemental 1α-hydroxycholecalciferol and microbial phytase for young pigs fed phosphorus- or amino acid-de_ient corn-soyabean meal diets. Journal of Animal Science 74, 29602966.
Biehl, RR & Baker, DH (1997) Microbial phytase improves amino acid utilization in young chicks fed diets based on soyabean meal but not diets based on peanut meal. Poultry Science 76, 355360.
Boling, SD, Peter, CM, Douglas, MW, Strunk, CS, Parsons, CM & Baker, DH (1999) Efficacy of phytase for increasing protein ef_iency ratio (PER) values of feed ingredients. Poultry Science 78, Suppl. 1, 75 Abstr.
Bourdillon, J (1951) Crystalline bean seed protein in combination with phytic acid. Journal of Biological Chemistry 189, 6572.
Cabahug, S, Ravindran, V, Bryden, WL & Selle, PH (1999) Response of broilers to microbial phytase supplementation as influenced by dietary phytic acid and non-phytate phosphorus levels. I. Effects on broiler performance and toe ash content. British Poultry Science 40, 660666.
Cadogan, DJ, Selle, PH, Campbell, RG & Walker, AR (1997) Effects of dietary phytate phosphorus and microbial phytase on the performance of weaner pigs. In Manipulating Pig Production, vol. 6, p. 245 [Cranwell, PD, editor]. Werribee, Victoria: Australasian Pig Science Association.
Caine, WR, Sauer, WC, Verstegen, WA, Tamminga, S, Li, S & Schulze, H (1998) Guanidated protein test meals with higher concentration of soyabean trypsin inhibitors increase ileal recoveries of endogenous amino acids in pigs. Journal of Nutrition 128, 598605.
Campbell, GL & Bedford, MR (1992) Enzyme applications for monogastric feeds: A review. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 72, 449466.
Campbell, RG, Harrison, DT, Butler, KJ & Selle, PH (1995) Effects of dietary available phosphorus and phytase (Natuphos) on the performance of pigs from 19 to 40 days post-weaning. In Manipulating Pig Production, vol. 5, p. 193 [Hennessy, DP and Cranwell, PD, editors]. Werribee, Victoria: Australasian Pig Science Association.
Camus, MC & Laporte, JC (1976) Inhibition de la protéolyse pesique par le blé. Roôle de l'acide phytique des issues. (Inhibition of pepsin proteolysis by wheat. Role of phytic acid in the outcome). Annales de Biologie Animale Biochimie Biophysique 16, 719729.
Champagne, ET (1988) Effects of pH on mineral-phytate, protein-mineral-phytate and mineral-fiber interactions. Possible consequences of atrophic gastritis on mineral bioavailability from high fiber foods. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 7, 499508.
Champagne, ET, Fisher, MS & Hinojosa, O (1990) NMR and ESR studies of interactions among divalent cations, phytic acid, and N-acetyl-amino acids. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry 38, 199215.
Champagne, ET, Rao, RM, Liuzzo, JA, Robinson, JW, Gale, RJ & Miller, F (1985) Solubility behaviours of the minerals, proteins and phytic acid in rice bran with time temperature and pH. Cereal Chemistry 62, 218222.
Cheryan, M (1980) Phytic acid interactions in food systems. CRC Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 13, 297335.
Cosgrove, DJ (1966) The chemistry and biochemistry of inositol polyphosphates. Reviews of Pure and Applied Chemistry 16, 209224.
Cosgrove, DJ (1980) Inositol Phosphates. Their Chemistry, Biochemistry and Physiology. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Scientific Publishing.
de Boland, AR, Garner, GB & O'Dell, BL (1975) Identification and properties of ‘phytate’ in cereal grains and oilseed products. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 23, 11861189.
de Rham, O & Jost, T (1979) Phytate-protein interactions in soyabean extracts and low-phytate soy protein products. Journal of Food Science 44, 596600.
Desphande, SS & Cheryan, M (1984) Effects of phytic acid divalent cations and their interactions on α-amylase activity. Journal of Food Science 49, 516519.
Desphande, SS & Damadaran, S (1989) Effect of phytate on solubility, activity and conformation of trypsin and chymotrypsin. Journal of Food Science 54, 695699.
Eeckhout, W & de Paepe, M (1991) The quantitative effects of an industrial microbial phytase and wheat phytase on the apparent phosphorus absorbability of a mixed feed by piglets. Medical Faculty Landbouw Rijkuniversity, Gent 56, 16431647.
Engelen, AJ, van der Heeft, FC, Randsdorp, PHG & Smit, ELC (1994) Simple and rapid determination of phytase activity. Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists International 77, 760764.
Fandrejewski, H, Raj, S, Weremko, D & Zebrowska, T (1997) Apparent digestibility in experimental feeds and the effect of commercial phytase. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science 10, 665670.
Farrell, DJ & Martin, E (1993) Feed enzymes in poultry nutrition: recent findings Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition in Australia, pp. 266276 [Farrell, DJ, editor]. Armidale, NSW: University of New England.
Farrell, DJ & Martin, E (1998) Strategies to improve the nutritive value of rice bran in poultry diets. III. The addition of inorganic phosphorus and a phytase to duck diets. British Poultry Science 39, 601611.
Farrell, DJ, Martin, E, Du Preez, JJ, Bongarts, M, Betts, M, Sudaman, A & Thomson, E (1992) The improvement in phosphorus availability when phytase is added to broiler diets. Proceedings of the Australian Poultry Science Symposium, vol. 4, pp. 116119 [Johnson, RJ, editor]. Sydney, NSW: Poultry Research Foundation and the World's Poultry Science Association.
Fontaine, TD, Pons, WA & Irving, GW (1946) Protein-phytate relationship in peanuts and cottonseed. Journal of Biological Chemistry 164, 487507.
Frolich, W & Asp, N-G (1985) Minerals and phytate in the analysis of dietary fiber from cereals. III. Cereal Chemistry 62, 238242.
Gifford, SR & Clydesdale, FM (1990) Interactions among calcium, zinc and phytate with three protein sources. Journal of Food Science 55, 17201724.
Gillberg, L & Tornell, B (1976) Preparation of rapeseed protein isolates. Dissolution and precipitation behaviour of rapeseed proteins. Journal of Food Science 41, 10631069.
Graf, E (1986) Phytic acid: Chemistry and Applications. Minneapolis, MN: Pilatus Press.
Graf, E & Eaton, JW (1993) Suppression of colonic cancer by dietary phytic acid. Nutrition and Cancer 19, 1119.
Greiner, R, Konietzny, U & Jany, Kl-D (1993) Purification and characterization of two phytases from Escherichia coli Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 303, 107113.
Han, YW (1988) Removal of phytic acid from soyabean and cottonseed meals. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 36, 11811183.
Harland, BF & Morris, ER (1995) Phytate: a good or bad food component? Nutrition Research 15, 733754.
Hersey, SJ (1987) Pepsin secretion. In Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract, vol. 2, pp. 947957. [Johnson, LR, editor]. New York: Raven Press.
Hew, LI, Ravindran, V, Mollah, Y & Bryden, WL (1998) Influence of exogenous xylanase supplementation on apparent metabolisable energy and amino acid digestibility in wheat for broiler chickens. Animal Feed Science and Technology 75, 8392.
Hill, R & Tyler, C (1954) The reaction between protein and phytate. Journal of Agricultural Science 44, 324326.
Honig, DH, Wolf, WJ & Rackis, JJ (1984) Phytic acid and phosphorus content of various soyabean protein fractions. Cereal Chemistry 61, 523526.
Hu, HL, Wise, A & Henderson, C (1996) Hydrolysis of phytate and inositol tri-, tetra-, and penta-phosphates by the intestinal mucosa of the pig. Nutrition Research 16, 781787.
Inagawa, J, Kiyosawa, I & Nagasawa, T (1987) Effects of phytic acid on the digestion of casein and soyabean protein with trypsin, pancreatin and pepsin. Nippon Eiyo Shokuryo Gakkaishi 40, 367373.
Jones, DB & Csonka, FA (1925) Proteins of the cottonseed. Journal of Biological Chemistry 64, 673683.
Jongbloed, AW, de Jonge, L, Kemme, PA, Mroz, Z & Keis, AK (1997) Non-mineral related effects of phytase in pig diets. 6th Forum on Animal Nutrition, pp. 92106. Ludwigshafen: BASF.
Jongbloed, AW & Kemme, PA (1990) Effect of pelleting mixed feeds on phytase activity and the apparent absorbability of phosphorus and calcium in pigs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 28, 233242.
Jongbloed, AW, Mroz, Z & Kemme, PA (1992) The effect of supplementary Aspergillus niger phytase in diets for pigs on concentration and apparent digestibility of dry matter, total phosphorus, and phytic acid in different sections of the alimentary tract. Journal of Animal Science 70, 11591168.
Kanaya, K, Yasumoto, K & Mitsuda, H (1976) Pepsin inhibition by phytate contained in rice bran. Eiyo To Shokuryo 29, 341346.
Ketaren, PP, Batterham, ES, Dettmann, EB & Farrell, DJ (1993) Phosphorus studies in pigs. 3. Effect of phytase supplementation on the digestibility and availability of phosphorus in soya-bean meal for grower pigs. British Journal of Nutrition 70, 289311.
Knuckles, BE, Kuzmicky, DD, Gumbmann, MR & Betschart, AA (1989) Effect of myo-inositol phosphate esters on in vitro and in vivo digestion of protein. Journal of Food Science 54, 13481350.
Konishi, C, Matsui, T, Park, H, Yano, H & Yano, F (1999) Heat treatment of soyabean and rapeseed meals suppress rumen degradation of phytate phosphorus in sheep. Animal Feed Science and Technology 80, 115122.
Kornegay, ET (1996 a) Nutritional, environmental and economic considerations for using phytase in pig and poultry diets. In Nutrient Management of Food Animals to Enhance and Protect the Environment, pp. 277302 [Kornegay, ET, editor]. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Kornegay, ET (1996 b) Effect of Natuphos® phytase on protein and amino acid digestibility and nitrogen retention of poultry. In Phytase in Animal Nutrition and Waste Management, pp. 493514 [Coelho, MB and Kornegay, ET, editors]. Mount Olive, NJ: BASF Corporation.
Kornegay, ET, Denbow, DM & Zhang, Z (1999) Influence of microbial phytase supplementation of a low protein/amino acid diet on performance, ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids, and carcass measurements of finishing broilers. In Phytase in Animal Nutrition and Waste Management, pp. 557572 [Coelho, MB and Kornegay, ET, editors]. Mount Olive, NJ: BASF Corporation.
Kornegay, ET, Radcliffe, JS & Zhang, Z (1998) Influence of phytase and diet composition on phosphorus and amino acid digestibilities, and phosphorus and nitrogen excretion in swine. BASF Technical Symposium Preceding Carolina Swine Nutrition Conference, pp. 125155. Mount Olive, NJ: BASF Corporation.
Ledoux, DR, Firman, JD, Broomhead, JN & Li, YC (1999) Effects of microbial phytase on apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids in turkey poults fed a corn-soyabean meal diet formulated on an ideal protein basis. Poultry Science 78, Suppl. 1, 74 Abstr.
Lenis, NP & Jongbloed, AW (1999) New technologies in low pollution swine diets: diet manipulation and use of synthetic amino acids, phytase and phase feeding for reduction of nitrogen and phosphorus excretion and ammonia emission–Review. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science 12, 305327.
Lonnerdal, B, Sandberg, A-S, Sandstrom, B & Kunz, C (1989) Inhibitory effects of phytic acid and other inositol phosphates on zinc and calcium absorption in suckling rats. Journal of Nutrition 119, 211214.
Lott, JNA (1984) Accumulation of seed reserves of phosphorus and other minerals. In Seed Physiology, vol. 1, Development, pp. 139166 [Murray, DR, editor]. London: Academic Press.
Maenz, DD & Classen, HL (1988) Phytase activity in the small intestinal brush border membrane of the chicken. Poultry Science 77, 557563.
Maenz, DD, Engele-Schann, CM, Newkirk, RW & Classen, HL (1999) The effect of minerals and mineral chelators on the formation of phytate-resistant and phytase-susceptible forms of phytic acid in solution and in a slurry of canola meal. Animal Feed Science and Technology 77, 177192.
Maga, JA (1982) Phytate: its chemistry, occurrence, food interactions, nutritional significance, and methods of analysis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 30, 19.
Martin, CJ & Evans, WJ (1986) Phytic acid-metal ion interactions. II. The effect of pH on Ca(II) binding. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry 27, 1730.
Mollah, Y, Bryden, WL, Wallis, IR, Balnave, D & Annison, EF (1983) Studies of low metabolisable energy wheats for poultry using conventional and rapid assay procedures and the effects of feed processing. British Poultry Science 24, 8189.
Mroz, Z, Jongbloed, AW & Kemme, P (1994) Apparent digestibility and retention of nutrients bound to phytate complexes as influenced by microbial phytase and feeding regimen in pigs. Journal of Animal Science 72, 126132.
Mroz, Z, Krasuki, W & Grela, E (1995 b) Physiological responses of lactating sows to feeding rapeseed ‘00’ and microbial phytase. In Manipulating Pig Production, vol. 5, p. 185 [Hennessy, DP and Cranwell, PD, editors]. Werribee, Australasian Pig Science Association.
Namkung, H & Leeson, S (1999) Effect of phytase enzyme on dietary nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy and the ileal digestibility of nitrogen and amino acids. Poultry Science 78, 13171319.
Nelson, TS (1967) The utilization of phytate phosphorus by the chick–a review. Poultry Science 46, 862871.
Nelson, TS, Shieh, TR, Wodzinski, RJ & Ware, JH (1968) The availability of phytate phosphorus in soyabean meal before and after treatment with a mold phytase. Poultry Science 47, 18421848.
Nolan, KB, Duffin, PA & McWeeny, DJ (1987) Effects of phytate on mineral bioavailability: In vitro studies of Mg2+, Ca2+, Fe3+, Cu2+ and Zinc2+ (also Cd2+) solubilities in the presence of phytate. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 40, 7985.
Nosworthy, N & Caldwell, RA (1988) The interaction of zinc(II) and phytic acid with soya bean glycinin. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 44, 143150.
Oberleas, D, Muhrer, ME & O'Dell, BL (1962) Effects of phytic acid on zinc availability and parakeratosis in swine. Journal of Animal Science 21, 5761.
O'Dell, BL & de Boland, A (1976) Complexation of phytate with proteins and cations in corn grain and oilseed meals. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 24, 804808.
Officer, DI & Batterham, ES (1992 a) Enzyme supplementation of Linola meal for grower pigs. In Proceedings of the Australian Society of Animal Production, vol. 19, p. 288 [Foot, JZ, editor]. Melbourne, Victoria: Latrobe University.
Officer, DI & Batterham, ES (1992 b) Enzyme supplementation of Linola meal. In Fourth Biennial Pig Industry Seminar, p 56. Wollongbar, NSW: Wollongbar Agricultural Institute.
Okubo, K, Myers, DV & Iacobucci, GA (1976) Binding of phytic acid to glycinin. Cereal Chemistry 53, 513524.
Okubo, K, Waldrop, AB, Iacobucci, GA & Myers, DV (1975) Preparation of low-phytate soyabean protein isolate and concentrate by ultrafiltration. Cereal Chemistry 52, 263271.
Omosaiye, O & Cheryan, M (1979) Low-phytate, full fat soy protein product by ultrafiltration of aqueous extracts of whole soyabeans. Cereal Chemistry 56, 5862.
Phillippy, BQ (1999) Susceptibility of wheat and Aspergillus niger phytases to inactivation by gastrointestinal enzymes. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 47, 13851388.
Porres, JM, Stahl, CH, Cheng, WH, Fu, Y, Roneker, KR, Pond, WG & Lei, XG (1999) Dietary intrinsic phytate protects colon from lipid peroxidation in pigs with a moderately high dietary iron intake. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 221, 8086.
Prattley, CA & Stanley, DW (1982) Protein-phytate interactions in soyabeans. I. Localisation of phytate in protein bodies and globoids. Journal of Food Biochemistry 6, 243253.
Prattley, CA, Stanley, DW & van der Voort, FR (1982) Protein-phytate interactions in soyabeans. II. Mechanism of protein-phytate binding as affected by calcium. Journal of Food Biochemistry 6, 255271.
Rajendran, S & Prakash, V (1993) Kinetics and thermodynamics of the mechanism of interaction of sodium phytate with α-globulin. Biochemistry 32, 34743478.
Ravindran, V (1995) Phytases in poultry nutrition. An overview. Proceedings of the Australian Poultry Science Symposium, vol. 7, pp. 135139 [Balnave, D, editor]. Sydney, NSW Poultry Research Foundation and The World's Poultry Science Association.
Ravindran, V & Bryden, WL (1999) Amino acid availability in poultry–in vitro and in vivo measurements. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 50, 889908.
Ravindran, V, Bryden, WL & Kornegay, ET (1995) Phytates: occurrence, bioavailability and implications in poultry nutrition. Poultry and Avian Biology Reviews 6, 125143.
Ravindran, V, Cabahug, S, Ravindran, G & Bryden, WL (1999 a) Influence of microbial phytase on apparent ileal amino acid digestibility in feedstuffs for broilers. Poultry Science 78, 699706.
Ravindran, V, Cabahug, S, Selle, PH & Bryden, WL (2000 a) Response of broiler chickens to microbial phytase supplementation as influenced by dietary phytic acid and non-phytate phosphorus levels. II. Effects on apparent metabolisable energy, nutrient digestibility and nutrient retention. British Poultry Science 41, 193200.
Ravindran, V, Hew, LI, Ravindran, G & Bryden, WL (1999 b) A comparison of ileal digesta and excreta analysis for the determination of amino acid digestibility in food ingredients for poultry. British Poultry Science 40, 266274.
Ravindran, V, Selle, PH & Bryden, WL (1999 c) Effects of phytase supplementation, individually and in combination, with glycanase on the nutritive value of wheat and barley. Poultry Science 78, 15881595.
Ravindran, V, Selle, PH, Ravindran, G, Morel, PCH, Kies, AK & Bryden, WL (2000 b) Microbial phytase improves performance, metabolizable energy and ileal amino acid digestibility of broilers fed a lysine-deficient diet. Poultry Science 79 (In the Press).
Reddy, NR, Sathe, SK & Pierson, MD (1988) Removal of phytate from great northern beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Journal of Food Science 53, 107147.
Reddy, NR, Sathe, SK & Salunkhe, DK (1982) Phytates in legumes and cereals. Advances in Food Research 28, 191.
Rojas, SW & Scott, ML (1969) Factors affecting the nutritive value of cottonseed meal as a protein source in chick diets. Poultry Science 48, 819835.
Rutherfurd, SM, Edwards, ACE & Selle, PH (1997) Effect of phytase on lysine-rice pollard complexes. In Manipulating Pig Production, vol. 6, p. 248 [Cranwell, PD, editor]. Werribee, Victoria: Australasian Pig Science Association.
Rutherfurd, SM & Moughan, PJ (1997) The Effect of Phytase on the in vitro Nitrogen and Amino Acid Digestibility and Availability of Supplemented Amino Acids in Six Pig Diets. Palmerston North, New Zealand: Monogastric Research Centre, Massey University.
Sandstead, HH (1992) Fiber, phytates and mineral nutrition. Nutrition Reviews 50, 3031.
Sauer, W, Dugan, M, de Lange, K, Imbeah, M & Mogenthin, R (1989) Considerations in methodology for the determination of amino acid digestibilities in feedstuffs for pigs. In Absorption and Utilization of Amino Acids, vol. 3, pp. 217230 [Friedman, M, editor]. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Sauer, WC & Ozimek, L (1986) Digestibility of amino acids in swine: results and their practical applications. A review. Livestock Production Science 15, 367388.
Sebastian, S, Touchburn, SP, Chavez, ER & Lague, PC (1997) Apparent digestibility of protein and amino acids in broiler chickens fed a corn-soyabean diet supplemented with microbial phytase. Poultry Science 76, 17601769.
Selle, PH, Ravindran, V, Pittolo, PH & Bryden, WL (1999) An evaluation of microbial phytase in sorghum-based broiler diets. Proceedings of the Australian Poultry Science Symposium, vol. 11, pp. 97100 [Farrell, DJ, editor]. Sydney NSW: Poultry Research Foundation and The World's Poultry Science Association.
Shamsuddin, AM (1999) Metabolism and cellular functions of IP6: a review. Anticancer Research 19, 37333736.
Sharma, CB, Goel, M & Irshad, M (1978) Myoinositol hexaphosphate as a potential inhibitor of α-amylases. Phytochemistry 17, 201204.
Simons, PCM, Versteegh, HAJ, Jongbloed, AW, Kemme, PA, Slump, P, Bos, KD, Wolters, MGE, Beudeker, RF & Verschoor, GJ (1990) Improvement of phosphorus availability by microbial phytase in broilers and pigs. British Journal of Nutrition 64, 525540.
Singh, M & Krikorian, AD (1982) Inhibition of trypsin activity by phytate. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 30, 799800.
Siriwan, P, Bryden, WL & Annison, EF (1994) Use of guanidated dietary protein to measure losses of endogenous amino acids in poultry. British Journal of Nutrition 71, 515529.
Smith, AK & Rackis, JJ (1957) Phytin elimination in soyabean protein isolation. Journal of the American Chemical Society 79, 633637.
Taylor, TG (1965) The availability of the calcium and phosphorus of plant materials for animals. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 24, 105111.
Taverner, MR, Hume, ID & Farrell, DJ (1981) Availability to pigs of amino acids in cereal grains. I. Endogenous levels of amino acids in the ileal digesta and faeces of pigs given cereal diets. British Journal of Nutrition 46, 149158.
Thompson, LU (1988) Antinutrients and blood glucose. Food Technology 42, 123131.
Thompson, LU & Yoon, JH (1984) Starch digestibility as affected by polyphenols and phytic acid. Journal of Food Science 49, 12281229.
Torre, M, Rodriguez, AR & Saura-Calixto, F (1991) Effects of dietary fiber and phytic acid on mineral availability. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 1, 122.
Turk, M, Sandberg, A-S, Carlsson, N-G & Andlid, T (2000) Inositol hexaphosphate hydrolysis by baker's yeast. Capacity, kinetics and degradation products. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48, 100104.
Vaintraub, IA & Bulmaga, VP (1991) Effect of phytate on the in vitro activity of digestive proteinases. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 39, 859861.
van der Klis, JD, Versteegh, HAJ (1991) Ileal absorption of phosphorus in lightweight white laying hens using microbial phytase and various calcium contents in laying hen feed. Spelderholt Publication no. 563. Beekbergen, The Netherlands: Spelderholt Centre for Poultry Research and Information Services, DLO-Institute for Animal Science and Health.
Walker, ARP & Walker, BF (1992) Fiber, phytic acid and mineral metabolism. Nutrition Reviews 50, 246247.
Weremko, D, Fandrejewski, H, Zebrowska, T, Han, K, Kim, JH & Cho, WT (1997) Bioavailability of phosphorus in feeds of plant origin for pigs. Review. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science 10, 551556.
Wise, A (1983) Dietary factors determining the biological activity of phytates. Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews in Clinical Nutrition 53, 791806.
Wodzinski, RJ & Ullah, AHJ (1996) Phytase. Advances in Applied Microbiology 42, 263303.
Yi, Z & Kornegay, ET (1996) Sites of phytase activity in the gastrointestinal tract of young pigs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 61, 361368.
Yi, Z, Kornegay, ET & Denbow, DM (1996) Effect of microbial phytase on nitrogen and amino acid digestibility and nitrogen retention of turkey poults fed corn-soyabean meal diets. Poultry Science 75, 979990.
Zebrowska, T, Low, AG & Zebrowska, H (1983) Studies on gastric digestion of protein and carbohydrate, gastric and exocrine pancreatic secretion in the growing pig. British Journal of Nutrition 49, 401410.
Zhang, X, Roland, DA, McDaniel, GR & Rao, SK (1999) Effect of Natuphos® phytase supplementation to feed on performance and ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids in broilers. Poultry Science 78, 15671572.
Zhang, ZB, Kornegay, ET & Denbow, DM (1999) Evaluation of phytase and non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) enzymes added alone and in combination on nutrient utilization of individual and mixtures of feedstuffs with adult cecectomized roosters. Poultry Science 78, Suppl. 1 73 Abstr.
Zyla, K (1993) The role of acid phosphatase activity during enzymic dephosphorylation of phytates by Aspergillus niger phytase. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 9, 117119.
Zyla, K, Gogol, D, Koreleski, J, Swiatkiewicz, S & Ledoux, DR (1999) Simultaneous application of phytase and xylanase to broiler feeds based on wheat: feeding experiment with growing broilers. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 79, 18411848.
Zyla, K, Koreleski, J, Swiatkiewicz, S, Wikiera, A, Kujawski, M, Piironen, J & Ledoux, DR (2000) Effects of phosphorolytic and cell wall degrading enzymes on the performance of growing broilers fed wheat-based diets containing different calcium levels. Poultry Science 79, 6676.

Keywords

Phytate and phytase: consequences for protein utilisation

  • P H Selle (a1) (a2), V Ravindran (a3), A Caldwell (a4) and W. L Bryden (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed