Skip to main content Accessibility help

Fermentation in the large intestine of single-stomached animals and its relationship to animal health

  • Barbara A. Williams (a1), Martin W. A. Verstegen (a1) and Seerp Tamminga (a1)


The phasing out of antibiotic compounds as growth promoters from the animal industry means that alternative practices will need to be investigated and the promising ones implemented in the very near future. Fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is being recognized as having important implications for health of the gut and thus of the host animal. Fermentation in single-stomached animals occurs to the largest extent in the large intestine, mainly because of the longer transit time there. The present review examines the micro-ecology of the GIT, with most emphasis on the large intestine as the most important site of fermentative activity, and an attempt is made to clarify the importance of the microfloral activity (i.e. fermentation) in relation to the health of the host. The differences between carbohydrate and protein fermentation are described, particularly in relation to their endproducts. The roles of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and NH3 in terms of their relationship to gut health are then examined. The large intestine has an important function in relation to the development of diarrhoea, particularly in terms of VFA production by fermentation and its role in water absorption. Suggestions are made as to feeds and additives (particularly those which are carbohydrate-based) which could be, or are, added to diets and which could steer the natural microbial population of the GIT. Various methods are described which are used to investigate changes in microbial populations and reasons are given for the importance of measuring the kinetics of fermentation activity as an indicator of microbial activity.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Fermentation in the large intestine of single-stomached animals and its relationship to animal health
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Fermentation in the large intestine of single-stomached animals and its relationship to animal health
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Fermentation in the large intestine of single-stomached animals and its relationship to animal health
      Available formats


Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Dr Barbara Williams, fax +31 317 484260, email


Hide All
Adrian, J (1976) Gums and hydrocolloids in nutrition. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 25, 189216.
Allison, C & Macfarlane, GT (1989) Ifluence of pH, nutrient availability, and growth rate on amine production by Bacteroides fragilis and Clostridium perfringens. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 55, 28942898.
Annison, G & Topping, DL (1994) Nutritional role of resistant starch: chemical structure vs physiological function. Annual Reviews in Nutrition 14, 297320.
Argenzio, RA, Moon, HW, Kemeny, LJ & Whipp, SC (1984) Colonic compensation in transmissible gastroenteritis of swine. Gastroenterology 86, 15011509.
Asp, N-G, van Amelsvoort, JMM & Hautvast, JGAJ (1996) Nutritional implications of resistant starch. Nutrition Research Reviews 9, 131.
Baker, F, Nasr, H, Morrice, F & Bruce, J (1950) Bacterial breakdown of structural starches and starch products in the digestive tract of ruminant and non-ruminant mammals. Journal of Pathological Bacteriology 62, 617638.
Bauer, E, Williams, BA, Voigt, C, Mosenthin, R & Verstegen, MWA (2001) Microbial activities of faeces from unweaned and adult pigs, in relation to selected fermentable carbohydrates. Animal Science (In the Press).
Bergman, EN (1990) Energy contributions of volatile fatty acids from the gastrointestinal tract of various species. Physiological Reviews 70, 567590.
Bertshinger, HV, Eggenberger, E, Jucker, H & Pfirter, HP (1978) Evaluation of low nutrient, high fibre diets for the prevention of porcine Escherichia coli enterotoxaemia. Veterinary Microbiology 3, 281290.
Blakeney, AB (1993) The occurrence and chemistry of resistant starch. In Dietary Fibre and Beyond – Australian Perspectives, vol 1, pp. 3746. [Samman, S and; Annison, G editors ]. Perth, Australia: Nutrition Society of Australia Occasional Publications.
Bourquin, LD, Titgemeyer, EC, Fahey, GC & Garleb, KA (1993) Fermentation of dietary fibre by human colonic bacteria: disappearance of short-chain fatty acid production from, and potential water-holding capacity of, various substrates. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 28, 249255.
Britton, R & Krehbiel, C (1993) Nutrient metabolism by gut tissues. Journal of Dairy Science 76, 21252131.
Bruininx, EMAM, & van der Peet-Schwering, CMC (1996) Post-weaning Diarrhoea of Piglets: Feeding and Escherichia coli. Proefverslag nummer P 1.159. Rosmalen: Proefstation voor de Varkenshouderij.
Bugaut, M (1987) Occurrence, absorption and metabolism of short chain fatty acids in the digestive tract of mammals. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 86, 439472.
Bugaut, M, & Bentéjac, M (1993) Biological effects of short-chain fatty acids in nonruminant mammals. Annual Reviews in Nutrition 13, 217241.
Calloway, DH (1968) Gas in the alimentary canal In Handbook of Physiology, Section 6: Alimentary Canal, vol. VBile, Digestion, Ruminal Physiology, pp. 28392860 [Heidel, W editor ]. Washington: American Physiological Society.
Canh, TT, Verstegen, MWA, Aarnink, AJA & Schrama, JW (1997) Influence of dietary factors on N partitioning and composition of urine and faeces of fattening pigs. Journal of Animal Science 75, 700706.
Cheng, B-O, Trimble, RP, Illman, RJ, Stone, BA & Topping, DL (1987) Comparative effects of dietary wheat bran and its morphological components (aleurone and pericarp-seed coat) on volatile fatty acid concentrations in the rat. British Journal of Nutrition 57, 6976.
Clarke, RTJ (1977) Methods for studying gut microbes. In Microbial Ecology of the Gut, pp. 1333 [Clarke, RJ and Bauchop, T editors ]. London: Academic Press.
Crittenden, RG & Playne, MJ (1996) Production, properties, and applications of food-grade oligosaccharides. Trends in Food Science and Technology 7, 353361.
Cummings, JH (1983) Fermentation in the human large intestine: evidence and implications for health. Lancet i, 12061209.
Cummings, JH & Englyst, HN (1987) Fermentation in the human large intestine and the available substrates. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 45, 12431255.
Cummings, JH, Pomare, EW, Branch, WJ, Naylor, CPE & Macfarlane, GT (1987) Short chain fatty acids in human large intestine, portal, hepatic, and venous blood. Gut 28, 12211227.
De Wilde, R (1980) Influence of supplementing citrus pectin to a diet with and without antibiotics on the digestibility of pectins and other nutrients. Zeitschrift Tierphysiologie 43, 109116.
Djouzi, Z & Andrieux, C (1997) Compared effects of three oligosaccharides on metabolism of intestinal microflora in rate inoculated with a human faecal flora. British Journal of Nutrition 78, 313324.
Dobbins, JW & Binder, HJ (1981) Pathophysiology of diarrhoea: alterations in fluid and electrolyte transport. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 10, 605626.
Dohgen, M, Hayaahshi, H, Yajima, T & Suzuki, Y (1994) Stimulation of bicarbonate secretion by luminal short-chain fatty acid in the rat and human colon in vitro. Japanese Journal of Physiology 44, 519531.
Dong, G, Zhou, A, Yang, F, Chen, K, Wang, K, and Dao, D (1996) Effect of dietary protein levels on the bacterial breakdown of protein in the large intestine, and diarrhoea in early weaned piglets. Acta Veterinaria et Zootechnica Sinica 27, 293302.
Drasar, BS (1988) The bacterial flora of the intestine. In Role of the Gut Flora in Toxicity and Cancer, pp. 2328 [Rowland, IR editor ]. London: Academic Press.
Drasar, BS (1989) The bacterial flora of the stomach and small intestine. Gastroenterologie Clinique et Biologique 13, 18B20B.
Drochner, W, Hazem, SA & Oelfke, S (1987) Intracaecal infusion of carbohydrates – a model for ‘fermentative diarrhea’ in the young pig? Advances in Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 17, 1535.
Eastwood, MA (1992) The physiological effect of dietary fibre: an update. Annual Reviews in Nutrition 12, 1935.
Edwards, SA (1996) A new look on the role of fibre in the diet of pigs. In Proceedings of the 6th European Society of Veterinary Internal Medicine, pp. 9091. Veldhoven, The Netherlands: Organizing Committee of the 6th ESVIM Congress.
Eisemann, JH & Nienaber, JA (1990) Tissue and whole body oxygen uptake in fed and fasted steers. British Journal of Nutrition 64, 399411.
Englyst, HN & Cummings, JH (1985) Digestion of the polysaccharides of some cereal foods in the human small intestine. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 42, 778787.
Englyst, HN, Hay, S, & Macfarlane, GT (1987) Polysaccharide breakdown by mixed populations of human faecal bacteria. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 95, 163171.
Erickson, KL, & Hubbard, NE (2000) Probiotic immunomodulation in health and disease. Journal of Nutrition 130, 403S409S.
Ewing, WN & Cole, DJA (1994) The Living Gut: An Introduction to Micro-organisms in Nutrition. Dungannon, Ireland: Context.
Finegold, SM & Sutter, VL (1978) Faecal flora in different populations with special reference to diet. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 31, S116S122.
Florent, C, Flourie, B, Leblond, A, Rautureau, M, Bernier, J-J & Rambaud, J-C (1985) Influence of chronic lactulose ingestion on the colonic metabolism of lactulose in man (an in vivo study). Journal of Clinical Investigation 75, 608613.
Freter, R (1992) Factors affecting the microecology of the gut. In Probiotics – The Scientific Basis, pp. 111114 [Fuller, R editor ]. London: Chapman & Hall.
Freter, R, Brickner, H, Fekete, J, Vickerman, MM & Carey, KE (1983) Survival and implantation of Escherichia coli in the intestinal tract. Infection and Immunity 39, 686703.
Gálfi, P & Bokori, J. (1990) Feeding trials in pigs with a diet containing sodium n-butyrate. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 38, 317.
Gálfi, P & Neogrády, S (1996) Short chain fatty acids (acidifiers) as probiotics in diets for piglets. In Fourth International Feed Production|Conference, Piacenza, pp. 2526 [Piva, G editor ], Milan: Bureau Veritas.
Gibson, GR, & Fuller, R (2000) Aspects of in vitro and in vivo research approaches directed toward identifying probiotics and prebiotics for human use. Journal of Nutrition 130, 391S395S.
Gibson, GR., Willis, CL, & van Loo, J (1994) Non-digestible oligosaccharides and Bifidobacteria – implications for health. International Sugar Journal 96, 381387.
Goldin, BR & Gorbach, SL (1976) The relationship between diet and rat faecal enzymes implicated in colon cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 57, 371375.
Goodlad, JS, & Mathers, JC (1988) Effects of food carbohydrates on large intestinal fermentation in vitro. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 47, 176A.
Goodlad, JS, & Mathers, JC (1990) Large bowel fermentation in rats given diets containing raw peas (Pisum sativum). British Journal of Nutrition 64, 569587.
Gottschalk, G (1979) Bacterial fermentation. In Bacterial Metabolism, pp. 167224 [Gottschalk, G editor ]. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Grubb, JA & Dehority, BA (1976) Variation in colony counts of total viable anaerobic rumen bacteria as influenced by media and cultural methods. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 31, 262267.
Hackstein, JHP, van Alen, TA, op den Kamp, H, Smits, A & Mariman, E (1995) Intestinal methanogenesis in primates – a genetic and evolutionary approach. Deutsches Tierärzliches Wochenschau 102, 143178.
Hawe, SM, Walker, N & Moss, BW (1991) The effects of dietary fibre, lactose and antibiotic on the levels of skatole and indole in faeces and subcutaneous fat in growing pigs. Animal Production 54, 413419.
Hayakawa, K, Mizutani, J, Wada, K, Masai, T, Yoshihara, I & Mitsuoka, T (1990) Effects of soybean oligosaccharides on human faecal microflora. Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 3, 293303.
Heneghan, JB (1988) Alimentary tract physiology: interactions between the host and its microbial flora. In Role of the Gut Flora in Toxicity and Cancer, pp. 3978 [Rowland, IR editor ]. London: Academic Press.
Henning, SJ & Hird, FJR (1972) Transport of acetate and butyrate in the hind-gut of rabbits. Biochemistry Journal 130, 791796.
Hentges, DJ (1978) Faecal flora of volunteers on controlled diets. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 31, S123S124.
Hentges, DJ (1983) Role of intestinal flora in host defence against infection. In Human Intestinal Flora in Health and Disease, pp. 311331 [Hentges, DJ editor ]. New York: Academic Press.
Hentges, DJ (1986) The protective function of the indigenous intestinal flora. Pediatric Infectious Disease 5, S17S20.
Hidaka, H, Eida, T, Takizawa, T, Tokunaga, T & Tashiro, Y (1986) Effects of fructooligosaccharides on intestinal flora and human health. Bifidobacteria Microflora 5, 3750.
Hill, MJ (1983) Bacterial adaptation to lactase deficiency. In Milk Intolerance and Rejection, pp. 2226 [Delmont, JC editor ]. Basel: Karger.
Holdeman, LV, Cato, EP & Moore, WEC (1977) Anaerobe Laboratory Manual, 4th ed. Blacksburg, VA: Blacksburg Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
Holloway, WD, Tasman-Jones, C & Mather, K (1983) Pectin digestion in humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 37, 253255.
Houdijk, J (1998) Effects of non-digestible oligosaccharides in young pig diets. PhD Thesis, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen.
Hungate, RE (1966) The Rumen and its Microbes. London and New York: Academic Press.
Ito, M, Kimura, M, Deguchi, Y, Miyamori-Watabe, A, Yamjima, T & Kan, T (1993) Effects of transgalactosylated disaccharides on the human intestinal microflora and their metabolism. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 39, 279288.
Jensen, BB & Jørgensen, H (1994) Effect of dietary fibre on microbial activity and microbial gas production in various regions of the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 60, 18971904.
Kaneko, T, Kohmoto, T, Kikuchi, H, Shiota, M, Iino, H & Mitsuoka, T (1994) Effects of isomaltooligosaccharides with different degrees of polymerization on human faecal Bifidobacteria. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 58, 22882290.
Key, FB & Mathers, JC (1993) Complex carbohydrate digestion and large bowel fermentation in rats given wholemeal bread and cooked haricot beans (Phaseous vulgaris) fed in mixed diets. British Journal of Nutrition 69, 497509.
Kirchgessner, M, Kreuzer, M, Machmüller, A & Roth-Maier, DA (1993) Evidence for a high efficiency of bacterial protein synthesis in the digestive tract of adult sows fed supplements of fibrous feedstuffs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 46, 293306.
Knowles, SE, Jarrett, IG, Filsell, OH & Ballard, FJ (1974) Production and utilization of acetate in mammals. Biochemistry Journal 142, 401411.
Liebler, EM, Pohlenz, JF & Whipp, SC (1992) Digestive system. In Diseases of Swine, 7th ed., pp. 331348 [Leman, AD, Straw, BE, Mengeling, WL, D’Allaire, S and Taylor, DJ editors ]. Ames: Iowa State University Press.
Linton, AH, Handley, B & Osbourne, AD (1978) Fluctuations in E. coli O-serotypes in pigs throughout life in the presence and absence of antibiotic treatment. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 44, 285298.
McBurney, MI, Cuff, DJ & Thompson, LU (1990) Rates of fermentation and short chain fatty acid and gas production of six starches by human faecal microbiota. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 50, 7988.
McBurney, MI, Thompson, LU, Cuff, DJ & Jenkins, DJA (1988) Comparison of ileal effluents, dietary fibers, and whole foods in predicting the physiologic importance of colonic fermentation. American Journal of Gastroenterology 83, 536540.
Macfarlane, GT, Gibson, GR, Beatty, E & Cummings, JH (1992) Estimation of short-chain fatty acid production from protein by human intestinal bacteria based on branched-chain fatty acid measurements. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 101, 8188.
McNeil, NI, Cummings, JH & James, WPT (1978) Short-chain fatty acid absorption by the human large intestine. Gut 19, 819822.
Madec, F & Josse, J (1983) Influence of environmental factors on the onset of digestive disorders of the weaned piglet. Annales de Recherches Véterinaires 14, 456462.
Makkink, CA (1993) Of piglets, dietary proteins, and pancreatic proteases. PhD Thesis, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen.
Mallett, AK, Bearne, CA, Young, PJ & Rowland, IR (1988) Influence of starches of low digestibility on the rat caecal microflora. British Journal of Nutrition 60, 597604.
Mallett, AK & Rowland, IR (1988) Factors affecting the gut microflora. In Role of the Gut Flora in Toxicity and Cancer, pp. 347382 [Rowland, IR editor ]. London: Academic Press.
Marsono, Y, Illman, RJ, Clarke, JM, Trimble, RP & Topping, DL (1993) Plasma lipids and large bowel volatile fatty acids in pigs fed on white rice, brown rice and rice bran. British Journal of Nutrition 70, 503513.
Mason, VC & Just, A (1976) Bacterial activity in the hindgut of pigs. 1. Its influence on the apparent digestibility of dietary energy and fat. Zeitschrift für Tiererphysiologie, Tierernährung und Futtermittelkunde 36, 301310.
Mason, VC, Narang, MP, Ononiwu, JC & Kessank, P (1977) The relationship between nitrogen metabolism in the hind gut and nitrogen excretion. In Protein Metabolism and Nutrition, pp. 6163. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation.
Mathers, JC & Annison, EF (1993) Stoichiometry of polysaccharide fermentation in the large intestine. In Dietary Fibre and Beyond – Australian Perspectives, vol 1, pp. 123135 [Samman, S and Annison, G editors ]. Perth, Australia: Nutrition Society of Australia Occasional Publications.
Mathers, JC, Fernandez, R, Hill, MJ, McCarthy, PT, Shearer, MJ & Oxley, A (1990) Dietary modification of potential vitamin K supply from enteric bacterial menaquinones in rats. British Journal of Nutrition 63, 639652.
Mathers, JC, Smith, H & Carter, S (1997) Dose–response effects of raw potato starch on small-intestinal escape, large-bowel fermentation and gut transit time in the rat. British Journal of Nutrition 78, 10151029.
Mathew, AG, Sutton, AL, Scheidt, AB, Patterson, JA, Kelly, DT & Meyerholz, KA (1993) Effect of galactan on selected microbial populations and pH and volatile fatty acids in the ileum of the weanling pig. Journal of Animal Science 71, 15031509.
Midtvedt, T (1989) In Recent Advances in Microbial Ecology, pp. 515519 [Hattori, T, Ischida, Y and Maruyama, Y editors ]. Tokyo: Japan Scientific Societies Press.
Misir, S & Sauer, WC (1982) Effect of starch infusion at the terminal ileum on N balance and apparent digestibilities of nitrogen and amino acids in pigs fed meat-and-bone and soybean meal diets. Journal of Animal Science 55, 599607.
Moore, WEC, Cato, EP & Holdeman, LV (1978) Some current concepts in intestinal bacteriology. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 31 S33S42.
Moore, WEC & Holdeman, LV (1974) Human fecal flora: the normal flora of 20 Japanese-Hawaiians. Applied Microbiology 27, 961979.
Newby, TJ, Miller, BG, Stokes, CR & Bourne, FJ (1984) Hypersensitivity to dietary antigens as the predisposing factor in post-weaning diarrhoea. Pig Veterinary Society Proceedings 16, 5058.
Nousiainen, JT (1991) Comparative observations on selected probiotics and olaquindox as feed additives for piglets around weaning. 2. Effect on villus length and crypt depth in the jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 66, 224230.
Ofek, I, Mirelman, D & Sharon, N (1977) Adherence of Escherichia coli to human mucosal cells mediated by mannose receptors. Nature 265, 623625.
Paul, PS & Stevenson, GW (1992) Rotavirus and Reovirus. In Diseases of Swine – 7th ed., pp. 331348 [Leman, AD, Straw, BE, Mengeling, WL, D'Allaire, S and Taylor, DJ editors ]. Ames: Iowa State University Press.
Piva, A, Panciroli, A, Meola, E & Formigoni, A (1995) Lactitol enhances short-chain fatty acid and gas production by swine cecal microflora to a greater extent when fermenting low rather than high fibre diets. Journal of Nutrition 126, 280289.
Pomare, EW, Branch, WJ and; Cummings, JH (1985) Carbohydrate fermentation in the human colon and its relation to acetate concentrations in venous blood. Journal of Clinical Investigation 75, 14481454.
Que, JU, Casey, SW, & Hentges, DJ (1986) Factors responsible for increased susceptibility of mice to intestinal colonization after treatment with streptomycin. Infection and Immunity 53, 116123.
Radcliffe, BC, Nance, SH, Deakin, EJ & Roediger, WEW (1987) Effect of luminal or circulating nitrite on colonic ion movement in the rat. American Journal of Physiology 253, G246G252.
Raibaud, P (1992) Bacterial interactions in the gut. In Probiotics – The Scientific Basis, pp. 928 [Fuller, R editor ]. London: Chapman & Hall.
Rall, GD, Wood, AJ, Wescott, RB & Dommert, AR (1970) Distribution of bacteria in feces of swine. Applied Microbiology 20, 789792.
Ramakrishna, BS (1996) Colonic fluid handling in health and acute diarrhoea. Indian Journal of Medical Research 104, 5259.
Ramakrishna, BS & Mathan, VI (1993) Short chain fatty acids and colonic dysfunction in cholera. Gastroenterology 104, 273 Abst.
Ramakrishna, BS, Nance, SH, Roberts-Thomson, IC & Roediger, WEW (1990) The effects of enterotoxins and short-chain fatty acids on water and electrolyte fluxes in ileal and colonic loops in vivo in the rat. Digestion 45, 93101.
Ramakrishna, BS, Venkatraman, S, Srinivasan, P, Dash, P, Young, GP & Binder, HJ (2000) Amylase-resistant starch plus oral rehydration solution for cholera. New England Journal of Medicine 342, 308313.
Rasmussen, HS, Holtug, K & Mortensen, PB (1988) Degradation of amino acids to short-chain fatty acids in humans. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 23, 178182.
Read, NW (1982) Diarrhoea: the failure of colonic salvage. Lancet ii, 481483.
Rechkemmer, G, Rönnau, K & von Englelhardt, W (1988) Fermentation of polysaccharides and absorption of short chain fatty acids in the mammalian hindgut. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 90, 563568.
Renault, L, Le Bourhis, E & Alamagny, A (1982) Les différents formes de colibacillose du porc en France selon les groupes sérologiques d'E. coli. (The different forms of porcine colibacillosis in France, according to serological grouping of E. coli). Journal Recherche Porc France 14, 387396.
Robinson, JA, Smolenski, WJ, Ogilvie, ML & Peters, JP (1989) In vitro total-gas, CH4, H2, volatile fatty acid, and lactate kinetic studies on luminal contents from the small intestine, caecum, and colon of the pig. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 55, 24602467.
Roediger, WEW (1982) Utilization of nutrients by isolated epithelial cells of the rat colon. Gastroenterology 83, 424429.
Roediger, WEW (1989) Faecal anions and lactate in severe ulcerative colitis. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 34, 18011805.
Roediger, WEW (1989) Short-chain fatty acids as metabolic regulators of ion absorption in the colon. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 86, 116125.
Roediger, WEW (1994) Famine, fiber, fatty acids, and failed colonic absorption: does fiber fermentation ameliorate diarrhea? Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 18, 48.
Roediger, WEW & Moore, A (1981) Effect of short-chain fatty acid on sodium absorption in isolated human colon perfused through the vascular bed. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 26, 100106.
Roland, N, Nugon-Baudon, L, Andrieux, C & Szylit, O (1995) Comparative study of the fermentative characteristics of inulin and different types of fibre in rats inoculated with a human whole faecal flora. British Journal of Nutrition 74, 239249.
Rolfe, RD (1984) Role of volatile fatty acids in colonization resistance to Clostridium difficile. Infection and Immunity 45, 185191.
Roth, JA, Frankel, WL, Wei Zhang, MD, Klurfeld, DM & Rombeau, JL (1995) Pectin improves colonic function in rat short bowel syndrome. Journal of Surgical Research 58, 240246.
Rowland, IR (1992) Metabolic interactions in the gut. In Probiotics – The Scientific Basis, pp. 2953 [Fuller, R editor ]. London: Chapman & Hall.
Rowland, IR & Wise, A (1985) The effect of diet on the mammalian flora and its metabolic activities. CRC Critical Reviews in Toxicology 16, 31103.
Ruppin, H, Bar-Meir, S, Soergel, KH, Wood, CM & Schmitt, MG (1980) Absorption of short-chain fatty acids by the colon. Gastroenterology 78, 15001507.
Russell, JB, Sniffen, CJ & Van Soest, PJ (1983) Effect of carbohydrate limitation on degradation and utilization of casein by mixed rumen bacteria. Journal of Dairy Science 66, 763775.
Saif, LJ & Wesley, RD (1992) Transmissible gastroenteritis. In Diseases of Swine – 7th ed., pp. 362386 [Leman, AD, Straw, BE, Mengeling, WL, D'Allaire, S and Taylor, DJ editors ]. Ames: Iowa State University Press.
Salanitro, JP, Fairchilds, IG & Zgornicki, YD (1974) Isolation, culture characteristics, and identification of anaerobic bacteria from the chicken cecum. Applied Microbiology 27, 678687.
Salas-Coll, CA, Kermode, JC & Edmonds, CJ (1976) Potassium transport across the distal colon in man. Clinical Science and Molecular Medicine 51, 287296.
Saunders, DR & Wiggens, HS (1981) Conservation of mannitol, lactulose, and raffinose by the human colon. American Journal of Physiology 21, G397G402.
Savage, DC (1977) Microbial ecology of the gastrointestinal tract. Annual Reviews in Microbiology 31, 107133.
Savage, DC (1980) Impact of antimicrobials on the microbial ecology of the gut. In Effects on Human Health of Subtherapeutic Use of Antimicrobials in Animal Feeds. Appendix D. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences.
Savage, DC (1986) Gastrointestinal microflora in mammalian nutrition. Annual Reviews in Nutrition 6, 155178.
Savage, TF & Zakrzewska, EI (1996) The role of mannan oligosaccharide (Bio-Mos) in animal nutrition. In Alltech European and South African Lecture Tour 1996, pp. 5563. Nottingham: Nottingham University Press.
Scheppach, W. (1994) Effects of short chain fatty acids on gut morphology and function. Gut 35, Suppl. 1, S35S38.
Scheppach, W, Fabian, C, Sachs, M & Kaspar, H (1988) The effect of starch malabsorption on fecal short-chain fatty acid excretion in man. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 23, 755759.
Simon, GL, & Gorbach, SL (1984) Intestinal flora in health and disease. Gastroenterology 86, 174193.
Skadhauge, E (1985) The secretory response of the digestive tract to the diet. In Digestive Physiology in the Pig [Just, A, Jörgensen, H and Fernandez, JA editors ]. Report from the National Institute of Animal Science, Denmark, No. 580 81100. Copenhagen, Denmark: National Institute of Animal Science.
Smith, JG & German, JB (1995) Molecular and genetic effects of dietary derived butyric acid. Food Technology 49, 8790.
Soergel, KH (1994) Colonic fermentation: metabolic and clinical implications. Clinical Investigations 72, 742748.
Spring, P, & Privulescu, M (1998) Mannan-oligosaccharide: its logical role as a natural feed additive for piglets. In ‘Biotechnology in the Feed Industry’, Proceedings of the 4th Annual Symposium of Alltech, pp. 553561. Nottingham: Nottingham University Press.
Stanogias, G & Pearce, GR (1985) The digestion of fibre by pigs. 2. Volatile fatty acid concentrations in large intestine digesta. British Journal of Nutrition 53, 531536.
Stewart, CS, Hillman, K, Maxwell, F, Kelly, D & King, TP (1993) Recent advances in probiosis in pigs: observations on the microbiology of the pig gut. In Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition, pp. 197220 [Garnsworthy, PC and Cole, DJA editors ]. Nottingham: Nottingham University Press.
Sutton, AL & Patterson, JA (1996) Effects of dietary carbohydrates and organic acid additions on pathogenic E. coli and other microorganisms in the weanling pig. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Animal Nutrition, Kaposvár, Hungary, pp. 3161. Kaposvár, Hungary: Pannon Agricultural University.
Svensmark, B, Nielsen, K, Willeberg, P & Jorsal, SE (1989) Epidemiological studies of piglet diarrhoea in intensively managed Danish sow herds. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 30, 5562.
Tamura, Y, Mizota, T, Shimamura, S & Tomita, M (1993) Lactulose and its application to the food and pharmaceutical industries. Bulletin of the International Dairy Federation 289, 4353.
Tanaka, R, Takayama, H, Morotomi, M, Kuroshima, T, Ueyama, S, Matsumoto, K, Kuroda, A & Mutai, M (1983) Effects of administration of TOS and Bifidobacterium breve 4006 on the human faecal flora. Bifidobacteria Microflora 2, 1724.
Taylor, DJ & Bergeland, ME (1992) Clostridial infections. In Diseases of Swine – 7th ed., pp. 454469 [Leman, AD, Straw, BE, Mengeling, WL, D'Allaire, S and Taylor, DJ editors ]. Ames: Iowa State University Press.
Theodorou, MK, Williams, BA, Dhanoa, MS, McAllan, AB & France, J (1994) A simple gas production method using a pressure transducer to determine the fermentation kinetics of ruminant feeds. Animal Feed Science and Technology 48, 185197.
Tomomatsu, H (1994) Health effects of oligosaccharides. Food Technology 48, 6165.
Tsuji, K, Shimizu, M, Nishimura, Y, Nakagawa, Y & Ichikawa, T (1992) Simultaneous determination of hydrogen, methane, and carbon dioxide of breath using gas-solid chromatography. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 38, 103109.
Tulung, B, Rémésy, C & Demigné, JVGA (1987) Specific effect of guar gum or gum arabic on adaptation of cecal digestion to high fiber diets in the rat. Journal of Nutrition 117, 15561561.
Van der Waaij, D (1987) Colonization resistance of the digestive tract – mechanism and clinical consequences. Die Nahrung 31, 507517.
Van der Waaij, D (1989) The ecology of the human intestine and its consequences for overgrowth of pathogens such as Clostridium difficile. Annual Reviews in Microbiology 43, 6987.
Van der Waaij, D, Berghuis de Vries, JM & Lekkerkerk van der Wees, JEC (1971) Colonization resistance of the digestive tract in conventional and antibiotic-treated mice. Journal of Hygiene (London) 69, 405411.
Vannier, P (1983) Gastroenteritis, nutrition and environment. Annales de Recherches Véterinaires 14, 449.
Vannier, P, Tillon, JP, Madec, F & Morisse, JP (1983) Environment and gastroenteritis. Annales de Recherches Véterinaires 14, 450455.
Vaughan, EE, Schut, F, Heilig, HGHJ, Zoetendahl, EG, de Vos, WM & Akkermans, ADL (2000) A molecular view of the intestinal ecosystem. Current Issues in Intestinal Microbiology 1, 112.
Vernia, P, Caprilli, R, Latella, G, Barbetti, F, Magliocca, FM & Cittadini, M (1988) Faecal lactate and ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 95, 15641568.
Visek, WJ (1984) Ammonia: its effects on biological systems, metabolic hormones, and reproduction. Journal of Dairy Science 67, 481498.
Von Glawischnig, E (1990) Ein Beitrag zum antibioticafreien Absetzen der Ferkel (Antibiotic-free weaning of piglets). Deutscher Tierärztlicher Wochenschau 97, 4851.
Walter, DJ, Eastwood, MA, Brydon, WG & Elton, RA (1988) Fermentation of wheat bran and gum arabic in rats fed on an elemental diet. British Journal of Nutrition 60, 225232.
Wang, X & Gibson, GR (1993) Effects of the in vitro fermentation of oligofructose and inulin by bacteria growing in the human large intestine. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 75, 373380.
Williams, BA, Bhatia, SK, Boer, H & Tamminga, S (1995) A preliminary study using the cumulative gas production technique to compare the kinetics of different fermentations by use of standard substrates. Annales de Zootechnie 44, Suppl. 1, 35.
Williams, BA, Bosch, M, Houdijk, J & van de Camp, Y (1997 a) Differences in potential fermentative capablilities of four sections of porcine digestive tract. In Proceedings of the 48th EAAP meeting, Vienna. 195 Abstr. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Wageningen Pers.
Williams, BA, Tamminga, S & Verstegen, MWA (2000 a) Fermentation kinetics to assess microbial activity of gastro-intestinal microflora. In Proceedings of the Symposium ‘Gas Production: Fermentation kinetics for feed evaluation and to assess microbial activity’, Wageningen, Netherlands, pp. 97100. Penicuik, UK: British Society of Animal Sciences.
Williams, BA, Van Osch, LJM & Kwakkel, RP (1997) Fermentation characteristics of the caecal contents of broiler chickens fed fine- and coarse particle diets. British Poultry Science 38, S41S42.
Williams, BA, Zhu, W-Y, Akkermans, A & Tamminga, S (2000 b) An in vitro test for prebiotics. Reproduction Nutrition Development 40, 225.
Wrong, OM & Vince, AJ (1984) Urea and ammonia metabolism in the human large intestine. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 43, 7786.
Yazawa, K, Imai, K & Tamura, Z (1978) Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides specifically utilisable by bifidobacteria. Chemical and Pharmacological Bulletin 26, 33063311.
Yokoyama, MT, Tabori, C, Miller, ER & Hogberg, MG (1982) The effects of antibiotic in the weanling pig diet on growth and the excretion of volatile phenolic and aromatic bacterial metabolites. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 35, 14171424.
Ziemer, CJ, Sharp, R, Stern, MD, Cotta, MA, Whitehead, TR & Stahl, DA (2000) Comparison of microbial populations in model and natural rumens using 165 ribosomal RNA-targeted probes. Environmental Microbiology 2, 632643.
Zoetendaal, EG, Akkermans, ADL & de Vos, WM (1998) Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of 16S rRNA from human faecal samples reveals stable and host-specific communities of active bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64, 38543859.


Fermentation in the large intestine of single-stomached animals and its relationship to animal health

  • Barbara A. Williams (a1), Martin W. A. Verstegen (a1) and Seerp Tamminga (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed