Anand, SSOunpuu, S & Yusuf, S (2003) Ethnicity and cardiovascular disease. In Evidence-Based Cardiology, vol. II, 2nd ed., pp. 171–190 [S Yusuf, JA Cairns, AJ Camm EL Fallen and BJ Gersh editors]. London: BMJ Publishing Group.
Barker, DJ (2002) Foetal programming of coronary heart disease. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 13, 364–368.
Breier, BH, Vickers, MH, Ikenasio, BA, Chan, KY, & Wong, WPS (2001) Foetal programming of appetite and obesity. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 185, 73–79.
Brochu, M, Tchernof, A, Dionne, IJ, Sites, CK, Eltabbakh, GH, Sims, EAH, & Poehlman, ET (2001) What are the physical characteristics associated with a normal metabolic profile despite a high level of obesity in postmenopausal women? Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 86, 1020–1025.
Byrne, CD & Phillips, DI (2000) Fetal origins of adult disease: epidemiology and mechanisms. Journal of Clinical Pathology 53, 822–828.
Chan, JM, Rimm, EB, Colditz, GA, Stampfer, MJ & Willett, WC (1994) Obesity, fat distribution, and weight gain as risk factors for clinical diabetes in men. Diabetes Care 17, 961–969.
Després, JP, Lemieux, I & Prud’homme, D (2001) Treatment of obesity: need to focus on high risk abdominally obese patients. British Medical Journal 322, 716–720.
Deurenberg, P, Deurenberg-Yap, M & Guricci, S (2002) Asians are different from Caucasians and from each other in their body mass index/body fat per cent relationship. Obesity Reviews 3, 141–146.
Deurenberg, P, van der Kooy, K, Hulshof, T & Evers, P (1989) Body mass index as a measure of body fatness in the elderly. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 43, 231–236.
Dudeja, V, Misra, A, Pandey, RM, Devina, G, Kumar, G & Vikram, NK (2001) BMI does not accurately predict overweight in Asian Indians in northern India. British Journal of Nutrition 86, 105–112.
Ekert, JE, Gatford, KL, Luxford, BG, Campbell, RG & Owens, PC (2000) Leptin expression in offspring is programmed by nutrition in pregnancy. Journal of Endocrinology 165, R1–R6.
Elia, M (2001) Obesity in the elderly. Obesity Research 9, Suppl. 4, 244S–248S.
Enns, MP, Wilson, MW, Grinker, JA, Faust, IM, Jones, AP & Friedman, MI (1983) Prenatal food restriction and subsequent weight gain in male rats. Science 219, 1093–1094.
Eriksson, JG, Forsén, T, Tuomilehto, J, Jaddoe, VW, Osmond, C & Barker, DJ (2002) Effects of size at birth and childhood growth on the insulin resistance syndrome in elderly individuals. Diabetologia 45, 342–348.
Eriksson, JG, Forsén, T, Tuomilehto, J, Osmond, C & Barker, D (2001) Size at birth, childhood growth and obesity in later life. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 25, 735–740.
Fernandez, JR, Heo, M, Heymsfield, SB, Pierson, RN, Pi-Sunyer, FX, Wang, ZM, Wang, J, Hayes, M, Allison, DB & Gallagher, D (2003) Is percentage body fat differentially related to body mass index in Hispanic Americans, African Americans, and European Americans? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 77, 71–75.
Forsen, T, Eriksson, J, Tuomilehto, J, Reunanen, A, Osmond, C & Barker, D (2000) The foetal and childhood growth of persons who develop type 2 diabetes. Annals of Internal Medicine 133, 176–182.
Frayling, TM & Hattersley, AT (2001) The role of genetic susceptibility in the association of low birth weight with type 2 diabetes. British Medical Bulletin 60, 89–101.
Gallagher, D, Visser, M, Sepulveda, D, Pierson, RN, Harris, T & Heymsfield, SB (1996) How useful is body mass index for comparison of body fatness across age, sex, and ethnic groups? American Journal of Epidemiology 143, 228–239.
Gluckman, PD (1997) Endocrine and nutritional regulation of prenatal growth. Acta Paediatrica 423, Suppl., 153–157.
Gluckman, PD & Harding, JE (1997) Foetal growth retardation: underlying endocrine mechanisms and postnatal consequences. Acta Paediatrica 422, Suppl., 69–72.
Hales, CN & Barker, DJ (1992) Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus: the thrifty phenotype hypothesis. Diabetologia 35, 595–601.
Hales, CN, Barker, DJ, Clark, PM, Cox, LJ, Fall, C, Osmond, C & Winter, PD (1991) Foetal and infant growth and impaired glucose tolerance at age 64. British Medical Journal 303, 1019–1022.
Han, TS, van Leer, EM, Seidell, JC & Lean, MEJ (1995) Waist circumference action levels in the identification of cardiovascular risk factors: prevalence study in a random sample. British Medical Journal 311, 1401–1405.
Hattersley, AT, Beards, F, Ballantyne, E, Appleton, M, Harvey, R & Ellard, S (1998) Mutations in the glucokinase gene of the fetus result in reduced birth weight. Nature Genetics 19, 268–270.
Hattersley, AT & Tooke, JE (1999) The fetal insulin hypothesis: an alternative explanation of the association of low birthweight with diabetes and vascular disease. Lancet 353, 1789–1792.
Holt, RIG & Byrne, CD (2002) Intrauterine growth, the vascular system and the metabolic syndrome. Seminars in Vascular Medicine 2, 33–44.
Hu, FB, Manson, JE, Stampfer, MJ, Colditz, G, Liu, S, Solomon, CG & Willett, WC (2001) Diet, lifestyle, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. New England Journal of Medicine 345, 790–797.
Huxley, R (2002) Commentary: modifying body weight not birthweight is the key to lowering blood pressure. International Journal of Epidemiology 31, 1051–1053.
Janssen, I, Katzmarzyk, PT & Ross, R (2002) Body mass index, waist circumference, and health risk: evidence in support of current national institutes of health guidelines. Archives of Internal Medicine 162, 2074–2079.
Jones, AP, Assimon, SA & Friedman, MI (1986) The effect of diet on food intake and adiposity in rats made obese by gestational undernutrition. Physiology and Behavior 37, 381–386.
Jones, AP & Dayries, M (1990) Maternal hormone manipulations and the development of obesity in rats. Physiology and Behavior 47, 1107–1110.
Jones, AP & Friedman, MI (1982) Obesity and adipocyte abnormalities in offspring of rats undernourished during pregnancy. Science 215, 1518–1519.
Jones, AP, Simson, EL & Friedman, MI (1984) Gestational undernutrition and the development of obesity in rats. Journal of Nutrition 114, 1484–1492.
Kwong, WY, Wild, AE, Roberts, P, Willis, AC & Fleming, TP (2000) Maternal undernutrition during the preimplantation period of rat development causes blastocyst abnormalities and programming of postnatal hypertension. Development 127, 4195–4202.
Lamon-Fava, S, Wilson, PW & Schaefer, EJ (1996) Impact of body mass index on coronary heart disease risk factors in men and women. The Framingham Offspring Study. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 16, 1509–1515.
Law, MR & Wald, NJ (2002) Risk factor thresholds: their existence under scrutiny. British Medical Journal 324, 1570–1576.
Lean, MEJ, Han, TS & Morrison, CE (1995) Waist circumference as a measure for indicating need for weight management. British Medical Journal 311, 158–161.
Li, H, Stein, AD, Barnhart, HX, Ramakrishnan, U & Martorell, R (2003) Associations between prenatal and postnatal growth and adult body size and composition. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 77, 1498–1505.
Lissner, L, Karlsson, C, Lindroos, AK, Carlsson, B, Carlsson, L & Bengtsson, C (1999) Birth weight, adulthood BMI, and subsequent weight gain in relation to leptin levels in Swedish women. Obesity Research 7, 150–154.
Lithell, HO, McKeigue, PM, Berglund, L, Mohsen, R, Lithell, UB & Leon, DA (1996) Relation of size at birth to non-insulin dependent diabetes and insulin concentrations in men aged 50–60 years. British Medical Journal 312, 406–410.
Lumey, LH & Stein, AD (1997) Offspring birth weights after maternal intrauterine undernutrition: a comparison within sibships. American Journal of Epidemiology 146, 810–819.
Martin, ML & Jensen, MD (1991) Effects of body fat distribution on regional lipolysis in obesity. Journal of Clinical Investigation 88, 609–613.
Molarius, A, Seidell, JC, Sans, S, Tuomilehto, J & Kuulasmaa, K (1999) Waist and hip circumferences, and waist-hip ratio in 19 populations of the WHO MONICA Project. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 23, 116–125.
Ong, KKL, Ahmed, ML, Sherriff, A, Woods, KA, Watts, A, Golding, J & Dunger, DB (1999) Cord blood leptin is associated with size at birth and predicts infancy weight gain in humans. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 84, 1145–1148.
Ozanne, SE, Lewis, R, Jennings, BJ & Hales, CN (2003) Early programming of weight gain in mice prevents the induction of obesity by a highly palatable diet. Clinical Science (London) 106, 141–145.
Peeters, A, Barendregt, JJ, Willekens, F, Mackenbach, JP, Al Mamun, A & Bonneux, L (2003) Obesity in adulthood and its consequences for life expectancy: a life-table analysis. Annals of Internal Medicine 7, 24–32.
Phillips, DIW, Fall, CHD, Cooper, C, Norman, RJ, Robinson, JS & Owens, PC (1999) Size at birth and plasma leptin concentrations in adult life. International Journal of Obesity 23, 1025–1029.
Plagemann, A, Harder, T, Rake, A, Voits, M, Fink, H, Rohde, W & Dorner, G (1999) Perinatal elevation of hypothalamic insulin, acquired malformation of hypothalamic galaninergic neurons, and syndrome X-like alterations in adulthood of neonatally overfed rats. Brain Research 836, 146–155.
Power, C & Parsons, T (2000) Nutritional and other influences in childhood as predictors of adult obesity. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 59, 267–272.
Pyorala, M, Miettinen, H, Halonen, P, Laakso, M & Pyorala, K (2000) Insulin resistance syndrome predicts the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke in healthy middle-aged men: the 22-year follow-up results of the Helsinki Policemen Study. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 20, 538–544.
Rankinen, T, Kim, SY, Perusse, L, Despres, JP & Bouchard, C (1999) The prediction of abdominal visceral fat level from body composition and anthropometry: ROC analysis. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 23, 801–809.
Ravussin, E & Bogardus, C (2000) Energy balance and weight regulation. British Journal of Nutrition 83, Suppl. 1, S17–S20
Rich-Edwards, JW, Colditz, GA, Stampfer, MJ, Willett, WC, Gillman, MW, Hennekens, CH, Speizer, FE & Manson, JE (1999) Birthweight and the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in adult women. Annals of Internal Medicine 130, 278–284.
Rimm, EB, Stampfer, MJ, Giovannucci, E, Ascherio, A, Spiegelman, D, Colditz, GA & Willett, WC (1995) Body size and fat distribution as predictors of coronary heart disease among middle-aged and older US men. American Journal of Epidemiology 141, 1117–1127.
Rogers, I (2003) The influence of birthweight and intrauterine environment on adiposity and fat distribution in later life. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 27, 755–777.
Rolland-Cachera, M-F, Deheeger, M, Bellisle, F, Sempe, M, Guilloud-Bataille, M & Patois, E (1984) Adiposity rebound in children: a simple indicator for predicting obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 39, 129–135.
Singhal, A, Wells, J, Cole, TJ, Fewtrell, M & Lucas, A (2003) Programming of lean body mass: a link between birth weight, obesity, and cardiovascular disease? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 77, 726–730.
Stein, AD, Ravelli, AC & Lumey, LH (1995) Famine, third-trimester pregnancy weight gain, and intrauterine growth: the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study. Human Biology 67, 135–150.
Toth, MJ, Sites, CK, Eltabbakh, GH & Poehlman, ET (2000) Effect of menopausal status on insulin-stimulated glucose disposal: comparison of middle-aged premenopausal and early postmenopausal women. Diabetes Care 23, 801–806.
Valdez, R, Athens, MA, Thompson, GH, Bradshaw, BS & Stern, MP (1994) Birthweight and adult health outcomes in a biethnic population in the USA. Diabetologia 37, 624–631.
Vickers, MH, Breier, BH, Cutfield, WS, Hofman, PL & Gluckman, PD (2000) Foetal origins of hyperphagia, obesity, and hypertension and postnatal amplification by hypercaloric nutrition. American Journal of Physiology 279, E83–E87.
Vickers, MH, Breier, BH, McCarthy, D & Gluckman, PD (2003) Sedentary behavior during postnatal life is determined by the prenatal environment and exacerbated by postnatal hypercaloric nutrition. American Journal of Physiology 285, R271–R273.
von Eckardstein, A, Schulte, H & Assmann, G (2000) Risk for diabetes mellitus in middle-aged Caucasian male participants of the PROCAM Study: implications for the definition of impaired fasting glucose by the American Diabetes Association. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 85, 3101–3108.
West-Eberhard, MJ (1989) Phenotypic plasticity and the origins of diversity. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 20, 249–278.
West-Eberhard, MJ (1998) Evolution in the light of developmental and cell biology, and vice versa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 95, 8417–8419.
World Health Organization (1997) Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic–Report of a WHO Consultation on Obesity. Geneva: WHO.
World Health Organization (2002) Quantifying selected major risks to health. In World Health Report: Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life. chapter 4. Geneva: WHO.
Yajnik, CS, Lubree, HG, Rege, SS, Naik, SS, Deshpande, JA, Deshpande, JA, Joglekar, CV & Yudkin, JS (2002) Adiposity and hyperinsulinemia in Indians are present at birth. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 87, 5575–5580.
Zhao, M, Shu, XO, Jin, F, Yang, G, Li, H, Liu, D, Wen, W, Gao, Y & Zheng, W (2002) Birthweight, childhood growth and hypertension in adulthood. International Journal of Epidemiology 31, 1043–1051.