1Burdge, GC & Lillycrop, KA (2010) Nutrition, epigenetics, and developmental plasticity: implications for understanding human disease. Annu Rev Nutr 30, 315–339.
2Attig, L, Gabory, A & Junien, C (2010) Early nutrition and epigenetic programming: chasing shadows. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 13, 284–293.
3Niculescu, MD & Lupu, DS (2011) Nutritional influence on epigenetics and effects on longevity. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 14, 35–40.
4Simmons, R (2010) Epigenetics and maternal nutrition: nature v. nurture. Proc Nutr Soc 70, 73–81.
5McKay, JA & Mathers, JC (2011) Diet induced epigenetic changes and their implications for health. Acta Physiol (Oxf) 202, 103–118.
6Zeisel, SH (2009) Epigenetic mechanisms for nutrition determinants of later health outcomes. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 1488S–1493S.
7Mathers, JC (2007) Early nutrition: impact on epigenetics. Forum Nutr 60, 42–48.
8Choi, SW & Friso, S (2010) Epigenetics: a new bridge between nutrition and health. Adv Nutr 1, 8–16.
9Steegers-Theunissen, RP, Obermann-Borst, SA, Kremer, D, et al. . (2009) Periconceptional maternal folic acid use of 400 microg per day is related to increased methylation of the IGF2 gene in the very young child. PLoS One 4, e7845.
10Sinclair, KD, Allegrucci, C, Singh, R, et al. . (2007) DNA methylation, insulin resistance, and blood pressure in offspring determined by maternal periconceptional B vitamin and methionine status. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104, 19351–19356.
11Zeisel, SH (2011) Nutritional genomics: defining the dietary requirement and effects of choline. J Nutr 141, 531–534.
12Mehedint, MG, Craciunescu, CN & Zeisel, SH (2010) Maternal dietary choline deficiency alters angiogenesis in fetal mouse hippocampus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107, 12834–12839.
13Kanai, Y & Hirohashi, S (2007) Alterations of DNA methylation associated with abnormalities of DNA methyltransferases in human cancers during transition from a precancerous to a malignant state. Carcinogenesis 28, 2434–2442.
14Waterland, RA (2009) Is epigenetics an important link between early life events and adult disease? Horm Res 71, 13–16.
15Ficz, G, Branco, MR, Seisenberger, S, et al. . (2011) Dynamic regulation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in mouse ES cells and during differentiation. Nature 473, 398–402.
16Delage, B & Dashwood, RH (2008) Dietary manipulation of histone structure and function. Annu Rev Nutr 28, 347–366.
17Dashwood, RH & Ho, E (2007) Dietary histone deacetylase inhibitors: from cells to mice to man. Semin Cancer Biol 17, 363–369.
18Lewis, BP, Shih, IH, Jones-Rhoades, MW, et al. . (2003) Prediction of mammalian microRNA targets. Cell 115, 787–798.
19Lim, LP, Lau, NC, Garrett-Engele, P, et al. . (2005) Microarray analysis shows that some microRNAs downregulate large numbers of target mRNAs. Nature 433, 769–773.
20Chuang, JC & Jones, PA (2007) Epigenetics and microRNAs. Pediatr Res 61, 24R–29R.
21Iorio, MV, Piovan, C & Croce, CM (2010) Interplay between microRNAs and the epigenetic machinery: an intricate network. Biochim Biophys Acta 1799, 694–701.
22Salerno, E, Scaglione, BJ, Coffman, FD, et al. . (2009) Correcting miR-15a/16 genetic defect in New Zealand Black mouse model of CLL enhances drug sensitivity. Mol Cancer Ther 8, 2684–2692.
23Sun, M, Estrov, Z, Ji, Y, et al. . (2008) Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) alters the expression profiles of microRNAs in human pancreatic cancer cells. Mol Cancer Ther 7, 464–473.
24Yang, J, Cao, Y, Sun, J, et al. . (2010) Curcumin reduces the expression of Bcl-2 by upregulating miR-15a and miR-16 in MCF-7 cells. Med Oncol 27, 1114–1118.
25Weiss, FU, Marques, IJ, Woltering, JM, et al. . (2009) Retinoic acid receptor antagonists inhibit miR-10a expression and block metastatic behavior of pancreatic cancer. Gastroenterology 137, 2136–2145.e7.
26Pogribny, IP, Starlard-Davenport, A, Tryndyak, VP, et al. . (2010) Difference in expression of hepatic microRNAs miR-29c, miR-34a, miR-155, and miR-200b is associated with strain specific susceptibility to dietary nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in mice. Lab Invest 90, 1437–1446.
27Cirera, S, Birck, M, Busk, PK, et al. . (2010) Expression profiles of miRNA-122 and its target CAT1 in minipigs (Sus scrofa) fed a high cholesterol diet. Comp Med 60, 136–141.
28Ponting, CP, Oliver, PL & Reik, W (2009) Evolution and functions of long noncoding RNAs. Cell 136, 629–641.
29Godfrey, KM & Barker, DJ (2001) Fetal programming and adult health. Public Health Nutr 4, 611–624.
30Bertram, CE & Hanson, MA (2001) Animal models and programming of the metabolic syndrome. Br Med Bull 60, 103–121.
31Armitage, JA, Khan, IY, Taylor, PD, et al. . (2004) Developmental programming of the metabolic syndrome by maternal nutritional imbalance: how strong is the evidence from experimental models in mammals? J Physiol 561, 355–377.
32Armitage, JA, Taylor, PD & Poston, L (2005) Experimental models of developmental programming: consequences of exposure to an energy rich diet during development. J Physiol 565, 3–8.
33Lillycrop, KA, Phillips, ES, Torrens, C, et al. . (2008) Feeding pregnant rats a protein-restricted diet persistently alters the methylation of specific cytosines in the hepatic PPARα promoter of the offspring. Br J Nutr 100, 278–282.
34Lillycrop, KA, Slater-Jefferies, JL, Hanson, MA, et al. . (2007) Induction of altered epigenetic regulation of the hepatic glucocorticoid receptor in the offspring of rats fed a protein-restricted diet during pregnancy suggests that reduced DNA methyltransferase-1 expression is involved in impaired DNA methylation and changes in histone modifications. Br J Nutr 97, 1064–1073.
35Sandovici, I, Smith, NH, Nitert, MD, et al. . (2011) Maternal diet and aging alter the epigenetic control of a promoter-enhancer interaction at the Hnf4a gene in rat pancreatic islets. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108, 5449–5454.
36Thone-Reineke, C, Kalk, P, Dorn, M, et al. . (2006) High-protein nutrition during pregnancy and lactation programs blood pressure, food efficiency, and body weight of the offspring in a sex-dependent manner. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 291, R1025–R1030.
37Maurer, AD & Reimer, RA (2011) Maternal consumption of high-prebiotic fibre or -protein diets during pregnancy and lactation differentially influences satiety hormones and expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism in offspring in rats. Br J Nutr 105, 329–338.
38Ong, KK (2007) Catch-up growth in small for gestational age babies: good or bad? Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 14, 30–34.
39Xita, N & Tsatsoulis, A (2010) Fetal origins of the metabolic syndrome. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1205, 148–155.
40Cianfarani, S, Germani, D & Branca, F (1999) Low birth weight and adult insulin resistance: the ‘catch-up growth’ hypothesis. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal 81, F71–F73.
41Garofano, A, Czernichow, P & Bréant, B (2000) Impaired β-cell regeneration in perinatally malnourished rats: a study with STZ. FASEB J 14, 2611–2617.
42Petrik, J, Reusens, B, Arany, E, et al. . (1999) A low protein diet alters the balance of islet cell replication and apoptosis in the fetal and neonatal rat and is associated with a reduced pancreatic expression of insulin-like growth factor-II. Endocrinology 140, 4861–4873.
43Pinney, SE & Simmons, RA (2010) Epigenetic mechanisms in the development of type 2 diabetes. Trends Endocrinol Metab 21, 223–229.
44Raychaudhuri, N, Raychaudhuri, S, Thamotharan, M, et al. . (2008) Histone code modifications repress glucose transporter 4 expression in the intrauterine growth-restricted offspring. J Biol Chem 283, 13611–13626.
45Buckley, AJ, Keserü, B, Briody, J, et al. . (2005) Altered body composition and metabolism in the male offspring of high fat-fed rats. Metabolism 54, 500–507.
46Khan, IY, Taylor, PD, Dekou, V, et al. . (2003) Gender-linked hypertension in offspring of lard-fed pregnant rats. Hypertension 41, 168–175.
47Khan, IY, Dekou, V, Douglas, G, et al. . (2005) A high-fat diet during rat pregnancy or suckling induces cardiovascular dysfunction in adult offspring. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 288, R127–R133.
48Bruce, KD, Cagampang, FR, Argenton, M, et al. . (2009) Maternal high-fat feeding primes steatohepatitis in adult mice offspring, involving mitochondrial dysfunction and altered lipogenesis gene expression. Hepatology 50, 1796–1808.
49Ong, ZY & Muhlhausler, BS (2011) Maternal ‘junk-food’ feeding of rat dams alters food choices and development of the mesolimbic reward pathway in the offspring. FASEB J 25, 2167–2179.
50Inagaki, T, Tachibana, M, Magoori, K, et al. . (2009) Obesity and metabolic syndrome in histone demethylase JHDM2a-deficient mice. Genes Cells 14, 991–1001.
51Brasacchio, D, Okabe, J, Tikellis, C, et al. . (2009) Hyperglycemia induces a dynamic cooperativity of histone methylase and demethylase enzymes associated with gene-activating epigenetic marks that coexist on the lysine tail. Diabetes 58, 1229–1236.
52BerniCanani, R, Passariello, A, Buccigrossi, V, et al. . (2008) The nutritional modulation of the evolving intestine. J Clin Gastroenterol 42, Suppl. 3, S197–S200.
53Licciardi, PV, Wong, SS, Tang, ML, et al. . (2010) Epigenome targeting by probiotic metabolites. Gut Pathog 2, 24.
54Langhendries, JP, Maton, P, François, A, et al. . (2010) Implementation of the intestinal micro flora in the early stage and adequate immunity later on (article in French). Arch Pediatr 17, Suppl. 3, S110–S118.
55Wiedmeier, JE, Joss-Moore, LA, Lane, RH, et al. . (2011) Early postnatal nutrition and programming of the preterm neonate. Nutr Rev 69, 76–82.
56Brown, AC & Valiere, A (2004) Probiotics and medical nutrition therapy. Nutr Clin Care 7, 56–58.
57Berni Canani, R, Di Costanzo, M, Leone, L, et al. . (2011) Potential beneficial effects of butyrate in intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. World J Gastroenterol 17, 1519–1528.
58Dumas, ME, Barton, RH, Toye, A, et al. . (2006) Metabolic profiling reveals a contribution of gut microbiota to fatty liver phenotype in insulin-resistant mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103, 12511–12516.
59Ajslev, TA, Andersen, CS, Gamborg, M, et al. . (2011) Childhood overweight after establishment of the gut microbiota: the role of delivery mode, pre-pregnancy weight and early administration of antibiotics. Int J Obes (Lond) 35, 522–529.
60Wang, Z, Klipfell, E, Bennett, BJ, et al. . (2011) Gut flora metabolism of phosphatidylcholine promotes cardiovascular disease. Nature 472, 57–63.
61Poroyko, V, White, JR, Wang, M, et al. . (2010) Gut microbial gene expression in mother-fed and formula-fed piglets. PLoS One 5, e12459.