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Nordic Journal of Linguistics


The Nordic Journal of Linguistics (NJL) is published by Cambridge University Press for the Nordic Association of Linguistics. The journal covers all branches of linguistics, with a special focus on issues related to the Nordic languages (including Finnish, Greenlandic and Saami) and on issues of general theoretical interest. The editors encourage submission of research articles, book reviews and papers on specific themes. One volume is published per calendar year, and each volume contains three issues (published in May, October and December). The second issue in each volume is a guest-edited, single-theme issue.

There are four ways to contribute to NJL: (longer) articles, short communications, review articles and book reviews. Short communications are like articles in that they are peer-reviewed, but they are different from articles in that they make it possible to state or illustrate an empirical point without necessarily giving a full-fledged and theoretically integrated analysis. Short communications are also appropriate for comments on articles published earlier in NJL. Manuscripts of articles and short communications will normally be read by three referees. Review articles are like regular articles in length and, like book reviews, they discuss a recent book of major importance or relevance to the NJL readership (or two or more books on the same topic); the greater length allows for more detailed and substantial evaluation and critique. Like book reviews, review articles are typically invited by the Editors, but unsolicited submissions in this category will also be considered. Review articles are like articles in that they undergo peer review.


Please note that the Nordic Journal of Linguistics has now moved to an online submission system. All new submissions, including book reviews and review articles, are to be submitted through NJL’s ScholarOne Manuscripts site: Prior to submission, please ensure you consult the revised Instructions for Contributors information below, especially sections 7 and 8.

Revised and resubmitted papers which had already undergone peer review prior to the transition to ScholarOne should be sent directly to the previously assigned Handling Editor, by e-mail.

The Editors of the Nordic Journal of Linguistics are Gunnar Ólafur Hansson (University of British Columbia), Marit Julien (Lund University) and Matti Miestamo (University of Helsinki). General queries and proposals for guest-edited thematic issues should be sent to the Editors at

Books for review should be sent to the Review Editor:

Dr Fredrik Heinat
Linnaeus University
Department of Languages
SE 351 95 Växjö


Submission of an article is taken to imply that it has not previously been published, and has not been submitted for publication elsewhere at the same time. Upon acceptance of a paper, the author(s) will be asked to sign a licence to publish form. An up-to-date Licence to Publish form can be viewed at:

Contributors are responsible for obtaining permission to reproduce any material for which they do not own copyright, to be used in both print and electronic media, and for ensuring that the appropriate acknowledgements are included in their manuscript.


First proofs of articles, short communications, review articles and book reviews will be sent electronically, as PDF files, to the (first-named/corresponding) author, who will be expected to correct them and send proof corrections electronically within three days of receipt.


Each Corresponding Author shall be sent by email a PDF file with the final version of the article or book review.


Please visit for information on our open access policies, compliance with major funding bodies, and guidelines on depositing your manuscript in an institutional repository.


The ideal lengths of contributions in characters (including spaces) are: articles and review articles 40,000–60,000, short communications and book reviews 10,000–20,000. Please follow either British English or US English conventions for spelling and expression consistently. Authors, particularly those whose first language is not English, may wish to have their English-language manuscripts checked by a native English speaker before submission. This is optional, but may help to ensure that the academic content of the paper is fully understood by the editor and any reviewers. Cambridge partners with the third-party service American Journal Experts which specialises in language editing, translation, formatting and figure preparation: Please note that the use of any of these services is voluntary, and at the author’s own expense. Use of these services does not guarantee that the manuscript will be accepted for publication, nor does it restrict the author to submitting to a Cambridge-published journal.

Contributors should initially submit their manuscripts via the journal’s ScholarOne Manuscripts site in fully anonymised double-spaced PDF files, adhering as closely as possible to the requirements described below regarding organisation, formatting and style. The manuscript needs to be accompanied by an abstract of 100–150 words summarising the content, as well as a list of 5–10 key words or short phrases in alphabetic order. The paper’s title, abstract and list of key words/phrases should also be included in the PDF file, and any tables and figures should be in their intended position within the text. The name(s) of the author(s) must not be included in the file (including in the file properties), and conspicuous self-references should be avoided. Manuscripts of book reviews should not be anonymised and need no abstract or list of key words.

Papers accepted for publication should be submitted in Word (or equivalent word processor; see below for (La)TeX), accompanied by identical PDF files, with any tables, figures and figure captions in separate Word and PDF files. For further details of the required manuscript format, see section 8 below.

Papers formatted in (La)TeX should use the NJL style/class files available above.(La)TeX authors should ensure that their manuscript is consistent with NJL style in those respects which cannot be covered by style/class files.

In order to increase the efficiency of the process of manuscript preparation in line with the notes below, authors are advised to look up the relevant features of articles or book reviews in a recent issue of NJL (either paper copy or the online version). While the manuscript format requirements and the printed format differ in some respects (most obviously in the article’s title and section headings’ font type and font size), published papers will provide useful and time-saving hints for the interpretation of these.


The format and style requirements described below are to facilitate a smooth conversion of text from file(s) into print. (La)TeX users should follow the template without introducing any modifications.

8.1 Pagination and organisation of the manuscript Please insert page number in the top right corner of every page. Number continuously throughout the title page, article’s main text, acknowledgements, appendix, endnotes and references. The various components of the manuscript are to follow in the order just given although auto-formatted endnotes may follow References. With the exception of automatic page and endnote numbering, auto-numbering and auto-formatting functions should not be used in the main-text file. This concerns section and subsection headings, example, table and figure numbering, paragraph breaks, and cross-referencing examples, tables and figures. Please do not use running headers or include any additional information such as a date, character count or word count.

The title page of an article and short communication should include the paper’s bibliographic entry, the title of the article, author’s name, the abstract and an alphabetised list of key words/phrases, all in this order, left-aligned, in Times New Roman 12 pt font, as in the template below. The title page of a review article and a book review is slightly different; see Section 8.18.1 below.

Schøning, Signe & Janus Spindler Møller. 2009. Self-recording as a social activity. Nordic Journal of Linguistics 32(2), 000–000.

Self-recording as a social activity Signe Schøning & Janus Spindler Møller



Full postal addresses.

Email address(es)

8.2 Typographic conventions Please use font type Times New Roman and font size 12 pt throughout the manuscript, including article’s title and section headings. For IPA special and letter-like symbols in phonetic and phonemic transcription strings, please use Doulos SIL size 12 pt font (free download at For recommendations on the use of various typefaces and some other special symbols, please refer to Section 8.17 below.

8.3 Spacing, margins and other settings Double-space throughout. Leave at least 2.5 cm/1" margins on all four sides of all the pages. Except for the first paragraph of a new section or subsection, indent the first line of every new paragraph, as is shown in next section. Please do not mark paragraph breaks by extra line spacing and no first-line indent. If the paper includes displayed/numbered examples with word-for-word glosses, please set default tab stop at 0.3 cm and use it throughout to fix the alignment (in Word, follow this path to the setting: Paragraph > Tabs… > Default tab stops > 0.3 cm). Please do not use the space bar or the ruler to calibrate word-for-word alignment in examples or to calibrate any other vertical alignment – always tabs!

8.4 Section and subsection headings, and paragraphs Section and subsection headings should not be auto-formatted and should be typed on separate lines, in all-capitals–bold–no italics (section headings) and in ‘Sentence capitalisation’–bold–italics (subsection headings), 12 pt font size, Times New Roman font type, numbered and punctuated exactly as in the following example:







2.1 Metrical phonology






2.1.1 Metrical grids

8.5 Stylistics and spelling Contributors should be sensitive to the social implications of language choice and seek wording free of discriminatory overtones in matters such as race and gender. Either British English or US English conventions for spelling and expression should be followed consistently. In words with alternative ize/ise spellings, either can be used, consistently throughout the text, but note that analyze is only used in conjunction with US spelling elsewhere. In publication titles and other direct quotations, the spelling should be exactly as in the original. Please run a spellchecker on the final draft to eliminate basic detectable typos.

8.6 Abbreviations Writing should be non-elliptical. Abbreviations of rule names, languages, authors’ names, etc. are to be kept to an absolute minimum and clearly introduced at first occurrence if an abbreviation is indeed needed. Glossing abbreviations should follow the Leipzig Glossing Rules ( The key to abbreviations should normally be presented in endnote 1, where the reliance on the Leipzig Glossing Rules should also be acknowledged (if relevant). If abbreviations of less commonly-known technical terms are used extensively in the article, they should be set out clearly in that endnote too. The list of abbreviations should be alphabetised, with digits at the start; font type should be consistent with the font type in which the abbreviation is used in the text/example glosses (usually full capitals, small capitals), e.g.:

1, 2, 3 = first, second, third person; ACC = accusative; NT = nasal–stop (sequence);

8.7 Quotations Quotations of under 25 words should be included in single quotation marks in running text. Any punctuation follows the closing quotation mark. Longer quotations should be set out as a separate paragraph (or paragraphs), indented at the left margin throughout, without quotation marks and with no extra indent on the first line. A full source (author–year–page/chapter/section number) must be given for all the quotations. Please check thoroughly against the source the accuracy of the text quoted in the manuscript (wording, punctuation, capitalisation, emphasis) and the page number(s) from which the quotation is taken. Page numbers for all quotations – direct and indirect – are essential.

8.8 Short references in text/endnotes As is shown below, variants of the author–date–page format are used for literature citations depending on the context of the sentence. With more than one work listed, works are ordered chronologically, not alphabetically, unless two or more works by different authors have the same year of publication.

for arguments against see Smith & Jones (1993:481–483), Chomsky (1995:154, 286–287; 1997), Vikner (1995:Chapter 5), Rizzi (1997), Iwakura (1999:Section 3.2)

and elsewhere (see Seuren 1985:295–313; Browning 1996:238 fn. 2)

distinguish certain words from others ‘without having any meaning of its own’ (Hockett 1958:575).

structural ambiguity (Lehiste 1973, Lehiste, Olive & Streeter 1976, Beach 1991, Price et al. 1991, Speer, Crowder & Thomas 1993, Nagel et al. 1996) and pronominal reference (Akmajian & Jackendoff 1970; Hirschberg & Avesani 1997, 2000; McMahon, Pierrehumbert & Lidz 2004)

as argued in Harris (published online 5 December 2012).

in Faroese, as pointed out in Holmberg (1986:19, 1991:219, 2001:44).

Other features to note: (i) the ampersand (&) rather than the word ‘and’ immediately precedes the surname of the second or third co-author; (ii) no space between the colon and the page number; (iii) a ‘long hyphen’ (en-dash) between page numbers; (iv) non-elliptical page number spans, i.e. no 481–3, 286–91, f./ff.; (v) no comma between author’s name and year; (vi) a semi-colon separates list items where author’s surname is followed by year and page numbers and/or two or more year-numbers; (vii) in running text, the closing quotation mark is followed by quotation source details, followed by punctuation; (viii) online pre-print journal article citations include author’s surname and ‘published online DD MM YYYY’ – not just the online publication year; see corresponding References entry for Harris in Section 9.14.4 below.

8.9 Acknowledgements A section labelled ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS (in all-capitals, bold) immediately follows the main text of the paper. Funding bodies, NJL referees and any other indirect contributors to the final version of the paper should be mentioned in this section.

8.10 Appendix and supplementary materials online Material not included in the main body of the paper may be included in an appendix. The section should be labelled APPENDIX (in all-capitals, bold) and an appendix should have a brief title, set in the form of a subsection heading (i.e. in bold and italics). If the appendix material is bulky, it should be submitted, in a separate PDF file, for publication online-only, as Supplementary Materials. Such text is not subject to copy-editing so please ensure that it is presented clearly and tidily. Include short information at the top of the file indicating bibliographic details of the paper which the supplementary materials complement and include a brief summary of the contents (informative, reader-friendly). Appendix and Supplementary Materials should be mentioned in the main body of the text at least once, to alert the reader to their existence. Appendix examples, tables and figures are numbered separately from the main-text sequence, e.g. examples (A1), (A2), etc.; Table/Figure A1, A2, etc. If more than one appendices are present, they are labelled Appendix A, Appendix B, etc.

8.11 Endnotes A list headed NOTES (in all-capitals, bold) should start on a fresh page. All material which is to appear as endnotes in print should be gathered as endnotes (not spread as footnotes). Automatic numbering is preferred for endnotes. Endnotes should be double-spaced and numbered consecutively, starting at number 1. The first endnote should possibly contain a list of abbreviations used in the paper (recall Section 8.6 above). As far as possible, the number and the length of endnotes should be kept to an absolute minimum. Endnote markers in the text follow any punctuation, including the closing quotation mark. Any displayed examples in endnotes are numbered with small roman numerals in parentheses, i.e. (i), (ii), (iii), etc., starting at (i) in each new endnote.

8.12 Numbered examples Examples which are set separately from running text should be numbered with Arabic numerals enclosed in parentheses, e.g. (1), starting at the left margin (i.e. no indent). If several examples are cited together as a group, use a numeral enclosed in parentheses for the whole group and a lower-case letter of the alphabet followed by a full stop for each sub-example. The sub-example letters and the first words of all examples should be vertically aligned by the use of small tabs (see Section 9.3 on how to set small tabs). Please do not use automatic example numbering and automatic example cross-referencing function.

In running text, examples should be referred to as (4a), (5b, c), (49a–c, e), (6b–e), (7)–(9) (not (4)a, (6)b–e, (7–9)). Please note the use of a ‘long hyphen’ (en-dash) between numbers and letters, marking a span.

Example number mentions in the text should be stylistically integrated with rest of the text; thus

while the locative phrase can be postposed, as in (6b), or omitted, as in (6c), the postverbal agent NP has to immediately follow the verb, as seen in (6c, d).

is preferred to

while the locative phrase can be postposed (6b) or omitted (6c), the postverbal agent NP has to immediately follow the verb (6c, d).

Numbered examples should be presented soon after they are first mentioned in the text rather than at the end of a paragraph. After an example has been introduced and displayed, detailed description and discussion then follows in the same paragraph. This is generally regarded reader-friendly and aids clarity.

Please do not routinely indent the first text line immediately after a displayed example because a new paragraph may not be appropriate at each such point from the point of view of the logical organisation of the text – this is particularly relevant for (La)TeX users because a new-paragraph indent is often forced by the program in all such contexts.

It should be made clear in the paper whether data sources are constructed or naturally occurring (attested). If the latter, the source should be clearly identified (literary works, newspapers, specific corpora, etc.) in a conventional example annotation, which should be right-aligned.

8.13 Examples from languages other than modern English Sentences, phrases and words in languages other than modern English which are set out as numbered examples are normally followed by a line of word-for-word (or morpheme-for- morpheme) gloss and a line of literary/idiomatic English translation (see Leipzig Glossing Rules at The gloss is obligatory; translation may be omitted if the meaning is clear from the gloss. Glosses are fully aligned with the appropriate words or morphemes of the original using small tabs (again, recall Section 8.3 above). Proper names are glossed as in the original, and remain not translated in the example’s translation line.

(23) a. Vi køber ikke et hus. (Danish)

we buy not a house

b. *Vi ikke køber et hus.

we not buy a house

c. Emme osta taloa. (Finnish)

NEG.1PL buy house.PART

‘We do not buy a/the house.’

d. Bil-en är grön-Ø. (Swedish)


‘The car is green.’

e. Bilen är grön.

car.the is green

(24) *Vodka er sun-t, og de-n drikk-er jeg

vodka(M) is healthy-N.SG and it-C drink I

gjerne til pøls-er. (Norwegian)

with.pleasure to sausage-PL

‘Vodka is healthy, and I drink it with pleasure with sausages.’

Other features to note: If a paper includes examples from a variety of languages, the name of the language should be indicated at the end of each example, in parentheses. The whole gloss line is in italics, grammatical category annotations are in small capitals, and the gloss starts with a lower-case letter (unless the first glossed word is a proper name). All example sentences (including the unacceptable ones) and, if present, their English translations usually end with a punctuation mark (i.e. a period, a question mark or an exclamation mark). The translation is in single quotation marks and sentence-final punctuation is within the quotation marks. If a part of a numbered example is to be highlighted, it is set in bold. An asterisk (or a question mark) preceding an unacceptable (or otherwise deviant) example is within the example’s vertical alignment pattern and is adjacent to the example, i.e. there is no space. The gloss of the first word is vertically aligned with the first letter of the glossed word (not with the asterisk/question mark). All aspects of this format must be observed in (La)TeX- and non-(La)TeX-based papers alike.

Forms in a language not written with the Latin alphabet must be transliterated or transcribed in line with standard conventions.

Language forms cited in running text should be in italics. Non-italicised, phonetic representations should be included in square brackets [...] and phonemic representation between slant lines /.../. English glosses should be added directly after a cited non-English form between single quotes. Reconstructed and non-occurring (ungrammatical) forms should be preceded by an asterisk *. The grammatical category gloss, if present, is given in small capitals in parentheses and within the quotes, e.g. moja matka ‘my mother (NOM, 3SG, FEM). The English gloss may sometimes be omitted after the first mention to avoid redundancy, but remember that many of your readers are likely to be quite unfamiliar with the language you are citing so will be grateful for such reminders.

8.14 References A list headed REFERENCES (in all-capitals, bold) follows the main text, acknowledgements, appendix (if there is one), and endotes (unless endnotes are auto-formatted, in which case they may follow references).

The references style is that of the Unified Style Sheet (BibTex for (La)TeX users) from, with two main exceptions: (i) all page numbers are preceded by a comma – i.e. there is a comma rather than a full-stop between journal/proceedings volume number and page numbers, and (ii) dissertation entries specify the university after a comma and do not list a ‘place of publication’.

8.14.1 Books

Akmajian, Adrian, Richard A. Demers & Robert M. Harnish. 1985. Linguistics, 2nd edn. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Diderichsen, Paul. 1962. Elementær dansk grammatik [Elementary Danish grammar], 3rd edn. Copenhagen: Gyldendal.

Kiparsky, Paul & Gilbert Youmans (eds.). 1989. Phonetics and Phonology, vol. 1: Rhythm and Meter. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Lahiri, Aditi (ed.). 2000. Analogy, Leveling, Markedness: Principles of Change in Phonology and Morphology (Trends in Linguistics 127). New York & Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Lockwood, William B. 1955. An Introduction to Modern Faroese. Copenhagen: Munksgaard. [Reprinted Tórshavn: Føroya Skúlabókagrunnur, 1977.]

Luce, R. Duncan, Robert R. Bush & Eugene Galanter (eds.). 1963. Handbook of Mathematical Psychology, vol. 2. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edn. 1989. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Pintzuk, Susan, George Tsoulas & AnthonyWarner (eds.). 2000. Diachronic Syntax: Models and Mechanisms. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

van Kemenade, Ans & Nigel B. Vincent (eds.). 1997. Parameters of Morphosyntactic Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Webelhuth, Gert (ed.). 1995. Government and Binding Theory and the Minimalist Program: Principles and Parameters in Syntactic Theory (Generative Syntax). Oxford: Blackwell.

8.14.2 Articles in edited volumes, conference proceedings and working papers

If more than one chapter is cited from an edited volume, a short reference to the volume appears in the chapters’ entries (as in the examples below) and the full details of the volume appear in a separate entry (such as in the sample list above).

Abraham, Werner. 1997. The interdependence of case, aspect, and referentiality in the history of German: The case of the verbal genitive. In van Kemenade & Vincent (eds.), 29–61.

Anward, Jan. 1988. Verb–verb agreement in Swedish. In Denise Fekete & Zofia Laubitz (eds.), Comparative Germanic Syntax (McGillWorking Papers in Linguistics), 1–34. Montréal: Department of Linguistics, McGill University

Archangeli, Diana. 1985. Yawelmani noun stress: Assignment of extrametricality. MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 6, 1–13.

Casali, Roderic F. 1998. Predicting ATR activity. Chicago Linguistic Society (CLS) 34(1), 55–68.

Clark, Alexander. 2006. Pac-learning unambiguous NTS languages. International Colloquium on Grammatical Inference 8, 59–71. Berlin: Springer.

Del Gobbo, Francesca. 2003. Appositives and quantification. Annual Penn Linguistics Colloquium 26 (University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 9), 73–88.

Hornstein, Norbert & AmyWeinberg. 1995 The Empty Category Principle. In Webelhuth (ed.), 241–296.

Kemenade, Ans van. 2000. Jespersen’s cycle revisited: Formal properties of grammaticalization. In Pintzuk et al. (eds.), 51–74.

Kiparsky, Paul. 1997. The rise of positional licensing. In van Kemenade & Vincent (eds.), 460–494.

Rice, Curt. 2006. Norwegian stress and quantity: Gaps and repairs at the phonology– morphology interface. In Christopher Davis, Amy Rose Deal & Youri Zabbal (eds.), The North East Linguistic Society 36 (NELS36), vol. 1, 27–38. Amherst, MA: Graduate Linguistic Student Association (GLSA). [ROA 781]

Rissanen, Matti. 1999. Syntax. In Roger Lass (ed.), Cambridge History of the English Language, vol. 3, 187–331. Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press.

Roberts, Ian & Anders Holmberg. 2005. On the role of parameters in Universal Grammar: A reply to Newmeyer. In Hans Broekhuis, Norbert Corver, Riny Huybregts, Ursula Kleinhenz & Jan Koster (eds.), Organizing Grammar: Linguistic Studies in honor of Henk van Riemsdijk, 538–553. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Williams, Edwin. 1995. Theta theory. In Webelhuth (ed.), 97–124.

Willis, David. 2000. Verb movement in Slavonic conditionals. In Pintzuk et al. (eds.), 322–348.

8.14.3 Articles in journals

Journal’s issue number, if present, is in parentheses, adjacent to the volume’s number. A comma (rather than a colon) separates journal’s volume/issue number and the article’s page numbers.

Askedal, John Ole. 2012. Norwegian ‘get’: A survey of its uses in present-day Riksmål/Bokmål. In Alexandra N. Lenz & Gudrun Rawoens (eds.), The Art of Getting: GET Verbs in European Languages from a Synchronic and Diachronic Point of View, special issue of Linguistics 50(6), 1289–1331.

Christensen, Kirsti Koch. 1986. Complex passives, reanalysis, and word formation. Nordic Journal of Linguistics 9(2), 135–162.

Ellison. T. Mark & Ewan Klein. 2001. The best of all possible words. Review article on Diana Archangeli & D. Terence Langendoen (eds.), Optimality Theory: An overview, 1997. Journal of Linguistics 37(1), 127–143.

Murray, Robert W. & Theo Vennemann. 1983. Sound change and syllable structure in Germanic phonology. Language 59, 514–528.

Suñer, Margarita.1988. The role of agreement in clitic-doubled constructions. Natural Language &Linguistic Theory 6(3), 391–434.

8.14.4 Online papers, reviews, dissertations, unpublished manuscripts and other kinds of publication

Note, in particular, the Harris entry below, which is an example of a paper published online prior to print publication.

Work which is under review, in revision or otherwise unpublished may be cited by the current date (year), as an unpublished manuscript. Citations like ‘under’ review’, ‘in revision’, ‘in preparation’, etc. are not allowed. Work which is about to be published can be cited as ‘in press’, ‘to appear’ or ‘forthcoming’ and all available details of the publication venue should be included in the entry.

Anttikoski, Esa. 2001. The Saami language. Ms., University of Joensuu. (accessed 21 May 2007).

Collins, Chris. 2015. Quantifier domain restriction as ellipsis.

Greftegreff, Irene. 1990. Hånd-konfigurasjoner i norsk tegnspråkfonologi [Hand configurations in the phonology of Norwegian Sign Language]. Ms., Department of Linguistics, University of Trondheim.

Harley, Heidi. 1995. Subjects, Events and Licensing. Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.

Harris, John. Wide-domain r-effects in English. Journal of Linguistics, doi:10.1017/S0022226712000369. Published online by Cambridge University Press, 5 December 2012.

Joseph, Brian D. 2001. Review of R. M. W. Dixon, The Rise and Fall of Languages, 1997. Journal of Linguistics 37(1), 180–186.

Myrberg, Sara & Tomas Riad. Forthcoming. On the expression of focus in the metrical grid and in the prosodic hierarchy. In Caroline Féry & Shinichiro Ishihara (eds.), The Oxford Handbook on Information Structure. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199642670.013.29, published online by Oxford University Press, May 2015]

Pedersen, Johan. 2005. The Spanish impersonal se-construction: Constructional variation and change. Constructions 1. (accessed 10 May 2007).

Petersen, Hjalmar, Jógvan í Lon Jacobsen, Zakaris S. Hansen & Höskuldur Thráinsson. 1998. Faroese, an overview for students and researchers. Ms., University of Iceland & Academy of the Faroes.

Riad, Tomas. Forthcoming. The phonological typology of North Germanic accent. In Larry Hyman & Frans Plank (eds.), Phonological Typology. Berlin: Mouton.

Watson, Kevin & Patrick Honeybone. 2002. Liverpool English, visarga in pausa, and the phonetics–phonology divide. Presented at the Toulouse Conference on English Phonology, University of Toulouse le Mirail.

All and only works mentioned in the text, endnotes, and any appendices, tables/figures and their captions must be included in the references at the end of the article. This should be checked carefully and that the authors and dates cited in the paper match exactly the names and the dates in the reference entries, that the page numbers of all the articles in journals, books and proceedings are cited accurately, and that the list is in strict alphabetic order. English rather than Scandinavian languages’ alphabetisation is the norm. References are the responsibility of the author(s), and the format exemplified below should be carefully followed to save time and correspondence prior to typesetting and publication.

The list is double-spaced throughout, with the right margin non-justified. There are no lines or blank spaces for repeated names of authors – the names are always typed in full. If an entry is longer than one line, the second and subsequent lines are indented, with a hard line return ONLY at the end of the entry, i.e. no hard returns within the entry. The first names of all the authors and editors are given in full and any initials are also included – the names must be presented exactly as in the original publication. This convention must be followed consistently throughout with the exception for those authors who are known to use initials only (e.g. R. M. W. Dixon, S.J. Hannahs). The full first name follows the surname only at the beginning of a new entry. A full-stop separates author name(s) and the year of the publication. All English book titles and journal titles are in italics and in ‘Title Capitalisation’; article/chapter/paper titles are in ‘Sentence capitalisation’. In non-English titles, follow capitalisation rules typical of the language of the title. In the case of joint authors or editors use the ampersand (&), not the word ‘and’. Please note also a ‘long hyphen’ (en-dash) and non-elliptical number spans (i.e. 1985–1991, 134–162; not 1985-91, 134-62). Abbreviations are to be avoided in the case of journal titles (e.g. Journal ofLinguistics, not JL) and conference proceedings’ though the latter can include the meeting’s or the society’s acronym alongside the full name. US state names are in standard two-letter abbreviation, e.g. MA (not Mass.).

The extra information like the translation of non-English titles of articles and books (though not journal titles) or reprint information is not obligatory but recommended; if included, translations of titles should be included consistently throughout the References, in square brackets. Conference proceedings and working papers should be treated either as edited volumes (in that case include the name(s) of the editor(s), the full title, the publication place and the publisher) or as journals; either way, please include the article’s page numbers.

8.15 Tables, figures, AVMs, tableaux and tree diagrams Such objects are usually single-spaced. For refereeing purposes, they are all included in the manuscript in their intended position in the main-text file. When an accepted paper is submitted for publication, tables and figures must be taken out of the main-text file and submitted separately, as described below.

8.15.1 Tables

Only horizontal lines are normally used in tables. Both horizontal and vertical lines are acceptable in OT tableaux and in intricate tables.

Tables are numbered and have a caption (underneath, in bold, 12 pt font size, with a final full-stop, e.g. Table 1. Bivariate statistics.). Please do not use automatic table-numbering and cross-referencing functions.

In the final submission, all tables are set in a single, separate file, single-spaced with the caption underneath each table. The file is named something like ‘Smith_Tables1-5’ (Word or equivalent and corresponding PDF file). In the main-text file, close to where a given table is intended to appear in the printed version of the paper, there should be a line of text <Insert Table N about here>. This table placement marker should be positioned between complete paragraphs, not within a paragraph. Each table should be explicitly mentioned in the text (e.g. ‘as seen in Table 1’) at least once, close to its intended location.

By general convention, any explanation of the notation and abbreviations used in a table, and any footnotes pertaining to the contents of the table are presented immediately below the table (above the caption), in smaller (10 pt) font size. Table’s footnotes must be usually marked with superscripted a, b, c, etc., tagged manually rather than electronically, always starting at a in each table.

8.15.2 Figures

Each figure is set in a separate file (Word or equivalent and corresponding PDF file; TIF and JPG file formats are also acceptable), named something like ‘Smith_Figure1’. Please do not use automatic figure-numbering and cross-referencing functions. Near to where a given figure is intended to appear in the printed version of the paper, there should be a line of text <Insert Figure 1 about here>. This figure placement marker should be positioned between complete paragraphs, not within a paragraph. Each figure should be explicitly mentioned in the text (e.g. ‘as seen in Figure 1’) at least once, close to its intended location. None of the figure files should include any page numbers, figure numbers or captions. The identity of the figure will be clear from the file’s name; figure captions will be listed in a separate file, named ‘Smith_Captions’. For further advice on figure files, please refer to the artwork guide at

Tree diagrams, tableaux, AVMs, etc. are normally numbered like other examples and are normally submitted as part of the main-text file. Large AVMs may be designated and submitted like figures.

Charges apply for all colour figures if they are to appear in colour in the printed version of the journal. At the time of submission, contributors should clearly state whether their figures should appear in colour in the online version only, or whether they should appear in colour online and in the print version. There is no charge for including colour figures in the online version of the Journal but it must be clear that colour is needed to enhance the meaning of the figure, rather than simply being for aesthetic purposes. If you request colour figures in the printed version, you will be contacted by an agency on behalf of CUP’s to collect Author Charges. Please follow their instructions in order to avoid any delay in the publication of your article.

8.16 Alpha-numeric data and results These should be presented in a consistent format throughout the paper. In particular, authors should be consistent in the use of italic for the expressions p, r, etc.; in the use of spaces immediately before and after the signs =, > and <, and elsewhere; and in the use of punctuation (commas, colons, semi-colons, and parentheses) marking sets and subsets of alpha-numeric information. Avoid zero in front of the decimal if the number cannot be greater than 1.00, e.g. probability and correlation, p-values and r-values should not include pre-decimal zeros (e.g. p < .001, not p < 0.001). In numbers with decimals, please use the decimal point – not the Continental decimal comma (e.g. 9.6 ms, not 9,6 ms); this must be checked not only in the text but also in tables and figures.

8.17 More typographic conventions Please use Times New Roman size 12pt font throughout the manuscript, including the title page and endnotes, and Doulos SIL size 12pt font for IPA special and letter-like symbols in IPA transcription strings. Table-specific and figure-specific footnotes and other annotations are set in font size 10 pt.

8.17.1 Special typefaces


(i) technical terms when first introduced

(ii) emphasis in the main body of the text and endnotes (not italic or bold)

(iii) the names of grammatical categories in the glosses of numbered examples

Please do not use full CAPITALS with a reduced font size.


(i) language objects in running text

(ii) foreign words

(iii) subsection headings (in bold in addition)

(iv) titles of books, journals, conference proceedings and Ph.D. dissertations

(v) headings in numbered examples


(i) section and subsection headings (subsection headings are in italics in addition)

(ii) emphasis in numbered examples (the example only, not the corresponding gloss)

(iii) table and figure captions

‘Single quotation marks’

(i) meanings of words and sentences

(ii) quotations in running text, direct speech

(iii) terms used in a semi-technical sense or terms whose validity is questioned

"Double quotation marks" – quotations within quotations only.

8.17.2 Special typographic symbols

Ampersand (&) is used instead of the word ‘and’ before the second/last surname of a co-author or co-editor in references as well as in the main text.

A ‘long hyphen’/en-dash (–) is used

(i) to mark a ‘dash’ – it is then preceded and followed by a space

(ii) in number spans, such as in page numbers, example numbers, etc. (e.g. 123–154, (5)–(7), (5a–c))

(iii) to mark a relation, e.g. ‘syntax–phonology interface’, ‘subject–verb agreement’, ‘noun–pronoun alternation’, ‘subject–auxiliary inversion’, ‘verb–particle sequence’, ‘English–French bilingual’

Please distinguish between a ‘long hyphen’/en-dash (–) and a short, regular hyphen (-). The em-dash (—) is used only in tables, to mark an empty cell.

Please distinguish between the closing quotation mark/apostrophe (e.g. A’s position) and the prime symbol (e.g. Aʹ position). Please do not use the ‘smart quote’ to mark the prime symbol.

8.17.3 Capitalisation

In the text, where the words ‘section’, ‘chapter’, ‘table’, ‘tableau’, ‘figure’, ‘experiment’, etec. are followed by a section’s, chapter’s, table’s, tableau’s, figure’s and experiment’s number, the words have an initial capital, e.g.

see Section 3 below for detailed exposition.

will be presented in Section 4.2. The following section, Section 4.3, develops those ideas

as seen in Table 1. The table presents results from Group 1 experiment.

In references, ‘Title Capitalisation’ is used for book titles, journal titles, Ph.D. dissertation titles, conference titles, conference proceedings’ titles which include the conference’s title, and book series. Elsewhere in References, ‘Sentence capitalisation’ is used in titles but a capital letter follows the colon at the start of a paper’s subtitle. In non-English titles, please use capitalisation style in line with the rules of that language.

8.17.4 Miscellanea

Numbered list items in running text should be marked (i), (ii), etc. rather than a), b), c), etc.

The abbreviation ‘cf.’ means ‘compare’ and is regularly misused, most frequently for ‘see’. Thus, use ‘see’ or an alternative English expression, or nothing, as appropriate, and where you mean ‘compare’, use the English word ‘compare’.

If (sub)sections, numbered examples or endnotes are added to or removed from the text in the process of revising it, every care should be taken to ensure that all subsequent (sub)sections, examples and endnotes are appropriately renumbered and that any in-text and in-endnote cross-references to them by numbers (e.g. ‘given the arguments in Section 3.2 above’) be checked and adjusted if necessary. While automatic endnote numbering is fine, please do not use automatic example, figure and table numbering and cross-referencing.

8.18 Review articles and book reviews: Special features

Review articles and book reviews should include all the relevant features of the style and file format described above with the exceptions noted in this section.

8.18.1 Title page

REVIEW ARTICLES must include their category heading, their own article title and the details of the book(s) under review. The title page template is as follows:

Article’s bibliographic information


Review article’s title


Book’s details in the format illustrated below for book reviews below



Authors’ full postal addresses and email addresses

BOOK REVIEWS are headed by (i) the details of the book under review, (ii) the reviewer’s name, and (iii) the reviewers’ full postal and email addresses. These details immediately precede the text and have the format as in the example below; please note the type and order of information about the book, exact use of punctuation, bold, italics, capital letters and small capitals:

Federica Cognola, Syntactic Variation and Verb Second: A German Dialect in Northern Italy (Linguistik Aktuell/Linguistics Today 201). Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2013. Pp. xii + 322.

Reviewed by Johan Brandtler

Centre for Languages and Literature, Lund University, Box 201, 221 00, Lund, Sweden.

8.18.2 Text organisation

Review articles follow the same text pattern and organisation as articles. Book reviews are not divided into sections and subsections and normally do not include acknowledgements and endnotes.

8.18.3 In-text references to the book under review

The name of a single author or editor of the book under review is to be given in full at each mention rather than be abbreviated. However, if used relatively frequently throughout the text, the names of two or more authors or editors may be abbreviated thus: ‘Chomsky& Halle 1968 (henceforth C&H)’. Please note the use of the ampersand (&) and the lack of spaces in the abbreviation. Alternatively, if necessary, the book under review may be referred to by an abbreviation of the title, e.g. ‘The book The Origins of Complex Language by Andrew Carstairs-McCarthy (henceforth OCL)’. Please note that the abbreviation is in italic. The book under review is not included in the list of references at the end of the paper.

8.18.4 Page references

Page references to passages in, or quotations from, the book under review are given in parentheses, e.g. (p. 39, pp. 121–122). If necessary, the word ‘page’/‘pages’ may precede the page number if the reference is stylistically part of running text (e.g. ‘as the author explains on page 15’). Please note that punctuation immediately follows the page reference, thus:

the author notes that ‘the problem becomes traceable’ (p. 39), and turns his attention to

8.18.5 Chapter references

When referring to chapter titles, or the titles of individual papers in an edited volume, the following punctuation and capitalisation should be used:

We turn now to Chapter 3, ‘Syntactic variation in English: A global perspective’, which provides an excellent summary ...

The first paper in the volume is by Kim Blogg, entitled ‘Syllable structure in Klingon’.

Chapter (part and section) titles are in ‘Sentence capitalisation’, with a capital also at the start of the subtitle, and titles are set in single quotation marks (not in italic or bold font). Note also that upper-case ‘C’ (P and S) is used when referring to volume’s chapters (parts and sections) by number. The name(s) of the book author(s)/editor(s) and chapter author(s) must be given in full at first mention in the text of a review article and book review, in the form exactly as on the book’s cover or the chapter’s title page.

8.18.6 References list

While in review articles there is no limit on the length of the list of references, in book reviews, the list should be short. As a rule of thumb, there should normally be no more than eight references in a book review.

Last updated: 24th June 2020