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Western Art Music in Japan: A Success Story?

  • Margaret Mehl (a1)
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Email: mehl@hum.ku.dk
References
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1 Gordon, Andrew, A Modern History of Japan: From Tokugawa Times to the Present, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009 (2003)

2 Nishihara Minoru, ‘Gakusei’ Bētōven no tanjō [The birth of Beethoven as the great master of music] (Tokyo: Heibonsha, 2000)

Takenaka, Toru, ‘Wagner-Boom in Meiji-Japan’, Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 62/1 (2005): 1331

3 Signell, Karl, ‘The Modernization Process in Two Oriental Music Cultures: Turkish and Japanese’, Asian Music 7/2 (1976): 72102

Parakilas, James, ‘Classical Music as Popular Music’, The Journal of Musicology 3/1 (1984): 118

4 Osterhammel, Jürgen, Die Verwandlung der Welt: Eine Geschichte des 19. Jahrhunderts (Munich: C.H. Beck, 2009)

5 Chiba Yūko, Doremi o eranda nihonjin [When the Japanese chose ‘do re mi’] (Tokyo: Ongaku no Tomosha, 2007)

6 Everett, Yayoi Uno and Lau, Frederickeds, Locating East Asia in Western Art Music (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2004)

7 Cyril Ehrlich, The Piano: A History, rev. ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990 (1976)

8 Ross, Alex, The Rest is Noise: Listening to the Twentieth Century (New York: Picador, 2007): 562567

Steinberg, Michael P., ‘Afterword: Whose Culture? Whose History? Whose Music?’, in The Oxford Handbook of the New Cultural History of Music, ed. Jane F. Fulcher (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011): 550561

9 Malm, William P., ‘The Modern Music of Meiji Japan’, in Tradition and Modernization in Japanese Culture, ed. Donald Shively (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1971): 257300

Suchy, Irene, ‘Deutschsprachige Musiker in Japan vor 1945: Eine Fallstudie eines Kulturtransfers am Beispiel der Rezeption abendländischer Musik’ (PhD diss., University of Vienna, 1992)

Eppstein, Ury, The Beginnings of Western Music in Meiji Era Japan (New York: Edwin Mellen, 1994)

Wade, Bonnie C., Music in Japan (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005)

Herd, Judith Ann, ‘Western-influenced “classical” music in Japan’, in The Ashgate Research Companion to Japanese Music, ed. Alison McQueen Tokita and David W. Hughes (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008): 363381

10 Luciana Galliano, Yōgaku: Japanese Music in the Twentieth Century, trans. Martin Mayes (Lanham, MD: The Scarecrow Press, 2002)

11 Nakamura Rihei, Yōgaku dōnyūsha no kiseki: nihon kindai yōgakushi josetsu [The tracks of those who introduced Western music: An introduction to the history of Western music in modern Japan] (Tokyo: Tōsui Shobō, 1993): 1234

12 Tsukahara Yasuko, Jūkyū seiki no nihon ni okeru seiyō ongaku no juyō [The reception of Western music in nineteenth-century Japan] (Tokyo: Taka Shuppan, 1993)

Nakamura Kōsuke, Kindai nihon yōgaku josetsu [Western music in modern Japan: An introduction] (Tokyo: Tōkyō Shoseki, 2003)

13 Kōsuke Nakamura, Seiyō no oto, Nihon no mimi: Kindai bungaku to seiyō ongaku [Western sounds, Japanese ears: modern Japanese literature and Western music] (Tokyo: Shunjūsha, 2002 (1987)

14 Ishida Kazushi, Modanizumu hensōkyoku: Higashi Ajia no kindai ongakushi [Variations on the theme of modernism: The history of modern and contemporary music in East Asia] (Tokyo: Sakuhokusha, 2005)

15 Hiroshi Watanabe, Nihon bunka modan rapusodi [Japanese culture: a modern rhapsody] (Tokyo: Shunjusha, 2002)

Tokita, Alison, ‘Takarazuka and the Musical, Modan in the Hanshin Region 1914–1942’, in Rethinking Japanese Modernism, ed. Roy Starrs (Leiden: Brill, 2012): 408427

16 Chiba, Doremi o eranda nihonjin.

17 The expression juyō [reception] is the one most commonly used in Japan to describe the introduction of Western music to Japan, although some authors use dōnyū [introduction, importation].

18 Harich-Schneider, Eta, A History of Japanese Music (London: Oxford University Press, 1973)

19 Harich-Schneider, History of Japanese Music, 546

20 Tokita, ‘Takarazuka and the Musical’, 413

21 Finnegan, Ruth, The Hidden Musicians: Music-Making in an English Town (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989)

Wade, Music in Japan, 79–130

22 William P. Malm, Traditional Japanese Music and Musical Instruments, rev. ed. (Tokyo: Kodansha International, 2000)

Ferranti, Hugh de, Japanese Musical Instruments (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000)

Provine, Robert C., Tokumaru, Yosihiko and Witzleben, J. Lawrenceeds, The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music Vol 7: East Asia: China, Japan, and Korea (New York: Garland, 2002)

Johnson, Henry, The Shamisen: Tradition and Diversity (Leiden: Brill, 2010)

23 Malm, William P., ‘The Special Characteristics of Gagaku’, in Gagaku: Court Music and Dance, ed. Masataro Togi (Tokyo: Weatherhill, 1971): 325

24 Galliano, Yōgaku, 16

25 Hughes, David W. and Tokita, Alison McQueen, ‘Context and Change in Japanese Music’, in Ashgate Research Companion to Japanese Music, 18–27

26 Renamed Ongaku Torishirabe Sho (Institute of Music) from February to December 1885.

27 Known in English as the Tokyo Academy of Music during the Meiji period.

28 Mehl, Margaret, ‘A Man's Job? The Kōda Sisters, Violin Playing and Gender Stereotypes in the Introduction of Western Music in Japan’, Women's History Review 21/1 (2012): 101120

29 Suchy, ‘Deutschsprachige Musiker in Japan’, 167–184

Negishi Kazumi, Yōsefu rasuka to takarazuka kōkyō gakudan [Josef Laska and the Takarazuka Symphony Orchestra] (Osaka: Ōsaka Daigaku Shuppankai, 2012)

30 Melvin, Sheila and Cai, Jindong, Rhapsody in Red: How Western Classical Music Became Chinese (New York: Algora, 2004)

Lee, Angela Hao-Chun, ‘The Influence of Governmental Control and early Christian Missionaries on Music Education of Aborigines in Taiwan’, British Journal of Music Education 23/2 (2006): 205216

Kim, Hio-Jin, Koreanische und westliche Musikerausbildung: Historische Rekonstruktion – Vergleich – Perspektiven (Marburg: Tectum, 2000)

31 Galliano, Yōgaku, 94

32 Harich-Schneider, History of Japanese Music, 533–597

33 Tokita, Alison M., ‘Bi-musicality in modern Japanese culture’, International Journal of Bilingualism, Online First (2012)

Tsukahara Yasuko, Meiji kokka to gagaku: dentō no kindaika, kokugaku no sōsei [The Meiji state and Gagaku: Modernization of tradition/creation of national music] (Tokyo: Yūshisha, 2009)

34 The gagaku songs for educational use are known as hoiku shōka, translated in this issue as ‘childcare songs’. ‘Children's education songs’ might be less misleading.

35 Eppstein, The Beginnings of Western Music in Meiji Era Japan, 93–113

36 Mehl, Margaret, ‘Japan's Early Twentieth-Century Violin Boom’, Nineteenth-Century Music Review 7/1 (2010): 2343

37 The Violin in Japan: A History of Its Place in the Musical Culture, 1850–2000 (unpublished manuscript; provisional title).

38 Cooke, Peter, ‘The violin: instrument of four continents’, in The Cambridge Companion to the Violin, ed. Robin Stowell (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992): 234248

39 Schoenbaum, David, The Violin: A Social History of the World's Most Versatile Instrument (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2012)

40 Johnson, Henry, ‘A Modernist Traditionalist: Miyagi Michio, Transculturalism, and the Making of a Music Tradition’, in Rethinking Japanese Modernism, ed. Roy Starrs (Leiden: Brill, 2012): 246269

41 Watanabe, Nihon bunka modan rapusodi, ii, 5–9.

42 Tokita makes a similar point when she highlights the importance of film, light opera and dance music in helping Western music become ‘naturalized’ in the Kansai region; Tokita, ‘Takarazuka and the Musical’, 425.

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Nineteenth-Century Music Review
  • ISSN: 1479-4098
  • EISSN: 2044-8414
  • URL: /core/journals/nineteenth-century-music-review
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