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A Re-Examination of New Testament Papyrus P99 (Vetus Latina AN glo Paul)

  • Eleanor Dickey (a1)

Abstract

A bilingual Greek–Latin glossary in the papyrus Chester Beatty AC 1499 (= New Testament P99, Vetus Latina AN glo Paul) contains numerous short extracts from the letters of Paul. New photographs and re-examination of the original have allowed substantial corrections to previous editions of the text, causing some rare or unique variant readings to disappear and others to appear for the first time. The history of the glossary can now be better understood: it was probably created not directly from a text of Paul, but from an early Christian work, now lost, that quoted extensively from Paul.

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I am indebted to Philomen Probert and Daniela Colomo for helpful comments on a draft version of this article and for fruitful discussion; to Hugh Houghton for helpful comments, guidance on dealing with the biblical scholarship, and encouragement to submit the piece to this journal; to Maria Chiara Scappaticcio and the participants in the PLATINUM project for inviting me to re-edit this papyrus as part of that project and for discussion of readings; and to the Chester Beatty library for the photographs and for allowing me to spend two days inspecting the original.

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1 Wouters, A., The Chester Beatty Codex AC 1499: A Graeco-Latin Lexicon on the Pauline Epistles and a Greek Grammar (Leuven: Peeters, 1988). This work largely supersedes earlier discussions of the codex, namely Regemorter, B. van, ‘Le Papetier-Libraire en Égypte’, Chronique d’Égypte 35 (1960) 278–80; Lowe, E. A., Codices Latini Antiquiores: Supplement (Oxford: Clarendon Press 1971) no. 1683; Wouters, A., ‘An Unedited Grammatical and Lexicographical Papyrus Codex in Dublin’, Ancient Society 3 (1972) 259–62; idem, ‘A Note on E. A. Lowe, C. L. A. Supplement No. 1683: A Greek Grammar and a Graeco-Latin Lexicon on St. Paul’, Scriptorium 31 (1977) 240–2; idem, ‘An Unedited Papyrus Codex in the Chester Beatty Library Dublin Containing a Greek Grammar and a Graeco-Latin Lexicon on Four Pauline Epistles’, Actes du xve Congrès International de Papyrologie, vol. iii (ed. J. Bingen and G. Nachtergael; Brussels: Fondation Égyptologique Reine Élisabeth 1979) 97–107; Frede, H. J., Vetus Latina xxv: Ep. ad Thess., Tim., Tit., Philem., Hebr. (Freiburg: Herder 1975) 26; Seider, R., Paläographie der lateinischen Papyri, vol. ii.1 (Stuttgart: Anton Hiersemann 1978) 87–8 and Abb. 33 xviii; idem, Paläographie der lateinischen Papyri, vol. ii.2 (Stuttgart: Anton Hiersemann 1981) 121–2 and Abb. 46 xxii.

2 Tischendorf, C., ed., Novum Testamentum Graece, vol. ii (Leipzig: Brockhaus, 1872); see Wouters, Codex, 161–2.

3 Nestle, E., Aland, K. et al. , eds., Novum Testamentum Graece (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2012 28). This papyrus is P99 there and in Aland, K., Kurzgefasste Liste der griechischen Handschriften des Neuen Testaments (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1994 2; also online at http://ntvmr.uni-muenster.de/liste).

4 See Wouters, Codex, 159–60.

5 In the database this papyrus is identified as ‘AN glo W’, but it is ‘AN glo Paul’ in Gryson, R., Répertoire général des auteurs ecclésiastiques latins de l'antiquité et du haut Moyen âge, vol. i (Freiburg: Herder, 2007) 138.

6 The dating is based on handwriting and cannot be regarded as precise. The date of ca. 400 is backed by Aland, Liste, 16; by Wachtel, K. and Witte, K., Das Neue Testament auf Papyrus, vol. ii: Die Paulinischen Briefe. Teil 2: Gal, Eph, Phil, Kol, 1 u. 2 Thess, 1 u 2 Tim, Tit, Phlm, Hebr (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1994) lxxii; and the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae (which calls this papyrus ‘Gloss. Paul.’). Wouters (Codex, 17) and Seider (Paläographie ii.2, 122) prefer a fourth-century date, the Leuven Database of Ancient Books (www.trismegistos.org/ldab/, where this papyrus is number 3030) prefers a fifth-century date, and Lowe (CLA Supplement, no. 1683) a late fifth-century date.

7 Wachtel and Witte, Die Paulinischen Briefe, lxvii–xc.

8 For a fuller explanation of this format and its history, including complete lists of bilingual papyri using this and other layouts, see Dickey, E., ‘Columnar Translation: An Ancient Interpretive Tool That the Romans Gave the Greeks’, Classical Quarterly 65 (2015) 807–21.

9 See P.Sorb. inv. 2069 verso (edited by Dickey, E. and Ferri, R., ‘A New Edition of the Latin–Greek Glossary on P.Sorb. inv. 2069 (verso)’, Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 175 (2010) 177–87 and explained in Dickey, E., ‘The Creation of Latin Teaching Materials in Antiquity: A Re-Interpretation of P.Sorb. inv. 2069’, Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 175 (2010) 188208) and P.Berol. inv. 10582 (edited by Dickey, E., ‘How Coptic Speakers Learned Latin? A Reconsideration of P.Berol. inv. 10582’, Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 193 (2015) 6577) as well as Dickey, ‘Columnar Translation’, 818. For medieval post-columnar arrangement, see Dickey, E., ‘The Authorship of the Greek Version of Dositheus' Grammar and What It Tells Us about the Grammar's Original Use’, The Latin of the Grammarians: Reflections about Language in the Roman World (ed. Ferri, R. and Zago, A.; Turnhout: Brepols, 2016) 205–35.

10 Wouters, who did that reconstruction, referred to each sheet by a folio number followed by an arrow to show the direction of the fibres, meaning that the sheets containing the glossary run as follows: 11 → (lines 1184–1211), 11 ↓ (1212–40), 12 ↓ (1241–70), 12 → (1271–99), 13 → (1300–29), 13 ↓ (1330–60), 14 ↓ (1361–90), 14 → (1391–1419), 15 → (1420–48), 15 ↓ (1449–54). Wachtel and Witte used ‘recto’ and ‘verso’ notations, which are potentially confusing since ‘recto’ can be used either of the side of a papyrus first written or of the side with horizontal fibres, leading to ambiguity when the side with vertical fibres was written first (as often in this codex). Wachtel and Witte's numeration follows the fibres rather than the writing order, so in their system the sheets containing the glossary run as follows: 11r, 11v, 12v, 12r, 13r, 13v, 14v, 14r, 15r, 15v.

11 See Wouters, Codex, 149.

12 Although it is tempting to use the glossary's numerous spelling mistakes to shed light on one person or the other, the errors cannot be attributed with certainty to either party and are therefore largely useless in this process (cf. Wouters, Codex, 166).

13 Wouters, Codex, 167; personally I cannot see the difference, but I am not an expert in this area.

14 See Wouters, Codex, 167 and Wachtel and Witte, Die Paulinischen Briefe, lxxiii.

15 See Dickey, ‘Columnar Translation’, 819.

16 P.Berol. inv. 10582, for which see Dickey, ‘Coptic Speakers’.

17 Cf. Wouters, Codex, 105–6; Wachtel and Witte, Paulinischen Briefe, lxx.

18 Wouters, Codex, 153.

19 Further examples of multiple equivalents in non-Pauline entries are lines 1451, where the Greek is ἄγραν, θήραν, ζωγρείαν and the Latin praedas, and 1453–4, where the Greek is οὐκ ἀνῆκεν, οὐ πρέπει and the Latin non decet.

20 Cf. Wachtel and Witte, Paulinischen Briefe, lxxxv.

21 2 Corinthians 5.13: εἴτε γὰρ ἐξέστημεν, θεῷ· εἴτε σωφρονοῦμεν, ὑμῖν and sive enim mente excedimus, Deo; sive sobrii sumus, vobis. (RSV: ‘For if we are beside ourselves, it is for God; if we are in our right mind, it is for you.’)

22 2 Corinthians 7.6: ἀλλ’ ὁ παρακαλῶν τοὺς ταπεινοὺς παρεκάλεσεν ἡμᾶς ὁ θεὸς ἐν τῇ παρουσίᾳ Τίτου and sed qui consolatur humiles consolatus est nos Deus in adventu Titi. (RSV: ‘But God, who comforts the downcast, comforted us by the coming of Titus’.)

23 2 Corinthians 10.12: Οὐ γὰρ τολμῶμεν ἐγκρῖναι ἢ συγκρῖναι ἑαυτούς τισιν τῶν ἑαυτοὺς συνιστανόντων· ἀλλὰ αὐτοὶ ἐν ἑαυτοῖς ἑαυτοὺς μετροῦντες καὶ συγκρίνοντες ἑαυτοὺς ἑαυτοῖς οὐ συνιᾶσιν and non enim audemus inserere aut conparare nos quibusdam qui se ipsos commendant sed ipsi in nobis nosmet ipsos metientes et conparantes nosmet ipsos nobis. (RSV: ‘Not that we venture to class or compare ourselves with some of those who commend themselves. But when they measure themselves by one another, and compare themselves with one another, they are without understanding.’)

24 I know of one early biblical text in the columnar layout, and that is not earlier than the sixth century: Codex Laudianus = Nestle–Aland E 08 = Vetus Latina 50 (R. Gryson, Altlateinische Handschriften (Freiburg: Herder, 1999) 77 = CLA ii.251 = LDAB (www.trismegistos.org/ldab/) 2881. By contrast there are five early biblical texts with facing-page Latin translations, of which the earliest may come from the fourth century: Codex Bezae = Nestle–Aland D 05 = Vetus Latina 5 = LDAB 2929; Codex Claromontanus = Nestle–Aland D 06 = Vetus Latina 75 = CLA v.521 = LDAB 3003; PSI xiii.1306 = Nestle–Aland 0230 = Vetus Latina 85 = LDAB 3024; Verona Psalter = Vetus Latina 300 = CLA iv.472 = LDAB 3344; Coislinianus 186 = Vetus Latina 333 = CLA v.520 = LDAB 3403. Interlinear Latin translations do not appear until the ninth century (see Houghton, H. A. G., The Latin New Testament (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016) 78). For more detail on the layouts of biblical and other early bilingual texts, see Houghton, Latin New Testament, 27–8, 52, 78–81 and Dickey, ‘Columnar Translation’.

25 Wouters, Codex, 162–3.

26 Wouters, Codex, 163.

27 This is the treatise on manumission in the Leidensia version of the Hermeneumata Pseudodositheana (see Dickey, E., The Colloquia of the Hermeneumata Pseudodositheana, vol. i (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012) 2830); it has a number of different names, a fact that led Wouters (Codex, 163) to claim that there are two such bilingual juridical texts.

28 See Schwartz, E. and Straub, J., Acta Conciliorum Oecumenicorum (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1925) and note also Diercks, G. F., Sententiae episcoporum numero lxxxvii de haereticis baptizandis (Corpus Christianorum, Series Latina 3E; Turnhout: Brepols, 2004) xxxvii on a third-century council whose Latin records, part of the writings of St Cyprian, circulated in Greek as well.

29 See Musurillo, H., The Acts of the Christian Martyrs (Oxford: Clarendon, 1972).

30 See Tornau, C. and Cecconi, P., The Shepherd of Hermas in Latin: Critical Edition of the Oldest Translation Vulgata (Berlin: de Gruyter, 2014) 1–12.

31 One will be published in Latin Texts on Papyrus: A Corpus (general editor M. C. Scappaticcio, forthcoming 2022).

32 The photographs are available online at www.csntm.org/manuscript/View/GA_P99.

33 Wouters, Codex, 125, 127.

34 See Wouters, Codex, 158.

35 Cf. Wachtel and Witte, Die Paulinischen Briefe, lxxvi n. 4.

36 The same is true of Wachtel and Witte, Die Paulinischen Briefe, lxxix n. 16.

37 Tischendorf, C., ed., Codex Claromontanus (Leipzig: Brockhaus, 1852) 220.

38 Wachtel and Witte, Die Paulinischen Briefe, lxxx n. 23.

39 Wachtel and Witte, Die Paulinischen Briefe, lxxxi n. 26.

40 Wouters, Codex, 142.

41 Wouters, Codex, 142.

42 Wachtel and Witte, Die Paulinischen Briefe, lxxxiii n. 36.

43 There are at least twenty-eight examples of b for v, but v for b probably occurs only once (provatione for probatione in line 1230). This imbalance is normal in late Latin texts; see Adams, J. N., The Vulgar Latin of the Letters of Claudius Terentianus (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1977) 31.

44 See Wouters, Codex, 142; Wachtel and Witte, Die Paulinischen Briefe, lxxxiii n. 37.

45 Cf. Wouters, Codex, 130.

46 Wachtel and Witte, Die Paulinischen Briefe, lxxxvi n. 54.

47 Cf. Wouters, Codex, 152.

48 Wouters, Codex, 134.

49 Wachtel and Witte, Die Paulinischen Briefe, lxxxiv n. 40.

50 Cf. Wouters, Codex, 134.

51 Wachtel and Witte, Die Paulinischen Briefe, xc n. 79.

I am indebted to Philomen Probert and Daniela Colomo for helpful comments on a draft version of this article and for fruitful discussion; to Hugh Houghton for helpful comments, guidance on dealing with the biblical scholarship, and encouragement to submit the piece to this journal; to Maria Chiara Scappaticcio and the participants in the PLATINUM project for inviting me to re-edit this papyrus as part of that project and for discussion of readings; and to the Chester Beatty library for the photographs and for allowing me to spend two days inspecting the original.

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A Re-Examination of New Testament Papyrus P99 (Vetus Latina AN glo Paul)

  • Eleanor Dickey (a1)

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