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IV. Connoisseurship

Extract

In the summer of 1985 the centenary of the birth of Sir John Beazley was celebrated in London and Oxford. His influence on the study of Greek painted pottery, particularly Attic (Colour Plate 4A, etc.), has been second to none this century, and his death in 1970 left a gap that has been impossible to fill. Since his death, titles of lectures and conferences such as ‘Beazley and After’, ‘Vasenforschung nach Beazley’ and ‘In the Wake of Beazley’ show what a pivotal figure he was, and the 70s and 80s have proved interesting times for re-adjusting sights. As Martin Robertson remarked, we are living in ‘an age of uncertainty.

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1. The Oxford meeting led to the publication of a small volume, Beazley and Oxford, in which, amongst some nostalgic pieces, Martin Robertson in ‘Beazley and Attic Vase Painting’ (pp. 19-30) turned his attention to present problems. The Brygos Tomb vases (Colour Plate 4A) were reassembled in the British Museum in time for the London meeting, thanks to the cooperation of Dr D. von Bothmer of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, and Dr M. Maass of the Badisches Landesmuseum, Karlsruhe.

2. Robertson, M., ‘Beazley and After’, MJbK 3rd Series 27 (1976), 2946 (quotation from 29); Vasenforschungen nach Beazley, Tübingen 24-25.11.1978, Schriften des deutschen Archäologen-Verbandes 4 (Mainz, 1978); Hoffmann, H., ‘In the Wake of Beazley’, Hephaistos 1 (1979), 6170 .

3. The Beazley Archive houses thousands of photographs which are constantly being added to, and 2000 drawings executed by Beazley himself. For information, see Vasenforschung (n. 2, above), 24-27 (D. C. Kurtz); AK 19 (1976), 120 and JHS 97 (1977), v. In The Berlin Painter (see n. 5, below), Kurtz publishes Beazley’s drawings of the painter’s work.

4. Computerized references, see AK 26 (1983), 106 and JHS 103 (1983), 160; and R. Glynn, ‘The Beazley Archive computer project’, Rouen Colloque, pp. 67-79. Beazley Addenda contains additions to Beazley, Attic Black-Figure Vase-Painters (Oxford, 1956), Attic Red-Figure Vase-Painters, 2nd edition (Oxford, 1963) and Paralipomena , ed. Robertson, M. (Oxford, 1971).

5. Kurtz, D. C., The Berlin Painter (Oxford, 1983); Beazley and the Connoisseurship of Greek Vases’, Greek Vases II (1985), 237-50. In The Berlin Painter, p. 12, Kurtz points out that Beazley never once mentioned Morelli, the ‘father’ of the method Beazley adopted. See also M. Robertson in the introduction to Beazley Addenda. For a brief account of connoisseurship, see D. von Bothmer, ‘Greek Vase-painting: two hundred years of connoisseurship’, A masis Painter, Papers, pp. 184-204.

6. The place of vase-painting in Greek art’, BSA 46 (1951), 151-9.

7. MJbK 3rd series 27 (1976), 35. Some of Beazley’s contributions to the pre-war series of German monographs under the general title of ‘Bilder Griechische Vasen’ which he and Paul Jacobsthal edited, have recently been reissued with Beazley’s original English texts: The Kleophrades Painter (Mainz, 1974), The Pan Painter (Mainz, 1974).

8. Quotations from Beazley and Oxford, p. 27, and MJbK 3rd series 27 (1976), 36.

9. See M. Robertson, ‘The State of Attic Vase-Painting in the Mid Sixth Century’, Amasis Painter, Papers, pp. 13-28.

10. The basic study of Geometric by painters and regions is Coldstream, N., Greek Geometric Pottery (London, 1968).

11. Benson, J. L., Earlier Corinthian Workshops, A Survey of Corinthian Geometric and Protocorinthian Stylistic Groups (Allard Pierson Series, Scripta Minora 1, Amsterdam, 1989). See also J. L. Benson’s editing of A. N. Stillwell’s volume on the Potters’ Quarter, The Potters’ Quarter: the Pottery, Corinth XV, part iii (Princeton, 1984). Amyx, D. A., Corinthian Vase-Painting of the Archaic Period, 3 vols. (California Studies in the History of Art XXV, University of California Press, 1988).

12. Morris, S. P., The Black and White Style, Athens and Aegina in the Orientalizing Period (Yale University Press, 1984). For a more general investigation of 7th century Attica and a characterization of the difference between Geometric and Protoattic artistic expression, see Osborne, R., ‘A crisis in archaeological history? The seventh century B.c. in Attica’, BSA 84 (1989), 297322 . For the beginning of polychrome painting in the seventh century, see Schaus, G. P., ‘The beginning of Greek polychrome painting’, JHS 108 (1988), 107-17, pls. 3-4.

13. The Northampton Group: Langlotz, E., Studien zur nordostgriechischen Kunst (Mainz, 1975); Walter-Karydi, E., CV A Munich 6 (28), 42-6; Boardman, J., CV A Castle Ashby (15), 12 ; Simon, E. and M. and Hirmer, M., Die griechischen Vasen (Munich, 1981), pp. 61-2, pls. XVI-XVII.

14. Cook, R. M., Clazomenian Sarcophagi (Kerameus 3, Mainz, 1981) and A Clazomenian sarcophagus in Geneva’, AK 30 (1987), 156-7, pl. 22. And see Kirchner, E., ‘Zum Bildprogramm Klazomenischer Sarkophage’, JDAI 102 (1987), 119-61.

15. Hemelrijk, J. M., Caeretan Hydriai (Kerameus 5, Mainz, 1984). And see Greek Vases from the Hirschmann Collection, ed. Bloesch, H. (Zurich, 1982), nos. 1012 ; Isler, H. P., ‘Drei neue Gefässe aus der Werkstatt der Caeretaner Hydrien’, JDAI 98 (1983), 1556 . For the hero of Colour Plate 4B as Herakles, see Boardman, J., ‘Very like a whale - classical sea monsters’, Monsters and Demons in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds. Papers presented in honor of Edith Porada, edd. Farkas, A. E., Harper, P. O. and Harrison, E. B. (Mainz, 1987), pp. 7384 , pls. 21-6.

16. Stibbe, C. M., Lakonische Vasenmaler des sechsten Jahrhunderts v. Chr.(Amsterdam-London, 1972).

17. Spivey, N., The Micali Painter and his Followers (Oxford, 1987) (quotations from p. 49). There was also an exhibition at the Villa Giulia in Rome (and a catalogue) to celebrate the painter: Un artista etrusco e il suo mondo: Il pittore di Micali (Rome, 1988). See now Cook, R. M., ‘East Greek influences on Etruscan vase-painting’, La Parola del Passato 246 (1989), 161-73.

18. Boardman, J., Athenian Black Figure Vases, a handbook (London, 1974). Note that the word ‘Athenian’ is used, not ‘Attic’.

19. Boardman, J., Athenian Red Figure Vases, the Archaic Period, a handbook (London, 1975).

20. Boardman, J., Athenian Red Figure Vases, the Classical Period, a handbook (London, 1989). Folsom’s, R. two volumes, Attic black-figured pottery (Park Ridge, 1975) and Attic red-figured pottery (Park Ridge, 1976) are much less helpful and accurate than Boardman’s.

21. The Development of Attic Black-figure, 2nd ed., revised and edited by Bothmer, D. von and Moore, M. B. (Berkeley, 1986).

22. ‘Attic Black-figure; a sketch’, now in Beazley Lectures, pp. 1-25, 103-6, pls. 1-16.

23. Beazley Addenda, 2nd ed., pp. 1-148. Moore, M. B. and Philippides, M. Z. P., Attic Black-Figured Pottery (The Athenian Agora, vol. 23, Princeton, 1986) looks at shapes and painters. J. R. Mertens, ‘Some thoughts on Attic vase-painting of the 6th cent, B.C.’, Copenhagen Symposium, pp. 414-34, has a close look at sixth century Attic vase-painting.

24. Bakir, G., Sophilos: Ein Beitrag zu seinem Stil (Keramikforschungen 4, Mainz, 1981).

25. Williams, Dyfri, ‘Sophilos in the British Museum’, Greek Vases I (1983), 934 .

26. A. F. Stewart, ‘Stesichoros and the François Vase’, Moon AGAI, pp. 53-74. Against the connection with Stesichoros, see March, J. R., The Creative Poet (BICS Supplementary Volume 49, 1987), 4, n. 12 .

27. Cristofani, M., Materiali per servire alla storia del Vaso Francois, Bollettino d’Arte Serie Speciale 1 (Rome, 1980).

28. Tiverios, M., (Athens, 1976). See also Moore, M. B., ‘Lydos and the Gigantomachy’, AJA 83 (1979), 7999 , pls. 11-15.

29. On the dating and provenance of Tyrrhenian amphorae, see Carpenter, T. H., ‘On the dating of the Tyrrhenian Group’, OJA 2 (1983), 279293 , and ‘The Tyrrhenian Group: problems of provenance’, 3 (1984), 45-56. For a detailed investigation of the relation between Lydos and the painters of Tyrrhenian amphorae, see Shapiro, H. A., ‘Two black-figure neck-amphorae in the J. Paul Getty Museum: problems of workshop and iconography’, Greek Vases IV (1989), 1132 .

30. Brijder, H. A. G., Siana Cups I and Komast Cups (Amsterdam, 1983).

31. Exekias: M. Robertson, ‘A new plaque-fragment by Exekias’, ArchEph 1978, 91-4, pl. 33; Boardman, J., ‘Exekias’, AJA 82 (1978), 1125 ; Moore, M. B., ‘Exekias and Tela-monian Ajax’, AJA 84 (1980), 417-34; Shapiro, H. A., ‘Exekias, Ajax and Salamis: a further note’, AJA 85 (1981), 173-5; Moore, M. B., ‘The death of Pedasos’, AJA 86 (1982), 578–81, pl. 76; Exekias and the harnessing of a chariot team’, AK 29 (1986), 107114 , pl. 19; ‘The Amasis Painter and Exekias: approaches to narrative’, Amasis Painter, Papers, pp. 153-167.

32. Mommsen, H., Der Affekter (Kerameus 1, Mainz, 1975).

33. Böhr, E., Der Schaukelmaler (Kerameus 4, Mainz, 1982). See now E. Bohr ‘Weitere Werke des Schaukelmalers’, Praestant Interna, 213-20, pls. 44-6 and Bothmer’s, D. von review, AJA 89 (1985), 362 .

34. Amasis Painter, Catalogue.

35. Bothmer, D. von, ‘Ἄμα σις, Ἀμάσιδος’, GettyMJ 9 (1981), 14 .

36. Amasis Painter, Papers.

37. E.g. Bothmer, D. von, ‘Elbows Out’, RA 1969, 315 ; Moignard, E., ‘The Acheloos Painter and his relations’, BSA 77 (1982), 201-11, pls. 7-14; W. G. Moon, ‘The Priam Painter: some iconographie and stylistic considerations’, Moon AGAI, pp. 97-118; Greek Vase-Painting in Midwestern Collections , ed. Moon, W. G. (Chicago, 1979), pp. 5056 (The Painter of Berlin 1686). See now a new Kerameus volume, Burow, J., Der Antimenesmaler (Kerameus 7, Mainz, 1990). When will the major figures be introduced?

For work on the Panathenaics, see Frei, J., Panathenaic Prize Amphoras (Athens, 1973); Brandt, J. R., ‘Archaeologica Panathenaica I: Panathenaic prize amphorae from the sixth century B.c.’, Acta ad archaeologiam et artium historiam pertinentia, Institutum Romanum Norvegiae et Oslo, Universitëtsforl 8 (1978), 123 ; Eschbach, N., Statuen auf Panathenäischen Preisamphoren des 4. Jhs v. Chr. (Mainz, 1985). See also n. 46 below.

38. On Psiax, see Mertens, J. L., ‘Some new vases by Psiax’, AK 22 (1979), 2237 , pls. 9-14, and on the continuity between black- and red-figure, Copenhagen Symposium, pp. 414-34. And see now Cohen, B., ‘Oddities of very early red-figure and a new fragment at the Getty’, Greek Vases IV (1989), 7382 .

39. D. von Bothmer, ‘Der Euphronioskrater in New York’, AA 1976, 485-512, and The Death of Sarpedon’, The Greek Vase, ed. Hyatt, S. L. (Hudson Valley, 1981), pp. 6380 , 156-58, figs. 65-87. See also ‘Euphronios and Memnon? Observations on a red-figured fragment’, MMJ 22 (1987), 5-11.

40. Ohly-Dumm, M., ‘Euphroniosschale und Smikrosscherbe’, MJbK 25 (1974), 726 ; Robertson, M., ‘Euphronios at the Getty’, GettyMJ 9 (1981), 2334 , esp. 29-34, and Shapiro, H. A., ‘Herakles and Kyknos’, AJA 88 (1984), 523-9, pls. 68-9.

41. Ohly-Dumm, M., ‘Medeas Widderzauber auf einer Schale aus der Werkstatt des Euphronios’, GettyMJ 9 (1981), 521 ; Sparkes, B. A., ‘Aspects of Onesimos’, Greek Art: Archaic into Classical, a symposium held at the University of Cincinnati April 2-3, 1982, ed. Boulter, C. G. (Leiden, 1985), pp. 1839 , pls. 19-36. See now L’arte di Eufronio (Florence, 1990)

42. M. Ohly-Dumm, ‘Sosias und Euthymides’, Amsterdam Symposium, 165-72; Pinney, G. F., ‘The nonage of the Berlin Painter, AJA 85 (1981), 145-58, pls. 29-36; Weiss, C., ‘Phintias in Malibu und Karlsruhe’, Greek Vases IV (1989), 8394 .

43. Kurtz, D. C., The Berlin Painter (Oxford, 1983). See also Robertson, M., ‘A neck-amphora by the Berlin Painter’, MJbK 31 (1980), 712 and The Berlin Painter at the Getty and some others’, Greek Vases I (1983), 5572 .

44. J. D. Beazley, ‘The Berlin Painter’, now in Beazley Lectures, pp. 66-77, 117-8, pls. 38-47. Kurtz, D. C., ‘Gorgos’ cup: an essay in connoisseurship, JHS 103 (1983), 6886 , pls. 3-9.

45. Sourvinou-Inwood, C., ‘Who was the teacher of the Pan Painter?’, JHS 95 (1975) 107121 , pls. 9-11. See also Robertson, M., ‘Two pelikai by the Pan Painter’, Greek Vases III (1986), 7190 .

46. Greifenhagen, A., Neue Fragmente des Kleophradesmalers (SBer. Heidelberg, 1972, 4); Boardman, J., ‘The Kleophrades Painter’s cup in London’, GettyMJ 1 (1974), 714 and The Kleophrades Painter at Troy’, AK 19 (1976), 318 , pls. 1-3; Robertson, M., ‘An unrecognized cup by the Kleophrades Painter?’, ΣΤΗΛΗ, (Athens, 1980), pp. 125-9, pls. 43-4 and Fragments of a dinos and a cup fragment by the Kleophrades Painter’, Greek Vases 1 (1983), 51—4; Matheson, S. B., ‘Panathenaic amphorae by the Kleophrades Painter’, Greek Vases IV (1989), 95112 . The signature ‘Epiktetos’ is now shown to be false, see J. Boardman and U. Gehrig, ‘Epiktetos II R.I.P.’, AA 1981,329-32.

47. Onesimos: Williams, D., ‘The Ilioupersis cup in Berlin and the Vatican’, JBerlMuseum 18 (1976), 923 ; Ajax, Odysseus and the arms of Achilles’, AK 23 (1980), 137-45, pls. 33-6: and see n. 41 above. Douris: Buitron, D., Douris (University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1976). The Brygos Painter: Wegner, M., Brygosmaler (Berlin, 1973); Cambitoglou, A., The Brygos Painter (Sydney University Press, 1968); Williams, D., ‘An oinochoe in the British Museum and the Brygos Painter’s work on a white ground), JBerlMuseum 22 (1982), 1740 . Makrón: D. von Bothmer, ‘Notes on Makron’, Eye of Greece, pp. 29-52, pls. 7-13, and Beazley’s previously unpublished lecture, now in Beazley Lectures, pp. 84-97, 118-20, pls. 65-80. The Foundry Painter: J. D. Beazley, ‘A Greek Realist’, now in Beazley Lectures, pp. 78-83, 118, pls. 48-64.

48. Mertens, J. R., Attic White-Ground: its development on shapes other than lekythoi (New York, 1977) and Attic white-ground cups: a special class of vases’, MMJ 9 (1974), 91108 ; Wehgartner, I., Attisch Weissgrundige Keramik (Mainz, 1983). For the Delphi Apollo cup, see Metzger, H., , BCH Supplement 4 (1977), 421-8.

49. Burn, L., ‘Honey pots: three white-ground cups by the Sotades Painter’, AK 28 (1985), 93105 , pls. 23-27 and colour pi. A; Griffiths, A., ‘“What leaf-fringed legend ... ?” A cup by the Sotades Painter in London’, JHS 106 (1986), 5870 , pls. 1-3; Collinge, A., ‘Aristaios, or his father-in-law’, AK 31 (1988), 920 , pl. 3.

50. J. D. Beazley, ‘Attic White Lekythoi’, now in Beazley Lectures, pp. 26-38, 107-9, pls. 17-24.

51. Kurtz, D. C., Athenian White Lekythoi, Patterns and Painters (Oxford, 1975). See also Wehgartner, I., Ein Grabbild des Achilleusmalers (Berlin, 1985) for an early and innovatory lekythos by the Achilles Painter. See now Kurtz, D. C., ‘Two Athenian white-ground lekvthoi’, Greek Vases IV (1989), 113-30.

52. Boardman, J., Athenian Red Figure Vases, the Classical Period, a handbook (London, 1989).

53. Barron, J. P., ‘New light on old walls: the murals of the Theseion’, JHS 92 (1972), 2045 , pls. 1-7; Woodford, S., ‘More light on old walls: the Theseus of the Centauromachy in the Theseion’, JHS 94 (1974), 158-65, pls. 14-15; Stansbury-O’Donnell, M. D., ‘Polygnotos’ Iliupersis: a new reconstruction’, AJA 93 (1989), 203-15. On the Niobid Painter, see Prange, M., Der Niobidenmaler und seine Werkstatt (Frankfurt, 1989).

54. Lezzi-Hafter, A., Der Schuwalowmaler. Ein Kannenwerkstatt der Parthenonzeit (Kerameus 2, Mainz, 1982).

55. Lezzi-Hafter, A., Der Eretria-maler, Werke und Weggefährten (Kerameus 6, Mainz, 1988). See also Oakley, J. H., The Phiale Painter (Kerameus 8, Mainz, 1990).

56. Burn, L., The Meidias Painter (Oxford, 1987). See also True, M., ‘A new Meidian kylix’, Greek Vases II (1985), 7988 . New volute-krater, GettyMJ 16 (1988), 143 , no. 7. For good comments on late fifth-century work, see B. B. Shefton, ‘The krater from Baksy’, Eye of Greece, pp. 149-81. Dr Burn, who made the attribution of Fig 22 to the Meleager Painter, is to publish a study of it shortly. I am grateful to her for her cooperation.

57. Knigge, U., ‘Aison, der Meidiasmaler? Zu einer rotfigurigen Oinochoe aus dem Ker-ameikos’, AM 90 (1975), 123-43, pls. 43-51.

58. Dr Antoine Lebel has recently worked fruitfully on the fourth-century painters for an Oxford DPhil. For fourth-century tomb-painting, see Petsas, P., ‘O Τάφος τών AevxaSlwv (Athens, 1966) and Andronikos, M., Vergina (Athens, 1984).

59. Trendall, A. D., Red Figure Vases of South Italy and Sicily, a handbook (Thames and Hudson, 1989). The work of M. Schmidt and A. Cambitoglou is also of prime importance. See also the exhibition catalogue The Art of South Italy: Vases from Magna Graecia, ed. Mayo, M. E. (Virginia, 1982).

60. Laconia: McPhee, I., ‘Laconian red-figure from the British excavations in Sparta’, BSA 81 (1986), 153-64, pls. 3-7, and 153, n. 6 for other local red-figure. Corinth: Herbert, S., Corinth, American School Excavations VII part iv The red-figure pottery (Princeton, 1977) and McPhee, I., ‘Local red-figure from Corinth 1973-1980’, Hesperia 52 (1983), 137-53, pls. 33-41. Chalcidice: McPhee, I., ‘Some red-figure vase-painters of the Chalcidice’, BSA 76 (1981), 297308 , pls. 49-53.

61. For a general picture book of Etruscan pottery, see Martelli, M., La ceramica degli Etruschi, la pittura vascolare (Novara, 1987).

62. Beazley Addenda, xi-xviii (1st edition) and xii-xx (2nd edition). Beazley’s talk of ‘follower’, ‘school’, ‘influence’ on the basis of a Renaissance model has been decried as converting ‘what had been the subject of antiquarian interest into high status art history’ (M. Beard, TLS 12.9.86,1013).

63. Beazley Addenda (2nd edition), pp. 400-406.

64. J. D. Beazley, ‘Potter and Painter in Ancient Athens’, now in Beazley Lectures, pp. 39-59,109-16, pls. 25-32.

65. Cook, R. M., ‘“Epoiesen” on Greek vases’, JHS 91 (1971), 137-8; Robertson, M., ‘“Epoiesen” on Greek vases: other considerations’, JHS 92 (1972), 189-83; Eisman, M. M., ‘A further note on ΕΠΟΙΕΣΕΝ signatures’, JHS 94 (1974), 172 . And see Immerwahr, H., Attic Script (Oxford, 1990).

66. Vickers, M. J., ‘Artful crafts: the influence of metalwork on Athenian painted pottery’, JHS 105 (1985), 108-28, pls. 4-6.

67. Payne, H. G. G., Necrocorinthia (Oxford, 1931), 322 .

68. For a severe critique, see Bruneau, P., ‘Situation méthodologique de l’histoire de l’art antique’, L’antiquité classique 44 (1975), 425-87. Quotation from Pinney, G. F., AJA 88 (1984), 420 .

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