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Necessity Across International Law: An Introduction

  • Tarcisio Gazzini, Wouter G. Werner and Ige F. Dekker


Necessity plays a significant role in any legal system as unpredictable or extraordinary situations can require the adoption of measures departing from the normally applicable law in order to protect basic values and fundamental interests. International law is not an exception. The admissibility of the adoption of measures on grounds of necessity has been accepted by international courts and tribunals, in state practice, including international conventions, as well as in doctrine.


Corresponding author

VU University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, e-mail:
VU University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, e-mail:
Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands, e-mail:



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