Skip to main content Accessibility help

Late Glacial and Holocene aeolian deposition and soil formation in relation to the Late Palaeolithic Ahrensburg occupation, site Geldrop-A2, the Netherlands

  • C. Kasse (a1), L.A. Tebbens (a2), M. Tump (a2), J. Deeben (a3), C. Derese (a4), J. De Grave (a4) and D. Vandenberghe (a4)...


The lithostratigraphy, age and human occupation of the Late Glacial and Holocene aeolian succession of a Late Palaeolithic Ahrensburg site in the excavation Geldrop-A2 (municipality of Heeze-Leende) have been investigated. The exposure revealed a stacked sequence of aeolian sand units and intercalated soils (Older Coversand II, Younger Coversand I (YCI), Usselo Soil, Younger Coversand II (YCII), Holocene podzol, drift sand). Fourteen optically stimulated luminescence dates on quartz and three radiocarbon dates provide the age control of the aeolian deposition (coversands, drift sand), landscape stability (soils) and human occupation. The upper part of the YCI unit was dated to the early Late Glacial. The well-developed Usselo Soil was formed during a phase of landscape stability during the late Allerød interstadial and onset of the Younger Dryas stadial. During the Younger Dryas, low aeolian dunes were formed locally (YCII), as a response to landscape instability due to cooling and vegetation decline. In the fine-grained lower part of the YCII unit an initial soil testifies to a decadal to centennial period of landscape stability. An Ahrensburg site in the upper part of this initial soil was dated at 10,915±35 BP (c. 12,854–12,789 cal BP). The lithostratigraphic position, radiocarbon dates of the underlying Usselo Soil and a possibly old-wood effect of up to 200 years suggest that Ahrensburg occupation of the dune environment occurred during the early Younger Dryas, shortly after c. 10,750 BP (12,750 cal BP). Landscape stability and podzol soil formation dominated the early and middle Holocene periods. Drift-sand deposition, probably related to human land use and vegetation decline, occurred in a 200-year period from the 16th to the 18th centuries.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Late Glacial and Holocene aeolian deposition and soil formation in relation to the Late Palaeolithic Ahrensburg occupation, site Geldrop-A2, the Netherlands
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Late Glacial and Holocene aeolian deposition and soil formation in relation to the Late Palaeolithic Ahrensburg occupation, site Geldrop-A2, the Netherlands
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Late Glacial and Holocene aeolian deposition and soil formation in relation to the Late Palaeolithic Ahrensburg occupation, site Geldrop-A2, the Netherlands
      Available formats


Corresponding author

*Corresponding author. Email:


Hide All




Hide All
Adamiec, G. & Aitken, M.J., 1998. Dose rate conversion factors: update. Ancient TL 16: 3750.
Ahlbrandt, T.S. & Fryberger, S.G., 1982. Introduction to eolian deposits. In: Scholle, P.A. & Spearing, D. (eds): Sandstone depositional environments. American Association of Petroleum Geologists (Tulsa, OK): 1147.
Aitken, M.J., 1976. Thermoluminescence age evaluation and assessment of error limits: revised system. Archaeometry 18: 233238.
Aitken, M.J., 1985. Thermoluminescence dating. Academic Press Inc. (London): 359 pp.
Aitken, M.J. & Alldred, J.C., 1972. The assessment of error limits in thermoluminescence dating. Archaeometry 14: 257267.
Antoine, P., Rousseau, D.-D., Moine, O., Kunesch, S., Hatté, C., Lang, A., Tissoux, H. & Zöller, L., 2009. Rapid and cyclic aeolian deposition during the Last Glacial in European loess: a high-resolution record from Nussloch, Germany. Quaternary Science Reviews 28: 29552973.
Arts, N., 1988. A survey of final Palaeolithic archaeology in the southern Netherlands. In: Otte, M. (ed.): De la Loire à l'Oder. Les civilisations du Paléolithique final dans le nord-ouest européen (= Actes du Colloque de Liège, décembre 1985). British Archaeological Reports, International Series 444 (Oxford): 287356.
Arts, N. & Deeben, J., 1981. Prehistorische jagers en verzamelaars te Vessem: een model. Bijdragen tot de Studie van het Brabantse Heem 20. Stichting Brabants Heem, Eindhoven: 243 pp.
Arts, N. & Deeben, J., 1987. On the northwestern border of Late Magdalenian territory: ecology and archaeology of early Late Glacial band societies in northwestern Europe. In: Burdukiewicz, J.M. & Kobusiewicz, M. (eds): Late Glacial in Europe: culture and environment. Polish Academy of Sciences (Wroclaw): 2566.
Baales, M., 1996. Umwelt und Jagdökonomie der Ahrensburger Rentierjäger im Mittelgebirge. Monographien des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums 38 (Mainz/Bonn): 364 pp.
Bakke, J., Lie, Ø., Heegaard, E., Dokken, T., Haug, G.H., Birks, H.H., Dulski, P. & Nilsen, T., 2009. Rapid oceanic and atmospheric changes during the Younger Dryas cold period. Nature Geoscience 2: 202205.
Beerten, K., Vandersmissen, N., Deforce, K. & Vandenberghe, N., 2014. Late Quaternary (15 ka to present) development of a sandy landscape in the Mol area, Campine region, north-east Belgium. Journal of Quaternary Science 29: 433444.
Bogemans, F. & Vandenberghe, D., 2011. OSL dating of an inland dune along the lower River Scheldt near Schellebelle (East Flanders – Belgium). Netherlands Journal of Geosciences / Geologie en Mijnbouw 90: 2329.
Bohmers, A. & Wouters, A., 1962. Belangrijke vondsten van de Ahrensburgcultuur in de gemeente Geldrop. Brabants Heem 14: 320.
Bohncke, S.J.P., 1991. Palaeohydrological changes in the Netherlands during the last 13.000 years. PhD Thesis. Vrije Universiteit (Amsterdam): 187 pp.
Bohncke, S.J.P., Vandenberghe, J. & Huijzer, A.S., 1993. Periglacial palaeoenvironment during the Lateglacial in the Maas valley. Geologie en Mijnbouw 72: 193210.
Bos, J.A., Verbruggen, F., Engels, S. & Crombé, P., 2013. The influence of environmental changes on local and regional vegetation patterns at Rieme (NW Belgium): implications for Final Palaeolithic habitation. Vegetation History Archaeobotany 22: 1738.
Bøtter-Jensen, L., Andersen, L.E., Duller, G.A.T. & Murray, A.S., 2003. Developments in radiation, stimulation and observation facilities in luminescence measurements. Radiation Measurements 37: 535541.
Brauer, A., Haug, G.H., Dulski, P., Sigman, D.M. & Negendank, J.F.W., 2008. An abrupt wind shift in western Europe at the onset of the Younger Dryas cold period. Nature Geoscience 1: 520523.
Bronk Ramsey, C., 2009. Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon dates. Radiocarbon 51 (1): 337360.
Buylaert, J.-P., Ghysels, G., Murray, A.S., Thomsen, K.J., Vandenberghe, D., De Corte, F., Heyse, I. & Van den haute, P., 2009. Optical dating of relict sand wedges and composite-wedge pseudomorphs in Flanders, Belgium. Boreas 38: 160175.
Castel, I., Koster, E. & Slotboom, R., 1989. Morphogenetic aspects and age of Late Holocene eolian drift sands in Northwest Europe. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie 33: 126.
Clausen, I., 1995. Alt Düvenstedt, Kreis Rendsburg-Eckernförde, LA 121. Ein Ahrensburger Kulturvorkommen in allerødzeitlichen Boden. Archäologische Nachrichten aus Schleswig Holstein 6: 103126.
Clausen, I., 2004. The reindeer antler axe of the Allerød period from Klappholz LA 63, Kreis Schleswig-Flensburg/Germany. Is it a relict of the Federmesser, Bromme or Ahrensburg culture? In: Terberger, T. & Eriksen, B.V. (eds): Hunters in a changing world. Environment and Archaeology of the Pleistocene–Holocene Transition (ca. 11000–9000 B.C.) in Northern Central Europe; Workshop of the U.I.S.P.P.-commission XXXII at Greifswald in September 2002 (Leidorf): 141164.
Coenen, J., 1985. Mie Peels en de Aalsterhut. De Kempen BV (Hapert): 48 pp.
Crombé, P., Sergeant, J., Robinson, E. & De Reu, J., 2011. Hunter-gatherer responses to environmental change during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition in the southern North Sea basin: Final Palaeolithic–Final Mesolithic land-use in northwest Belgium. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 30: 454471.
Crombé, P., De Smedt, P., Davies, N.S., Gelorini, V., Zwertvaegher, A., Langohr, R., Van Damme, D., Demiddele, H., Van Strydonck, M., Antrop, M., Bourgeois, J., De Maeyer, P., De Reu, J., Finke, P.A., Van Meirvenne, M. & Verniers, J., 2013. Hunter-gatherer responses to the changing environment of the Moervaart palaeolake (NW Belgium) during the Late Glacial and Early Holocene. Quaternary International 308–309: 162177.
Crombé, P., Deeben, J. & Van Strydonck, M., 2014a. Hunting in a changing environment: the transition from the Younger Dryas to the (Pre)boreal in Belgium and the southern Netherlands. In: Jaubert, J., Fourment, N. & Depaepe, P. (eds): Transitions, Ruptures et Continuité en Préhistoire. Actes du XXVIIe Congrès Préhistorique de France Bordeaux-Lez Eyzies, 31 mai–5 juin 2010, Volume 2 Paléolithique et Mésolithique, Société Préhistorique Française, Paris (Mémoires de la Société Préhistorique Française): 583604.
Crombé, P., Sergant, J., Verbrugge, A., De Graeve, A., Cherrette, B., Mikkelsen, J., Cnudde, V., De Kock, T., Huisman, D.J., Van Os, B.J.H., Van Strydonck, M., Boudin, M., 2014b. A sealed flint knapping site from the Younger Dryas in the Scheldt valley (Belgium): bridging the gap in human occupation at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition in W Europe. Journal of Archaeological Science 50: 420439.
De Bie, M. & Van Gils, M., 2006. Les habitats des groupes à Federmesser (aziliens) dans le Nord de la Belgique. Bulletin de la Société préhistorique française 103 (4): 781790.
De Bie, M. & Vermeersch, P.M., 1998. Pleistocene-Holocene transition in Benelux. Quaternary International 49: 2943.
De Corte, F., Vandenberghe, D., De Wispelaere, A., Buylaert, J.-P. & Van den haute, P., 2006. Radon loss from encapsulated sediments in Ge gamma-ray spectrometry for the annual radiation dose determination in luminescence dating. Czech Journal of Physics 56: D183–D194.
Deeben, J., 1988. The Geldrop sites and the Federmesser occupation of the southern Netherlands. In: Otte, M. (ed.): De la Loire à l'Oder. Les civilisations du Paléolithique Final dans le Nord-Ouest Européen (= Actes du Colloque de Liège, décembre 1985). British Archaeological Reports, International Series 444 (Oxford): 357398.
Deeben, J., 1994. De laatpaleolithische en mesolithische sites bij Geldrop (N. Br.), Deel 1. Archeologie 5: 3–57.
Deeben, J., 1995. De laatpaleolithische en mesolithische sites bij Geldrop (N. Br.). Deel 2. Archeologie 6: 3–52.
Deeben, J., 1996. De laatpaleolithische en mesolithische sites bij Geldrop (N. Br.). Deel 3. Archeologie 7: 3–79.
Deeben, J. & Arts, N., 2005. From tundra hunting to forest hunting, later Upper Palaeolithic and Early Mesolithic. In: Louwe Kooijmans, L.P., Van den Broeke, P.W., Fokkens, H. & Van Gijn, A. (eds): The prehistory of the Netherlands (vol. 1). Amsterdam University Press (Amsterdam): 139156.
Deeben, J. & Rensink, E., 2005. Het Laat-Paleolithicum in Zuid-Nederland. In: Deeben, J., Drenth, E., Van Oorsouw, M.-F. & Verhart, L. (eds): De steentijd van Nederland. Archeologie 11/12 (Zutphen): 171199.
Deeben, J. & Schreurs, J., 2012. The Pope, a miracle and an Ahrensburgian windbreak in the municipality of Waalre (province of Noord- Brabant), the Netherlands. In: Niekus, M.J.L.Th., Barton, R.N.E., Street, M. & Terberger, Th. (eds): A mind set on flint. Studies in honour of Dick Stapert. Groningen Archaeological Studies 16 (Groningen): 295319.
Deeben, J., Dijkstra, P. & Van Gisbergen, P., 2000. Some new 14C dates from sites of the Ahrensburg culture in the southern Netherlands. Notae Praehistoricae 20: 95109.
Deeben, J., Hiddink, H., Huisman, D.J., Müller, A., Schokker, J. & Wallinga, J., 2010. Middle Palaeolithic artefact migration due to periglacial processes; a geological investigation into near-surface occurrence of Palaeolithic artefacts (Limburg-Eastern Brabant coversand region, the Netherlands). Netherlands Journal of Geosciences / Geologie en Mijnbouw 89: 3550.
Derese, C., 2011. Chronology and correlation of Late Weichselian and Holocene sandy depositional environments in Belgium and The Netherlands based on optically stimulated luminescence dating. PhD Thesis. Ghent University (Ghent): 210 pp.
Derese, C., Vandenberghe, D., Paulissen, E. & Van den haute, P., 2009. Revisiting a type locality for Late Glacial aeolian sand deposition in NW Europe: optical dating of the dune complex at Opgrimbie (NE Belgium). Geomorphology 109: 2735.
Derese, C., Vandenberghe, D., Eggermont, N., Bastiaens, J., Annaert, R. & Van den haute, P., 2010a. A medieval settlement caught in the sand: optical dating of sand-drifting at Pulle (N-Belgium). Quaternary Geochronology 5: 336341.
Derese, C., Vandenberghe, D.A.G., Zwertvaegher, A., Court-Picon, M., Crombé, Ph., Verniers, J., Van den haute, P., 2010b. The timing of aeolian events near archaeological settlements around Heidebos (Moervaart area, N Belgium). Netherlands Journal of Geosciences / Geologie en Mijnbouw 89: 173186.
Derese, C., Vandenberghe, D.A.G., Van Gils, M., Mees, F., Paulissen, E. & Van den haute, P., 2012. Final Palaeolithic settlements of the Campine region (NE Belgium) in their environmental context: optical age constraints. Quaternary International 251: 721.
Duller, G.A.T., 2003. Distinguishing quartz and feldspar in single grain luminescence measurements. Radiation Measurements 37: 161165.
Firestone, R.B., West, A., Kennett, J.P., Becker, L., Bunch, T.E., Revay, Z.S., Schultz, P.H., Belgya, T., Kennett, D.J., Erlandson, J.M., Dickenson, O.J., Goodyear, A.C., Harris, R.S., Howard, G.A., Kloosterman, J.B., Lechler, P., Mayewski, P.A., Montgomery, J., Poreda, R., Darrah, T., Que Hee, S.S., Smith, A.R., Stich, A., Topping, W., Wittke, J.H. & Wolbach, W.S., 2007. Evidence for an extraterrestrial impact 12,900 years ago that contributed to the megafaunal extinctions and the Younger Dryas cooling. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 104: 1601616021.
Fischer, A. & Tauber, H., 1986. New C-14 datings of Late Palaeolithic cultures from Northwestern Europe. Journal of Danish Archaeology 5: 714.
Gamble, C.S., 1986. The Palaeolithic settlement of Europe. Cambridge University Press (Cambridge): 471 pp.
Hilgers, A., Murray, A.S., Schlaak, N. & Radtke, U., 2001. Comparison of quartz OSL protocols using Lateglacial and Holocene dune sands from Brandenburg, Germany. Quaternary Science Reviews 20: 731736.
Hoek, W.Z., 1997. Palaeogeography of Lateglacial vegetations. Aspects of Lateglacial and Early Holocene vegetation, abiotic landscape, and climate in the Netherlands. PhD Thesis. Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam: 147 pp.
Hoek, W.Z., 2000. Abiotic landscape and vegetation patterns in the Netherlands during the Weichselian Late Glacial. Geologie en Mijnbouw / Netherlands Journal of Geosciences 79: 497509.
Hoek, W.Z., 2001. Vegetation response to the ~14.7 and ~11.5 ka cal. BP climate transitions: is vegetation lagging climate? Global and Planetary Change 30: 103115.
Hossain, S.M., 2003. A critical comparison and evaluation of methods for the annual radiation dose determination in the luminescence dating of sediments. PhD thesis. Universiteit Gent: 209 pp.
Isarin, R.F.B., Renssen, H. & Koster, E.A., 1997. Surface wind climate during the Younger Dryas in Europe as inferred from aeolian records and model simulations. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 143: 127148.
Kaiser, K., Hilgers, A., Schlaak, N., Jankowski, M., Kühn, P., Bussemer, S. & Przegiętka, K. 2009. Palaeopedological marker horizons in northern central Europe: characteristics of Lateglacial Usselo and Finow soils. Boreas 38: 591609.
Kasse, C., 1995. Younger Dryas climatic changes and aeolian depositional environments. In: Troelstra, S.R., Van Hinte, J.E. & Ganssen, G.M. (eds): The Younger Dryas. Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Verhandelingen Afd. Natuurkunde, Eerste Reeks, deel 44: 27–31.
Kasse, C., 1997. Cold-climate aeolian sand-sheet formation in North-Western Europe (c. 14-12.4 ka); a response to permafrost degradation and increased aridity. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes 8: 295311.
Kasse, C., 2002. Sandy aeolian deposits and environments and their relation to climate during the Last Glacial Maximum and Lateglacial in northwest and central Europe. Progress in Physical Geography 26: 507532.
Kasse, K., Vandenberghe, J. & Bohncke, S., 1995. Climatic change and fluvial dynamics of the Maas during the late Weichselian and early Holocene. Paläo-klimaforschung/Palaeoclimate Research, Vol. 14, Special Issue: ESF Project ‘European Palaeoclimate and Man’ 9: 123150.
Kasse, C., Hoek, W.Z., Bohncke, S.J.P., Konert, M., Weijers, J.W.H., Cassee, M.L. & Van der Zee, R.M., 2005. Late Glacial fluvial response of the Niers-Rhine (western Germany) to climate and vegetation change. Journal of Quaternary Science 20: 377394.
Kasse, C., Vandenberghe, D., De Corte, F. & van den Haute, P., 2007. Late Weichselien fluvio-aeolian sands and coversands of the type locality Grubbenvorst (southern Netherlands): sedimentary environments, climate record and age. Journal of Quaternary Science 22: 695708.
Kasse, C., Van Balen, R.T., Bohncke, S.J.P., Wallinga, J. & Vreugdenhil, M., 2017. Climate and base-level controlled fluvial system change and incision during the last glacial–interglacial transition, Roer river, the Netherlands – western Germany. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences / Geologie en Mijnbouw 96: 7192.
Koster, E.A., 2009. The ‘European Aeolian Sand Belt’: geoconservation of drift sand landscapes. Geoheritage 1: 93110.
Lanting, J.N. & Van der Plicht, J., 1995/1996. De 14C-chronologie van de Nederlandse pre- en protohistorie I: Laat-Paleolithicum. Palaeohistoria 37/38: 71125.
Lauwerier, R.C.G.M. & Deeben, J., 2011. Burnt animal remains from Federmesser sites in the Netherlands. Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt 41: 120.
Madsen, A.T. & Murray, A.S., 2009. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of young sediments: a review. Geomorphology 109: 316.
Meinsen, J., Winsemann, J., Roskosch, J., Brandes, C., Frechen, M., Dultz, S. & Böttcher, J., 2014. Climate control on the evolution of Late Pleistocene alluvial-fan and aeolian sand-sheet systems in NW Germany. Boreas 43: 4266.
Mejdahl, V., 1979. Thermoluminescence dating: beta-dose attenuation in quartz grains. Archaeometry 21: 6172.
Murray, A.S. & Olley, J.M., 2002. Precision and accuracy in the optically stimulated luminescence dating of sedimentary quartz: a status review. Geochronometria 21: 116.
Murray, A.S. & Wintle, A.G., 2000. Luminescence dating of quartz using an improved single-aliquot regenerative-dose protocol. Radiation Measurements 32: 5773.
Murray, A.S. & Wintle, A.G., 2003. The single aliquot regenerative dose protocol: potential for improvements in reliability. Radiation Measurements 37: 377381.
Peeters, J.H.M. & Momber, G., 2014. The southern North Sea and the human occupation of northwest Europe after the Last Glacial Maximum. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences / Geologie en Mijnbouw 93: 5570.
Prescott, J.R. & Hutton, J.T., 1994. Cosmic ray contributions to dose rates for luminescence and ESR dating: large depths and long-term variations. Radiation Measurements 23: 497500.
Reimer, P.J., Bard, E., Bayliss, A., Beck, J.W., Blackwell, P.G., Bronk Ramsey, C., Grootes, P.M., Guilderson, T.P., Haflidason, H., Hajdas, I., HattŽ, C., Heaton, T.J., Hoffmann, D.L., Hogg, A.G., Hughen, K.A., Kaiser, K.F., Kromer, B., Manning, S.W., Niu, M., Reimer, R.W., Richards, D.A., Scott, E.M., Southon, J.R., Staff, R.A., Turney, C.S.M. & Van der Plicht, J., 2013. IntCal13 and Marine13 radiocarbon age calibration curves 0–50,000 years cal BP. Radiocarbon 55 (4): 18691887.
Rozoy, J.-G., 1978. Les derniers chasseurs. L'epipaleolithique en France et en Belgique. Essai de synthèse. Société Archéologique Champenoise (Charleville): 1515 pp.
Ruegg, G.H.J., 1983. Periglacial eolian evenly laminated sandy deposits in the Late Pleistocene of northwest Europe, a facies unrecorded in modern sedimentological handbooks. In: Brookfield, M.E. & Ahlbrandt, T.S. (eds): Eolian sediments and processes. Developments in Sedimentology 38, Elsevier (Amsterdam): 455482.
Schokker, J., Cleveringa, P., Murray, A.S., Wallinga, J. & Westerhoff, W.E., 2005. An OSL dated Middle and Late Quaternary sedimentary record in the Roer Valley Graben (southeastern Netherlands). Quaternary Science Reviews 24: 22432264.
Schwan, J., 1988. The structure and genesis of Weichselian to Early Holocene aeolian sand sheets in western Europe. Sedimentary Geology 55: 197232.
Sevink, J., Koster, E.A., Van Geel, B. & Wallinga, J., 2013. Drift sands, lakes, and soils: the multiphase Holocene history of the Laarder Wasmeren area near Hilversum, the Netherlands. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences / Geologie en Mijnbouw 92: 243266.
Spek, T., 2004. Het Drentse esdorpenlandschap. Een historisch geografische studie. Matrijs (Utrecht): 1104 pp.
Steffensen, J.P., Andersen, K.K., Bigler, M., Clausen, H.B., Dahl-Jensen, D., Fischer, H., Goto-Azuma, K., Hansson, M., Johnsen, S.J., Jouzel, J., Masson-Delmotte, V., Popp, T., Rasmussen, S.O., Röthlisberger, R., Ruth, U., Stauffer, B., Siggaard-Andersen, M.-L., Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Á.E., Svensson, A. & White, J.W.C., 2008. High-resolution Greenland ice core data show abrupt climate change happens in few years. Science 321: 680684.
Taute, W., 1968. Die Stielspitzen-Gruppen im Nordlichen Mitteleuropa. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der späten Altsteinzeit. Bohlau Verlag (Köln): 516 pp.
Tedrow, J.C.F., 1968. Pedogenic gradients of the polar regions. Journal of Soil Science 19: 197204.
Tolksdorf, J.F. & Kaiser, K., 2012. Holocene aeolian dynamics in the European sand-belt as indicated by geochronological data. Boreas 41: 408421.
Tump, M., Vroomans, M.A.K., Tebbens, L.A. & Kasse, C., 2014. Een Ahrensburg-site uit de eerste helft van de Late Dryas langs de A2 bij Geldrop (gemeente Heeze en Leende). A2 Aalsterhut. Archeologisch standaardrapport. BAAC rapportnr. A-08.0480 / A-09.0116 / A-09.0210 / A-09.0386 (’s-Hertogenbosch): 182 pp.
Van Balen, R.T., Houtgast, R.F. & Cloetingh, S.A.P.L., 2005. Neotectonics of the Netherlands: a review. Quaternary Science Reviews 24: 439454.
Van Beek, R., Gouw-Bouman, M.T.I.J. & Bos, J.A.A., 2015. Mapping regional vegetation developments in Twente (the Netherlands) since the Late Glacial and evaluating contemporary settlement patterns. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences / Geologie en Mijnbouw 94: 229255.
Vandenberghe, D., 2004. Investigation of the optically stimulated luminescence dating method for application to young geological sediments. PhD Thesis. Universiteit Gent: 358 pp.
Vandenberghe, D., Kasse, C., Hossain, S.M., De Corte, F., Van den haute, P., Fuchs, M. & Murray, A.S., 2004. Exploring the method of optical dating and comparison of optical and 14C ages of Late Weichselian coversands in the southern Netherlands. Journal of Quaternary Science 19: 7386.
Vandenberghe, D., De Corte, F., Buylaert, J.-P., Kučera, J. & Van den haute, P., 2008. On the internal radioactivity in quartz. Radiation Measurements 43: 771775.
Vandenberghe, D., Vanneste, K., Verbeeck, K., Paulissen, E., Buylaert, J.-P, De Corte, F. & Van den haute, P., 2009. Late Weichselian and Holocene earthquake events along the Geleen fault in NE Belgium: optical age constraints. Quaternary International 199: 5674.
Vandenberghe, D.A.G., Derese, C., Kasse, C. & Van den haute, P., 2013. Late Weichselian (fluvio-)aeolian sediments and Holocene drift-sands of the classic type locality in Twente (E Netherlands): a high-resolution dating study using optically stimulated luminescence. Quaternary Science Reviews 68: 96113.
Vandenberghe, J., 1985. Paleoenvironment and stratigraphy during the last Glacial in the Belgian–Dutch border region. Quaternary Research 24: 2338.
Van den Biggelaar, D.F.A.M. & Kluiving, S.J., 2015. A niche construction approach on the central Netherlands covering the last 220,000 years. Water History 7: 533555.
Van den Biggelaar, D.F.A.M., Kluiving, S.J., Kolen, J. & Kasse, C., 2016 Predictive modelling of Younger Dryas archaeological remains in southern Flevoland (central Netherlands). LAC2014 Proceedings: 1–22. DOI: 10.5463/lac.2014.61.
Van der Hammen, T., 1951. Late glacial flora and periglacial phenomena in the Netherlands. Leidse Geologische Mededelingen 17: 71183.
Van der Hammen, T. & Van Geel, B., 2008. Charcoal in soils of the Allerød–Younger Dryas transition were the result of natural fires and not necessarily the effect of an extra-terrestrial impact. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences / Geologie en Mijnbouw 87: 359361.
Van der Hammen, T. & Wijmstra, T.A., 1971. The Upper Quaternary of the Dinkel valley (Twente, Eastern Overijssel, the Netherlands). Mededelingen Rijks Geologische Dienst 22: 55212.
Van Geel, B., Coope, G.R. & Van der Hammen, T., 1989. Palaeoecology and stratigraphy of the Lateglacial type section at Usselo (the Netherlands). Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 60: 25129.
Van Hoesel, A., Hoek, W.Z., Braadbaart, F., Van der Plicht, J., Pennock, G.M. & Drury, M.R., 2012. Nanodiamonds and wildfire evidence in the Usselo horizon postdate the Allerød–Younger Dryas boundary. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109: 76487653.
Van Hoesel, A., Hoek, W.Z., Pennock, G.M. & Drury, M.R., 2014. The Younger Dryas impact hypothesis: a critical review. Quaternary Science Reviews 83: 95114.
Van Huissteden, J., 1990. Tundra rivers of the last glacial: sedimentation and geomorphological processes during the Middle Pleniglacial in Twente, eastern Netherlands. Mededelingen Rijks Geologische Dienst 44: 3138.
Van Huissteden, J., Schwan, J.C.G. & Bateman, M.D., 2001. Environmental conditions and paleowind directions at the end of the Weichselian Late Pleniglacial recorded in aeolian sediments and geomorphology (Twente, Eastern Netherlands). Geologie en Mijnbouw / Netherlands Journal of Geosciences 80: 118.
Van Mourik, J.M., Nierop, K.G.J. & Vandenberghe, D.A.G., 2010. Radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dating based chronology of a polycyclic driftsand sequence at Weerterbergen (SE Netherlands). Catena 80: 170181.
Veil, St., 1987. Ein Fundplatz der Stielspitzengruppen ohne Stielspitzen bei Höfer, Ldkr. Celle: Ein Beispiel funktionaler Variabilität paläolithischer Steinartefakteninventare. Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt 17: 311322.
Vermeersch, P.M., 2008. La transition Ahrensbourgien-Mésolithique ancien en Campine Belge et dans le sud sableux des Pays-Bas. In: Fagnart, J.-P., Thevenin, A., Ducrocq, Th., Souffi, B. & Coudret, P. (eds): Le début du Mésolithique en Europe du Nord-Ouest. Actes de table ronde d'Amiens 9 et 10 octobre 2004. Société Préhistorique Française Mémoire 65 (Paris): 1129.
Vermeersch, P.M., 2011. The human occupation of the Benelux during the Younger Dryas. Quaternary International 242: 267276.
Vogel, J.C. & Waterbolk, H.T., 1963. Groningen radiocarbon dates IV. Radiocarbon 5: 163202.
Wallinga, J., Davids, F. & Dijkmans, J.W.A., 2007. Luminescence dating of Netherlands’ sediments. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences / Geologie en Mijnbouw 86: 179196.
Weber, M.-J., Grimm, S.B. & Baales, M., 2011. Between warm and cold: impact of the Younger Dryas on human behavior in Central Europe. Quaternary International 242: 277– 301.
Wintle, A.G., 2008. Luminescence dating of Quaternary sediments – introduction. Boreas 37: 469470.
Wintle, A.G. & Murray, A.S., 2006. A review of quartz optically stimulated luminescence characteristics and their relevance in single-aliquot regeneration dating protocols. Radiation Measurements 41: 369391.
Wouters, A., 1957. Een nieuwe vindplaats van de Ahrensburgcultuur onder de gemeente Geldrop. Brabants Heem 9: 212.


Late Glacial and Holocene aeolian deposition and soil formation in relation to the Late Palaeolithic Ahrensburg occupation, site Geldrop-A2, the Netherlands

  • C. Kasse (a1), L.A. Tebbens (a2), M. Tump (a2), J. Deeben (a3), C. Derese (a4), J. De Grave (a4) and D. Vandenberghe (a4)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed