Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Glacial geology of Saalian relief around Midwolda, eastern Groningen, the Netherlands

  • Sjoerd J. Kluiving (a1) (a2) (a3), Gerard Aalbersberg (a4), Ronald T. van Balen (a5) (a6) and Cornelis Kasse (a5)

Abstract

Due to canal-digging activities in 2011 and 2014, two small and one large temporary exposure, all ranging from 4 to 5 m in depth, were studied with respect to the sedimentology and structural geology, in the glacial ridge of Midwolda, Groningen, the Netherlands. The lowermost unit consists of clay of Elsterian age and is composed of glaciolacustrine and turbiditic deposits (Peelo Formation). These show synsedimentary deformations due to loading, as well as post-sedimentary Saalian glaciotectonic deformations, consisting of folding, and faulting structures. The overlying Saalian till sequence consists of two main units. The lower unit, with clear features of a subglacial deformation zone (e.g. lateral heterogeneity), has a local origin and strongly resembles the underlying Elsterian clay. Glacial tectonic and morphological observations indicate a primary NE–SW ice-flow direction. The second till layer has a sandy texture and high crystalline gravel content, while glacial-tectonic indicators point to a NW–SE ice-flow direction. The deformation of the till layers has caused a repetition and mixing of till layers, due to the last ice movement. The NW–SE ice movement is supported by the morphology as well as data from erratic gravel counts. Correlation with geological cross-sections strongly suggests regional subsurface control on ice-sheet behaviour.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Glacial geology of Saalian relief around Midwolda, eastern Groningen, the Netherlands
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Glacial geology of Saalian relief around Midwolda, eastern Groningen, the Netherlands
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Glacial geology of Saalian relief around Midwolda, eastern Groningen, the Netherlands
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author. Email: s.j.kluiving@vu.nl

References

Hide All
Aalbersberg, G., 2016. Geologisch onderzoek. In: Van Kruining, M.E. & Veenstra, H.W. (eds): Plangebied tracé Noordelijke vaarverbinding te Midwolda, gemeente Oldambt; een archeologische begeleiding, een booronderzoek en een geologisch onderzoek. RAAP-rapport 3054. RAAP Archeologisch Adviesbureau bv (Weesp).
Aalbersberg, G. & Kluiving, S.J., 2012. Geologische profielopname Noordelijke Vaarverbinding Midwolda. RAAP Evaluatierapport. Internal publication RAAP Archeologisch Adviesbureau bv (Weesp).
Bakker, M.A.J., Den Otter, C. & Weerts, H.J.T., 2003. Lithostratigrafische Nomenclator Ondiepe Ondergrond, Formatie van Drente. Nederlands Instituut voor Toegepaste Geowetenschappen TNO (Utrecht).
Bouma, A.H., 1962. Sedimentology of some flysch deposits. Elsevier (Amsterdam): 168 pp.
Boulton, G.S., 1987. A theory of drumlin formation by subglacial sediment deformation. In: Rose, J. & Menzies, J. (eds). Drumlin Symposium. Balkema (Rotterdam): 2580.
De Gans, W., 1981. The Drentsche Aa valley system – a study in Quaternary geology. PhD Thesis. Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (Amsterdam): 132 pp.
De Mulder, E.F.J., Geluk, M.C., Ritsema, I.L, Westerhoff, W.E. & Wong, T.E., 2003. De ondergrond van Nederland. Wolters-Noordhoff (Groningen).
Ebbing, J.H.J. 2003. Lithostratigrafische Nomenclator Ondiepe Ondergrond, Formatie van Peelo. Nederlands Instituut voor Toegepaste Geowetenschappen TNO (Utrecht).
Ehlers, J. 1990. Reconstructing the dynamics of the north-west European Pleistocene ice sheets. Quaternary Science Reviews 9: 7183.
Kluiving, S.J. 1994. Glaciotectonics in the Itterbeck-Uelsen push moraines, Germany. Journal of Quaternary Science 9: 235244.
Kluiving, S.J., 2001. Multiscale (seismic, lithofacies, and microstructural) analyses of subglacial and glaciomarine deposits on the Ross Sea continental margin and offshore Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica; evidence for substrate control on ice flow behavior. Dissertation. University of Alabama (Tuscaloosa, AL): 256 pp. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.
Kluiving, S.J. & Koster, K., 2012 (ed. Kluiving, S.J., Kasse, C. & Van Balen, R.T.). Geologisch onderzoek aan de glaciale rug van Midwolda, gemeente Oldambt (Gr.). GEO-LOGICAL-reeks 63 (Delft).
Kluiving, S.J. & Van Balen, R.T., 2014. Glaciale tektoniek van de Itterbeck-Uelsen stuwwallen, Duitsland. Grondboor & Hamer 20141: 2229.
Kluiving, S.J., Rappol, M. & Van der Wateren, F.M., 1991. Till stratigraphy and ice movements in eastern Overijssel, the Netherlands. Boreas 20: 193205.
Larsen, E. & Mangerud, J., 1992. Subglacially formed clastic dikes. Sueriges Geologisha Undersdhning, Ser. Ca 81: 163170.
Menzies, J., Van der Meer, J.J.M. & Rose, J. 2006. Till as a glacial ‘tectomict’, its internal architecture, and the development of a ‘typing’ method for till differentiation. Geomorphology 75: 172200.
Menzies, J., van der Meer, J.J.M. & Ravier, E. 2016. A kinematic unifying theory of microstructures in subglacial tills. Sedimentary Geology 344: 5770.
Meyer, K.-D., 1983. Geologische Naturdenkmale im Landkreis Lüneburg. In: Jahrbuch des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins für das Fürstentum Lüneburg e.V. 36: 179196.
Phillips, E., Evans, D.J.A., Van der Meer, J.J.M. & Lee, J.R., 2018. Microscale evidence of liquefaction and its potential triggers during soft-bed deformation within subglacial traction tills. Quaternary Science Reviews 181:123143.
Rappol, M., 1987. Saalian till in the Netherlands: a review. In: Van der Meer, J.J.M. (ed.): Tills and glaciotectonics. Balkema (Rotterdam): 322.
Rappol, M., Kluiving, S.J. & Van der Wateren, F.M., 1991. Over keileemstratigrafie en ijsbewegingsrichtingen in oostelijk Overijssel. Grondboor & Hamer 45: 5562.
Schokker, J., De Lang, F.D., Weerts, H.J.T., Den Otter, C. & Passchier, S. 2005. Beschrijving lithostratigrafische eenheid Formatie van Boxtel. Nederlands Instituut voor Toegepaste Geowetenschappen TNO (Utrecht).
Ter Wee, M.W., 1962. The Saalian glaciation in the Netherlands. Mededelingen Geologische Stichting n.s. 15: 5776.
Van den Berg, M.W. & Beets, D.J., 1987. Saalian glacial deposits and morphology in the Netherlands. In: Van der Meer, J.J.M. (ed.): Tills and glaciotectonics. Balkema (Rotterdam): 235252.
Van der Meer, J.J.M., 1993. Microscopic evidence of subglacial deformation. Quaternary Science Reviews 12: 553587.
Van der Meer, J.J.M., 1996. Microscomorphology. In: Menzies, J. (ed.): Glacial environments: past glacial environments – processes, sediments and landforms. Butterworth and Heinemann (Oxford): 335355.
Van der Meer, J.J.M. & Lagerlund, E., 2000. Het geologisch reservaat ‘P. van der Lijn’ bij Urk – een oppervlak uit de laatste ijstijd. Grondboor & Hamer 5.
Van der Meer, J.J.M. & Menzies, J., 2011. The micromorphology of unconsolidated sediments. Sedimentary Geology 238: 213232.
Van Gijssel, K., 1987. A lithostratigraphic and glaciotectonic reconstruction of the Lamstedt Moraine, Lower Saxony (FRG). In: Van der Meer, J.J.M. (ed.): Tills and glaciotectonics. Balkema (Rotterdam; Boston, MA): 145155.
Vandenberghe, J., 1983. Some periglacial phenomena and their stratigraphical position in Weichselian deposits in the Netherlands. Polarforschung 53: 97107.
Van der Wateren, F.M., 1992. Structural geology and sedimentology of push moraines. PhD Thesis. University of Amsterdam (Amsterdam): 230 pp.
Van der Wateren, F.M., Kluiving, S.J. & Bartek, L.R., 2000. Kinematic indicators of subglacial shearing. In: Maltman, A.J., Hubbard, B.P. & Hambrey, M.J. (eds): Deformation of glacial materials. Geological Society Special Publication 176. Geological Society (London): 259278.
Walker, R.G., 1978. Deep-water sandstone facies and ancient submarine fans: models for exploration for stratigraphic traps. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 62: 932966.
Zandstra, J.G., 1983a. A new subdivision of crystalline Fennoscandian erratic pebble assemblages (Saalian) in the central Netherlands. Geologie en Mijnbouw 62: 455469.
Zandstra, J.G., 1983b. Fine gravel, heavy mineral and grain size analysis of Pleistocene, mainly glacigenic deposits in the Netherlands. In: Ehlers, J. (ed.): Glacial deposits in north-west Europe. Balkema (Rotterdam): 361377.
Type Description Title
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Kluiving et al. supplementary material
Kluiving et al. supplementary material

 Unknown (26.1 MB)
26.1 MB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed