Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Geochemistry of marine and lacustrine bands in the Upper Carboniferous of the Netherlands

  • H. Kombrink (a1), B.J.H. van Os (a2), C.J. van der Zwan (a3) and Th.E. Wong (a1)

Abstract

Geochemical studies on Upper Carboniferous marine bands showed that marked enrichment in redox-sensitive trace elements (uranium (U), vanadium (V), molybdenum (Mo)) mostly occur if they contain Goniatites. Goniatites indicate deposition in relatively distal and deep marine environments. In contrast, Westphalian marine bands found in the Netherlands predominantly show a Lingula facies, indicating deposition in a nearshore environment. These Lingula marine bands are mostly lacking significant trace element enrichments. The aim of this paper is to explain the mechanisms causing the differences in geochemical characteristics between distal (Goniatites facies) and proximal (Lingula facies) marine bands. Geochemical analyses (total organic carbon (TOC), sulfur (S), major and trace elements) were carried out on a selection of these marine bands. Furthermore, a comparison was made with some lacustrine bands which broadly show the same sedimentary development as the Lingula marine bands. The results show that the Lingula marine bands, in contrast to the Goniatites and lacustrine bands, are characterised by low organic carbon contents (1 – 2 wt.%). A relatively high input of siliciclastics probably prevented the accumulation of organic-rich layers (dilution effect). In turn, low organic carbon contents most likely prevented the effective scavenging of trace elements. Although the lacustrine bands are characterised by high TOC contents, here the limited availability of trace elements in fresh water forms the best explanation for low trace metal enrichments. Since marine bands form stratigraphically important horizons in the Upper Carboniferous, many attempts have been made to recognise marine bands using well logs (gamma-ray). The results from this study show that using gamma-ray devices (detecting U-enrichments), only marine bands in a Goniatites facies are clearly recognised while Lingula marine bands are not detected.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Geochemistry of marine and lacustrine bands in the Upper Carboniferous of the Netherlands
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Geochemistry of marine and lacustrine bands in the Upper Carboniferous of the Netherlands
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Geochemistry of marine and lacustrine bands in the Upper Carboniferous of the Netherlands
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

1 Corresponding author. TNO Built Environment and Geosciences - Geological Survey of the Netherlands, Princetonlaan 6, 3584 CB Utrecht, the Netherlands. Email: hkombrink@gmail.com

References

Hide All
Adams, J.A. & Weaver, C.E., 1958. Thorium-uranium ratios as indicators of sedimentary processes: example of concept of geochemical facies. Bulletin American Association of Petroleum Geologists 42: 387430.
Algeo, T.J. & Maynard, J.B., 2004. Trace-element behavior and redox facies in core shales of Upper Pennsylvanian Kansas-type cyclothems. Chemical Geology 206: 289318.
Algeo, T.J., Schwark, L. & Hower, J.C., 2004. High-resolution geochemistry and sequence stratigraphy of the Hushpuckney Shale (Swope Formation, eastern Kansas); implications for climato-environmental dynamics of the Late Pennsylvanian Midcontinent Seaway. Chemical Geology 206: 259288.
Anderson, R.F., LeHuray, A.P., Fleisher, M.Q. & Murray, J.W., 1989. Uranium deposition in Saanich Inlet sediments, Vancouver Island. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 53: 22052213.
Archard, G. & Trice, R., 1990. A preliminary investigation into the spectral radiation of the Upper Carboniferous marine bands and its stratigraphic application. Newsletters on Stratigraphy 21: 167173.
Berner, R.A. & Raiswell, R., 1984. C/S method for distinguishing freshwater from marine sedimentary rocks. Geology 12: 365368.
Bloxham, T.W. & Thomas, R.L., 1969. Palaeontological and geochemical facies in the Gastrioceras subcrenatum marine-band and associated rocks from North Crop of the South Wales Coalfield. Quaterly Journal of Geological Society, London 124: 239281.
Calver, M.A., 1969. Westphalian of Britain. Compte Rendu Congres International de Stratigraphie et de Geologie du Carbonifere 1: 233254.
Chou, C.L., 1984. Relationship between geochemistry of coal and the nature of strata overlying the Herin Coal in the Illinois Basin, USA. Memoir of the Geological Society of China 6: 269280.
Jr.Coveney, R.M., Watney, W.L. & Maples, C.G., 1991. Contrasting depositional models for Pennsylvanian black shale discerned from molybdenum abundances. Geology 19: 147150.
Cruse, A.M. & Lyons, T.W., 2004. Trace metal records of regional paleoenvironmental variability in Pennsylvanian (Upper Carboniferous) black shales. Chemical Geology 206: 319345.
Davidson, C.F. & Ponsford, D.R.A., 1954. On the occurrence of uranium in coals. Mining Magazine 91: 265273.
Davies, S.J. & McLean, D., 1996. Spectral gamma-ray and palynological characterization of Kinderscoutian marine bands in the Namurian of the Pennine Basin. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society 51: 103114.
Dellwig, O., 1999. Geochemistry of Holocene coastal deposits (NW Germany): Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. Carl von Ossietzky Universität (Oldenburg): 297 pp.
Diessel, C.F.K., 1992. Coal-bearing depositional systems. Springer-Verlag (Berlin): 721 pp.
Dill, H.G. & Pöhlmann, H., 2002. Chemical composition and mineral matter of paratic and limnic coal types of lignite through anthracite rank (Germany). Carboniferous and Permian of the world; XIV ICCP Memoir Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists 19: 851867.
Drozdzewski, G., 2005. Zur sedimentären Entwicklung des Subvariscikums im Namurium und Westfalium Nordwestdeutschlands. In: Wrede, V. (ed.): Stratigraphie von Deutschland V - Das Oberkarbon (Pennsylvanium) in Deutschland. Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg (Frankfurt a. M.) 254: 151203.
Dusar, M., Paproth, E., Streel, M. & Bless Martin, J.M., 2000. Palaeogeographic and palaeoenvironmental characteristics of major marine incursions in northwestern Europe during the Westphalian C (Bolsovian). Geologica Belgica 3: 331347.
Elbaz-Poulichet, F., Nagy, A. & Cserny, T., 1997. The Distribution of Redox Sensitive Elements (U, As, Sb, V and Mo) along a River-Wetland-Lake System (Balaton Region, Hungary). Aquatic Geochemistry 3: 267282.
Fisher, Q.J. & Wignall, P.B., 2001. Palaeoenvironmental controls on the uranium distribution in an Upper Carboniferous black shale (Gastrioceras listeri Marine Band) and associated strata; England. Chemical Geology 175: 605621.
Gayer, R.A., Rose, M., Dehmer, J. & Shao, L.Y., 1999. Impact of sulphur and trace element geochemistry on the utilization of a marine-influenced coal; case study from the South Wales Variscan foreland basin. International Journal of Coal Geology 40: 151174.
Goodarzi, F. & Swaine, D.J., 1993. Chalcophile elements in Western Canadian coals. International Journal of Coal Geology 24: 281292.
Holdsworth, B.K. & Collinson, J.D., 1988. Millstone Grit cyclicity revisited. In: Besly, B.M. & Kelling, G. (eds): Sedimentation in a synorogenic basin complex; the Upper Carboniferous of Northwest Europe. Blackie and Son (London): 132152.
Hollywood, J.M. & Whorlow, C.V., 1993. Structural development and hydrocarbon occurrence of the Carboniferous in the UK southern North Sea Basin. In: Parker, J.R. (ed.): Petroleum geology of Northwest Europe; Proceedings of the 4th conference. Geological Society (London): 689696.
Hoogteijling, P.J., 1948. Radioactiviteit en bodemgesteldheid. Vrije Universiteit (Amsterdam): 93 pp.
Jedwab, J., 1966. Les degats radiatifs dans le charbon uranifere du Schaetzel. Geologische Rundschau 55: 445453.
Krull, P., 2005. Paläogeographischer Rahmen. In: Wrede, V. (ed.): Stratigraphie von Deutschland V - Das Oberkarbon (Pennsylvanium) in Deutschland. Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg (Frankfurt a. M.) 254: 312.
Laznicka, P., 1985. The geological association of coal and metallic ores - a review. In: Wolf, K.H. (ed.): Handbook of strata-bound and stratiform ore deposits. Regional studies and specific deposits 13: 171.
Leeder, M.R., 1988. Recent developments in Carboniferous geology; a critical review with implications for the British Isles and N.W. Europe. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association 99: 73100.
Leeder, M.R., Raiswell, R., Al Biatty, H., McMahon, A. & Hardman, M., 1990. Carboniferous stratigraphy, sedimentation and correlation of Well 48/ 3–3 in the southern North Sea basin; integrated use of palynology, natural gamma/ sonic logs and carbon/sulphur geochemistry. Journal of the Geological Society of London 147: 287300.
Lyons, T.W., Werne, J.P., Hollander, D.J. & Murray, R.W., 2003. Contrasting sulfur geochemistry and Fe/Al and Mo/Al ratios across the last oxic-to-anoxic transition in the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela. Chemical Geology 195: 131157.
Martinsen, O.J., Collinson, J.D. & Holdsworth, B.K., 1995. Millstone Grit cyclicity revisited; II, Sequence stratigraphy and sedimentary responses to changes of relative sea-level. In: Plint, A.G. (ed.): Sedimentary facies analysis; a tribute to the research and teaching of Harold G. Reading. Special Publication of the International Association of Sedimentologists (Oxford) 22: 305327.
Meessen, J.P.M.T., 1985. Rapport betreffende het onderzoek naar microfossielen van een drietal trajecten van boring Ruurlo 1. Internal report 2085. Rijks Geologische Dienst, Haarlem.
Menning, M., Alekseev, A.S., Chuvashov, B.I., Davydov, V.I., Devuyst, F.X., Forke, H.C., Grunt, T.A., Hance, L., Heckel, P.H., Izokh, N.G., Jin, Y.G., Jones, P.J., Kotlyar, G.V., Kozur, H.W., Nemyrovska, T.I., Schneider, J.W., Wang, X.D., Weddige, K., Weyer, D. & Work, D.M., 2006. Global time scale and regional stratigraphie reference scales of central and west Europe, east Europe, Tethys, south China, and North America as used in the Devonian-Carboniferous-Permian Correlation Chart 2003 (DCP 2003). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 240: 318372.
Nekrasova, Z.A., 1957. K voprosu o genezise uranovogo orudeneniya v uglyakh. Voprosy Geol. Urana 6: 3754.
Paproth, E., 1989. Die paläogeographische Entwicklung Mittel-Europas im Karbon. Geologisches Jahrbuch Hessen 117: 5368.
Paproth, E., Dusar, M., Bless, M.J.M., Bouckaert, J., Delmer, A., Fairon-Demaret, M., Houlleberghs, F., Laloux, M., Pierart, P., Somers, Y., Streel, M., Thorez, J. & Tricot, J., 1983. Bio- and lithostratigraphic subdivisions of the Silesian in Belgium; a review. Annales de la Societe Geologique de Belgique 106: 241283.
Rabitz, A., 1966. Die marinen Horizonte des flözführenden Ruhrkarbons. Fortschr. Geol. Rheinld. u. Westf 13: 243296.
Raiswell, R. & Berner, R.A., 1987. Organic carbon losses during burial and thermal maturation of normal marine shales. Geology 15: 853856.
Ramsbottom, W.H.C., 1969. The Namurian of Britain. Compte Rendu Congres International de Stratigraphie et de Geologie du Carbonifere 1: 219232.
Ramsbottom, W.H.C., Ridd, M.F. & Read, W.A., 1979. Rates of transgression and regression in the Carboniferous of NW Europe; with discussion and reply. Journal of the Geological Society of London 136: 147154.
Schultz, R.B., 2004. Geochemical relationships of late Paleozoic carbon-rich shales of the Midcontinent, USA; a compendium of results advocating changeable geochemical conditions.; Geochemistry of organic-rich shales; new perspectives. Chemical Geology 206: 347372.
Spears, D.A., 1964. The major element geochemistry of the Mansfield marine band in the Westphalian of Yorkshire. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 28: 16791696.
Spears, D.A., Rippon, J.H. & Cavender, P.F., 1999. Geological controls on the sulphur distribution in British Carboniferous coals; a review and reappraisal. International Journal of Coal Geology 40: 5981.
Spears, D.A. & Sezgin, H.I., 1985. Mineralogy and geochemistry of the Subcrenatum Marine Band and associated coal-bearing sediments, Langsett, South Yorkshire. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 55: 570578.
Swaine, D.J., 1990. Trace elements in coal. Butterworth (London): 278 pp.
Taylor, S.R. & McLennan, S.M., 1985. The continental crust: its composition and evolution. Blackwell (Oxford): 312 pp.
Ten Haven, H.L., Baas, M., de Leeuw, J.W., Schenck, P.A. & Brinkhuis, H., 1987. Late Quaternary Mediterranean sapropels; II, Organic geochemistry and palynology of S (sub 1) sapropels and associated sediments. Chemical Geology 64: 149167.
Thiadens, A.A., 1963. The Palaeozoic of the Netherlands. KNGMG (Delft): 28 pp.
Van Amerom, H.W.J. & Glerum, J.J., 1984. Rapport betreffende de stratigra-fische interpretatie van diepboring Kemperkoul-1 op grond van de makroflora. Internal report 2003. Rijks Geologische Dienst, Haarlem.
Van Amerom, H.W.J. & Meessen, J.P.M.T., 1985. Rapport over mariene niveaus in diepboring Hengevelde-1. Internal report 2094. Rijks Geologische Dienst, Haarlem.
Van Amerom, H.W.J., Meessen, J.P.M.T. & Glerum, J.J., 1985. Rapport over mariene niveaus in diepboring Joppe-1. Internal report 2091. Rijks Geologische Dienst, Haarlem.
Wignall, P.B., 1994. Black shales. Oxford University Press (Oxford): 127 pp.
Ziegler, P.A., 1990. Geological Atlas of Western and Central Europe (2nd edition). Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V.; Geological Society Publishing House (Bath): 239 pp.

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Geochemistry of marine and lacustrine bands in the Upper Carboniferous of the Netherlands

  • H. Kombrink (a1), B.J.H. van Os (a2), C.J. van der Zwan (a3) and Th.E. Wong (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.