Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

The secret police and the campaign against Galicians in Soviet Ukraine, 1929–1934

  • Olga Bertelsen (a1) and Myroslav Shkandrij (a2)

Abstract

In 1929–1934 Galician intellectuals who emigrated to Soviet Ukraine from abroad were subject to mass repression. This article demonstrates how the party and the Soviet secret police discredited and eliminated this intelligentsia. Leading party officials perceived Galicians as possessing a strong sense of national identity and internal unity, and therefore an obstacle to plans for homogenizing Soviet Ukraine. The research draws on Ukrainian periodicals published in the early 1930s, on files relating to two major group criminal cases that were conducted in the early 1930s and that are now available to scholars in the Security Service archives of Ukraine (the former Soviet secret police archives), and on recent scholarship in the field. The archival evidence demonstrates that the cases were fabricated and the charges against Galicians were constructed as part of a planned “anti-nationalist” campaign.

Copyright

Corresponding author

* Corresponding author. Email: ob72202@alumni.bloomu.edu

References

Hide All
Antonovych, M., ed. 1977. “Lysty M. Hrushevs'koho do I. Faryniaka.” Ukrains'kyi istoryk, nos. 3–4 (55/66): 106112.
Babak, O. I., Danylenko, V. M., and Plekan, I. V. 2007. Praha-Kharkiv-Solovky: Arkhivno-slidcha spava akademika Stepana Rudnyts'koho. Kyiv: Natsional'na akademiia nauk Ukrainy.
Baberowski, Jörg. 2007. Chervonyi terror (Der rote Terror): Istoriia stalinizmu. Kyiv: Vydavnytstvo “K.I.S.”.
Baran, V., and Danylenko, V. 2009. “Pekucha Pravda istorii.” In Radians'ki orhany derzhavnoi bezpeky u 1939-chervni 1941: Dokumenty HDA SBU, edited by Danylenko, V. and Kokin, S., 532. Kyiv: KMA.
Boidunyk, Osyp. 1974. “Iak diishlo do stvorennia orhanizatsii Ukrains'kykh natsionalistiv.” In Ivhen Konovalets’ ta ioho doba, edited by Boiko, I., 359379. Munich: Fundatsiia im. I. Konoval'tsia.
Boiko, I., ed. 1974. Ivhen Konovalets’ ta ioho doba. Munich: Fundatsiia im. I. Konoval'tsia.
Bonnell, Victoria E. 1997. Iconography of Power: Soviet Political Posters under Lenin and Stalin. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Conquest, Robert. 1990. The Great Terror: A Reassessment. New York: Oxford University Press.
Davies, R. W., Khlevniuk, Oleg V., Rees, E. A., Kosheleva, Liudmila P., and Rogovaya, Larisa A., eds. 2003. The Stalin-Kaganovich Correspondence: 1931–36. Translated by Steven Shabad. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Demchenko, T., and Kuras, H. 2004. “Netypova dolia Mykoly Shraha.” Problemy istorii Ukrainy: Fakty, Sudzhennia, Poshuky, no. 12:389399.
Drach, Ivan, Prystaiko, Volodymyr, Pshennikov, Oleksandr, Shapoval, Iurii, and Shevchenko, Serhii, eds. 1997–1999. Ostannia adresa. 3 vols. Kyiv: Sfera.
Dziuba, Ivan. 2006. Z krynytsi lit. Vol. 1. Kyiv: KMA.
Figes, Orlando, and Kolonitskii, Boris. 1999. Interpreting the Russian Revolution: The Language and Symbols of 1917. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Gilley, Christopher. 2009. The “Change of Signposts” in the Ukrainian Emigration: A Contribution to the History of Sovietophilism in the 1920s. Stuttgart: ibidem-Verlag.
Kacharba, Stepan. 2003. Emihratsiia z Zakhidnoi Ukrainy. 1919–1939. Lviv: Lvivs'kyi natsional'nyi universytet imeni I. Franka.
Knysh, Zynovii. 1974. “Nachal'na komanda UVO u Lvovi.” In Ivhen Konovalets’ ta ioho doba, edited by Boiko, I., 288297. Munich: Fundatsiia im. I. Konoval'tsia.
Krushel'nyts'ka, L. I. 2001. Rubaly lis … (Spohady halychanky). Lviv: Lvivs'ka naukova biblioteka im. V. Stefanyka, NANU.
Kubiiovych, Volodymyr. 1983. Etnichni hrupy pivdennozakhidnoi Ukrainy (Halychyny) na 1.1.1939: Natsional'na statystyka Halychyny. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
Kuchabsky, Vasyl. 2009. Western Ukraine in Conflict with Poland and Bolshevism, 1918–1923. Translated by Gus Fagan. Toronto: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press.
Lemkin, Rafael. 2009. “Soviet Genocide in Ukraine.” In “Lemkin on Genocide of Nations,” with the foreword by Roman Serbyn. Journal of International Criminal Justice, no. 7:123130.
Luckyj, George S. N. 1990. Literary Politics in the Soviet Ukraine, 1917–1934. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Lysiak-Rudnyts'kyi, Ivan. 1994. Istorychni Ese. 2 vols. Edited by Frank Sysyn. Kyiv: Osnovy.
Mace, James. 1983. Communism and the Dilemmas of National Liberation: National Communism in Soviet Ukraine, 1918–1933. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Magocsi, Paul Robert. 1998. A History of Ukraine. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Magocsi, Paul Robert. 2002. The Roots of Ukrainian Nationalism: Galicia as Ukraine's Piedmont. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Maistrenko, Ivan. 1985. Istoriia moho pokolinnia: Spohady uchasnyka revoliutsiinykh podii v Ukraini. Edmonton: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies.
Makarchuk, S. A., ed. 2004. Etnohrafiia Ukrainy. Lviv: Vydavnytstvo “Svit.”.
Mandryk, Mariia. 2006. Ukrains'kyi natsionalism: Stanovlennia u mizhvoiennu dobu. Kyiv: Vydavnytstvo imeni Oleny Telihy.
Marochko, V. I., and Hillig, Gèotz. 2003. Represovani pedahohy Ukrainy: zhertvy politychnoho teroru (1929–1941). Kyiv: Vydavnysttvo “Naukovyi Svit.”.
Martin, Terry. 2001. The Affirmative Action Empire: Nations and Nationalism in the Soviet Union, 1923–1939. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Martynets', Volodymyr. 1949. Ukrains'ke pidpillia: Vid UVO do OUN: Spohady ta materialy do peredistorii ta istorii ukrains'koho orhanizovanoho natsionalizmu. Winnipeg: Ukrainian National Fed'n. D. E.
Marynych, Liudmyla. 2008. “Zakhidnoukrains'ka emihratsiia v USRR, 1930-i roky: represyvnyi epiloh.” Istoriia Ukrainy. Malovidomi imena, podii, fakty, no. 35:196210.
Mirchuk, Petro. 2007. Narys istorii OUN: 1920–1939 roky. Kyiv: Tsentr doslidzhen’ vyzvol'noho rukhu, Ukrains'ka vydavnycha spilka.
Naimark, Norman M. 2010. Stalin's Genocides. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Pelens'kyi, Zenon. 1974. “Mizh dvoma konechnostiamy.” In Ievhen Konovalets’ ta ioho doba, edited by Boiko, I., 502524. Munich: Fundatsiia im. I. Konoval'tsia.
Plokhii, Serhii. 2011. Velykyi Peredil: Nezvychaina istoriia Mykhaila Hrushevs'koho. Kyiv: Krytyka.
Plokhy, Serhii. 2005. Unmaking Imperial Russia: Mykhailo Hrushevsky and the Writing of Ukrainian History. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Prystaiko, Volodymyr. 1994. “Zhertvy teroru. Iak DPU borolosia z ukrains'koiu akademichnoiu naukoi.” Z arkhiviv VUCHK-GPU-NKVD-KGB, no. 1:7088.
Prystaiko, V. I., and Shapoval, I. I. 1995. Sprava “Spilky vyzvolennia Ukrainy”: nevidomi dokumenty i fakty. Naukovo-dokumental'ne vydannia. Kyiv: Intel.
Prystaiko, V., and Shapoval, I. 1996. Mykhailo Hrushevs kyi i GPU-NKVD: trahichne desiatylittia 1924–1934. Kyiv: Vydavnytstvo “Ukraina.”.
Rubl'ov, Oleksandr. 2004. Zakhidnoukrains'ka intelihentsiia u zahal'nonatsional'nykh politychnykh ta kul'turnykh prostesakh (1914–1939). Kyiv: Instytut istorii Ukrainy, NANU.
Rubl'ov, O. S., and Cherchenko, I. A. 1994. Stalinshchyna i dolia zakhidnoukrains'koi intelihentsii, 20–50-i roky 20 stolittia. Kyiv: Naukova dumka.
Rubl'ov, Oleksandr, and Fel'baba, Mykhailo. 2000. “Doli spivrobitnykiv ‘URE’ na tli represyvnoi polityky 30-kh rokiv.” Security Service of Ukraine. http://www.ssu.gov.ua/sbu/doccatalog%5Cdocument?id=42136
Shapoval, Iurii. 1990. U ti trahichni roky: Stalinizm na Ukraini. Kyiv: Vydavnytstvo politychnoi literatury Ukrainy.
Shapoval, Yuri. 1994. ‘On Ukrainian Separatism’: A GPU Circular of 1926.” Harvard Ukrainian Studies 18 (3–4): 275302.
Shapoval, Yuri. 2003. “The GPU-NKVD as an Instrument of Counter-Ukrainization in the 1920s and 1930s.” In Culture, Nation and Identity: The Ukrainian-Russian Encounter, 1600–1945, edited by Kappeler, Andreas, Kohut, Zenon E., Sysyn, Frank E., and Hagen, Mark von, 325343. Edmonton: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies.
Shapoval, Iurii, Kuromiya, Hiroaki, Blum, Alen, Vasyl'ev, Valerii, Vert, Nikolia, Viatrovych, Volodymyr, Kokin, Serhii, Lozyts'kyi, Volodymyr, Petrov, Mykyta, and Podkur, Roman, eds. 2009. Ukraina v dobu “Velykoho teroru:” 1936–1938 roky. Kyiv: Lybid'.
Shapoval, Iurii, Prystaiko, Volodymyr, and Zolotar'ov, Vadym. 1997. ChK-GPU-NKVD v Ukraini: Osoby, Fakty, Dokumenty. Kyiv: Abris.
Shapoval, I., and Verba, I. 2005. Mykhailo Hrushevs'kyi. Kyiv: Vydavnychyi Dim “Al'ternatyvy.”.
Shevelov, George Y. 1986. “The Language Question in the Ukraine in the Twentieth Century (1900–1941).” Harvard Ukrainian Studies 10 (1–2): 71170.
Shevel'ov, Iurii. 2009. Movoznavstvo: Vybrani pratsi. Vol. 1. Edited by L. Masenko. Kyiv: KMA.
Shkandrij, Myroslav. 1992. Modernists, Marxists and the Nation: The Ukrainian Literary Discussion of the 1920s. Edmonton: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press, University of Alberta.
Shkandrij, Myroslav. 2012. “Ukrainianization, Terror and Famine: Coverage in Lviv's Dilo and the Nationalist Press of the 1930s.” Nationalities Papers 40 (3): 431–51.
Smolych, Iurii. 1968. Rozpovid’ pro nespokii deshcho z knyhy pro dvadtsiati i trydtsiati roky v ukrains'komu literaturnomu pobuti. Vol. 1. Kyiv: Radians'kyi pys'mennyk.
Smolych, Iurii. 1972. Rozpovidi pro nespokii nemaie kintsia: shche deshcho z dvadtsiatykh i trydtsiatykh rokiv v ukrains'komu literaturnomu pobuti. Vol. 3. Kyiv: Radians'kyi pys'mennyk.
Snyder, Timothy. 2005. Sketches from a Secret War: A Polish Artist's Mission to Liberate Soviet Ukraine. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Stalin, I. V. 1954. “Tov. Kaganovichu i drugim chlenam PB TsK KP(b)U.” Vol. 8 of Sochineniia of I.V. Stalin. Moskva: Gosudarstvennoie izdatel'stvo politicheskoi literatury.
Svarnyk, H., ed. 1998. Lysty M. Hrushevs'koho do K. Studyns'koho (1894–1932). Lviv: Vyd-vo M.P. Kots'.
Titova, Nataliia. 2007. “‘Sanatsiia’ prykordonnia USRR: poboriuvannia ‘pol's'ko-ukrains'koho fashyzmu’ na Podilli, 1930-ti roky.” Z arkhiviv VUChK, GPU, NKVD, KGB, no. 28 (1): 220252.
Tsvetkov, V'iacheslav, ed. 1993. Litopys Holhoty Ukrainy: Spohady politv'iazniv, represovanykh i peresliduvanykh. Lviv: Redaktsiia Litopysu Holhoty Ukrainy.
Ushkalov, Oleksandr, and Ushkalov, Leonid, eds. 2010. Arkhiv rozstrilianoho vidrodzhennia: materialy arkhivno-slidchykh sprav pys'mennykiv 1920–30 rokiv. Kyiv: Smoloskyp.
Vedeneev, Dmytro, and Shevchenko, Serhii. 2001. Ukrains'ki Solovky. Kyiv: “EksOb.”.
Vyshnia, Ostap. 1989. “Chib'iu 1934: Z tabirnoho shchodennyka.” Kyiv, no. 12:107124.
Wilson, Andrew. 2000. The Ukrainians: Unexpected Nation. 2nd ed. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Zhulyns'kyi, Mykola. 2010. Natsiia. Kul'tura. Literatura: Natsional'no-kul'turni mify ta ideinoestetychni poshuky Ukrains'koi literatury. Kyiv: Naukova dumka.
Zolotar'ov, Vadym. 2007. Sekretno-politychnyi viddil DPU USSR: Spravy ta liudy. Kharkiv: Folio.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Nationalities Papers
  • ISSN: 0090-5992
  • EISSN: 1465-3923
  • URL: /core/journals/nationalities-papers
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed