To save this undefined to your undefined account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your undefined account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Mycological Research News features : Second fungal genome sequenced; Gliocladium roseum belongs in Clonostachys;
and fungi from coral reefs.
This issue contains 13 papers. The molecular phylogeny
of the keratinophilic members of some Onygenales has
been examined, with an emphasis on Auxarthron, a
genus that proved to be monophyletic with nine species,
while Amauroascus was polyphyeltic (pp. 388–396).
Concern over oak decline in Europe has led to in-depth
studies on Phytophthora species in oak forest soils which
have been found to yield not only eight already recognized
species, but three species new to science have also
been discovered in the rhizosphere, one (P. uliginosa)
being particularly aggressive in inoculation experiments
(pp. 397–411); these have been compared anatomically,
in culture, and by ITS sequence data and are illustrated
in colour. The two macrolichens Usnea florida and U.
subfloridana have long been regarded as related but
differing in their reproductive methods, distributions,
and air pollution sensitivity; analyses of rDNA and β-tubulin
sequences, however, show that a single species
is involved as they formed one monophyletic group
with the specimens intermixed in the trees (pp. 412–418).
In Phoma exigua, however, rDNA ITS sequences failed
amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)
fingerprint patterns showed clear clustering of most
(pp. 419–427). AFLP's also prove to be a reliable tool
for the identification of Alternaria brassicicola and
indicate that there this apparently asexual species has a
means of generating and maintaining genetic variation
This contribution of Mycological Research News features: Can edible mushrooms promote sustainability in Beijing?; and Mycorrhizal fungi increase available calcium.
Molecular phylogenetic papers in this issue concern the phylogeny of Trichoderma based on a multigene approach, the molecular phylogeny of Nephroma, and monophyletic groups in Parmelia saxatilis. The synthesis and resynthesis of the lichen Baeomyces rufus has been examined molecularly and morphologically. Strains of Coniothyrium minitans are compared by morphological, physiological and molecular methods. Laccase genes from Gaeumannomyces graminis var. graminis, and polygalacturonases from Botrytis cinerea, have been characterized. Genetic transformation has been successfully achieved to insert markers into Clonostachys rosea, and ISSR-PCR fingerprinting used to examine the distribution of dark septate endophytes.
Three papers focus on hitherto undescribed fungi, a new genus of Harpellales on mayfly nymphs, and new species of Gaeumannomyces on Stenotaphrum and of Phytophthora on Ipomoea.
The following new scientific names are introduced: Tectimyces gen. nov.; and Gaeumannomyces wongoonoo, Phytophthora ipomoeae, T. leptophlebiidarum, and T. robustus spp. nov.
This contribution of Mycological Research News features : Why are mushroom caps mushroom-shaped? An obituary
for Noel F. Robertson (1923–1999), a former President of the British Mycological Society is also included in the issue.
This issue contains 15 original research papers. Fast-tracked is a major molecular phylogenetic study of Russula
species in Europe with a comparison of proposed infrageneric classification systems. Molecular studies also include a
technique for in situ PCR detection and identification, consider the detection of Neonectria galligena, variation and
infection patterns in endophytic Lophodermium nitens, and compare a newly discovered Paraphaeosphaeria with other
species of the genus. Incompatability studies between strains of Monascus purpureus have demonstrated the occurrence
of different compatability groups in the species.
Ingestion of ectomycorrhizal Rhizopogon fungal spores by small mammals is explored and their subsequent
effectiveness assessed. Fungi able to grow in TNT-contaminated soil have been isolated and their biotransformation
ability compared. The α-amylase production in Thermomyces lanuginosus and the proteins involved has been
investigated. Trichoderma koningii and T. virens protoplast fusants have been made and their biocontrol effectiveness
against Rhizoctonia solani studied.
A technique for the visualization of ectomycorrhizal rhizomorphs by scanning confocal microscopy has been
developed, and the use of different fluourescent stains for the detection of soil fungi is compared.
Taxonomic papers consider Mycosphaerella species in Queensland, new species of Anthostomella on Juncus and
Spartina, and of Paraphaeosphaeria on Yucca.
The following new scientific names are introduced: Anthostomella spissitecta, A. torosa, Mycosphaerella cuttsiae, M.
cyperi, M. dodonaeae, M. glochidionis. M. khayae, M. melaleucoides, M. morindae, M. platylobii, M. queenslandica, M.
wollemiae, M. xylomeli, and Paraphaeosphaeria barrii spp. nov.; M. escalloniae (syn. Sphaerella escalloniae) comb. nov.
This contribution of Mycological Research News features : New generic concepts in Verticillium sect. Prostrata, and
The sterigmata of Volucrisporium: a clarification.
This issue includes 17 papers. The first describes a technique for genetically transforming ectomycorrhizal
basidiomycetes. Molecular studies, often in association with other approaches, are applied to reassess species concepts
in Polymyxa, explore the relationships of Melanospora and similar genera, examine lineages in violet root rot fungi,
filament-beaked and other Alternaria species, Nectria galligena and N. coccinea var. faginata in North America,
Phialophora gregata f. sp. sojae, the pine rusts Cronartium flaccidum and Peridermium pini, Rosellinia necatrix isolates
from avocado, Claviceps purpurea populations on Spartina, Colletotrichum species on Hevea.
A major paper examines secondary metabolite profiles of 153 Alternaria isolates grown under standard conditions
and assesses them in relation to morphological and RAPD data.
In addition, protein expression after low temperature exposure associated with fruit body formation in Flammulina
velutipes is documented, the use of natural products to control sapstaining fungi reviewed, and the aerodynamics of
conidia in Erynia neoaphidis and some other entomophthoralean fungi studied.
A new genus of mycorrhizal Cortinariaceae is described, and the Coemansia spiralis complex revised.
The following new scientific names are introduced: Anamika gen. nov.; Coemansia bainieri nom. nov.; A. indica, and
C. linderi spp. nov.; and Polymyxa graminis f. sp. colombiana, f. sp subtropicalis, f. sp. tepida, f. sp. temperata, and
f. sp. tropicalis f. spp. nov.
The Book Reviews section of this issue (Mycological
Research106(10): 1247–1248, October 2002) includes
an appraisal of Dick's Straminipilous Fungi (Dick
2001). This seminal work synthesises the state of our
knowledge of the Peronosporomycetes (syn. Oomycetes),
marine straminipilous protists, plasmodiophorids, and
similar organisms. It also introduces the new kingdom
name Straminipila M. W. Dick 2001 to be used in
preference to the earlier published kingdom name
Chromista Cavalier-Smith 1981. This step is taken
because it is the flagellar apparatus of the zoospores
(heterokont; one whiplash and one tinsel) that is the
critical diagnostic feature of the kingdom, not the
presence of pigmented organelles (i.e. chromophyte
endosymbionts). For this reason, the terms ‘stramenopilous’ and ‘straminipilous’ had already gained popularity in the literature during the last decade, although
the kingdom name has not been formally proposed.
More detailed information is given in the review, but
mycologists in general need to be aware of this change
and to adopt the name in their teaching and writing for
what used to be known as the chromistan fungi,
oomycete fungi, or pseudofungi.
Two papers have been fast-tracked for publication in
this issue. The first reports the transformation of the
genome of Verticillium fungicola using PEG- and
Agrobacterium-mediated methods; both were successful
and provide a new tool for the study of the epidemiology
of this important pathogen of cultivated Agaricus
bisporus (pp. 4–11). In the second, double-stranded
RNA mycovirus elements have been found in Rhizoctonia solani
anastomosis group three (AG 3) and its
transmission and elimination investigated (pp. 12–22).
Other molecular papers in this issue describe the
development of primers for the identification of
Alternaria species in carrots and compare the approach
with other techniques (pp. 23–33); the diversity and
molecular strain characterization of Lentinula edodes in
Japan (pp. 34–39); the genotypic variation within
Beauveria bassiana has been examined by a variety of
methods and eight phylogenetic clusters found – which
were not significantly correlated with the groups of
insects from which they were obtained (pp. 40–50); the
Eucalyptus pathogen Coniothyrium zuluense is established
as present in Thailand, the first time the fungus
has been found outside South Africa (pp. 51–59); and
molecular data has been sued to show that the causal
agent of Rhododendron anthracnose is Colletotrichum
dematium (pp. 60-69).
Mycological Research News features: MR impact factor rises ; Functional profiling of a yeast genome; and Lichens
respond to global warming.
Molecular and morphological approaches to the recognition of ectomycorrhizal fungi are compared. The core group
of Peziza is re-assessed molecularly and morphologically, leading to some revision in species concepts and names, and
the species of Amanita in the Iberian Peninsula are compared by restriction analysis. A high-density genetic linkage
map for Lentinula edodes has been developed, and length polymorphisms discovered in races of Puccinia striiformis f.
sp. tritici. Fatty acid composition is demonstrated as having potential in the intrageneric classification of Pleurotus.
Soil-binding mucilage production is documented in a soil basidiomycete.
Ultrastructural studies concern the development of Pseudocercospora mori on mulberry leaves, and the lichenicolous
lichen Rimularia insularis on Lecanora rupicola.
A revision of Ravenelia in Argentina is presented, and two new thermotolerant Thielavia species have been
discovered and compared molecularly with others in the genus. A fossil Anzia from the European Tertiary is also
The following new scientific names are introduced: Anzia electra, Ravenelia argentinica, Thielavia arxii, and T.
intermedia spp. nov.
Mycological Research News features: Nitrogen deposition and mycorrhizal community structure;
and Identity the causal agent of rice blast.
This issue includes two review articles: an appraisal of endophytic fungi as a source of biologically
active metabolites; and PCR-based methods for the detection and quantification of mycotoxin-producing fungi.
Effects of antioxidants on toxin and enzyme production in Fusarium verticilloides and F. proliferatum have
been investigated, as has the accumulation of toxins produced by the last species in maize.
Molecular phylogenetic papers describe a new order of ascomycetes for the aquatic genus Jahnula and its
allies, assess relationships in the lyophyllid agarics, and provide new data supporting the isolation of the
plasmodiophorids. Also reported are molecular studies on variability in Paecilomyces fumosoroseus,
chromosome-length polymorphisms in Botryotinia fuckeliana (anam. Botrtyis cinera), the occurrence of the
snowberry pathogen Erysiphe symphoricarpi in Europe, anamorph-teleomorph connections in Cordyceps, and four
new Penicillium species with dark pigmented conidiophores.
The following new scientific names are introduced: Jahnulales ord. nov.; Patescospora gen. nov.; Jahnula
siamensiae, P. separans, Penicillium boreae, P. canarinse,
P. pullum, and P. subarcticum spp. nov.; and J. sunyatsenii (syn.
Aliquandostipite sunyatsenii) comb. nov.
Mycological Research News features: Prototaxites: a 400 Myr old giant fossil, a saprotrophic holobasidiomycete or a
lichen? and Non-deposit of voucher cultures.
Molecular studies examine the relationships of Rhynchosporium secalis, the species concepts in the Fusarium
avenaceum/F. arthrosporioides/F. tricinctum species complex, and the intra- and intersporal genetic diversity of Glomus
intraradices. The amino acid sequence of the RAD51 protein in Pleurotus ostreatus has been determined and compared
to that in other fungi.
The growth of Fusarium sambucinum is shown to be inhibited by several salts. The effects of moisture and oxygen
availability on rhizomorph generation in Armillaria tabescens have been compared with that of other species, and the
growth, and appressorial formation in Metarhizium anisopliae was found to be affected by artificial media on which it
is grown. The possibilities for the biocontrol of Botrytis cinerea using Ulocladium atrum as an antagonist have also
Glycoproteins in the extracellular matrix formed around germ-tubes and appressoria in Colletotrichum
lindemuthianum have been examined and compared with those in other species.
Sorosporella is found to be a synonym of Syngliocladium, and a new species with two varieties described from
grasshoppers and locusts. The causal agent of a twig dieback of lingonberry is found to be a previously unrecognised
The following new scientific names are introduced: Phomopsis columnaris, and Syngliocladium acridiorum spp. nov.;
and S. acridiorum var. madagascariensis var. nov.
Species in the large mushroom genus Russula are important ecologically as ectomycorrhizal fungi and economically as comestibles. Most infrageneric classification schemes of this genus have originated in Europe, but because of nomenclatural history and an evolving suite of characters these systems remain largely incongruent. Using ribosomal DNA sequences for 87 species representing all infrageneric taxa described from Europe, the phylogenetic position and relationships among these species were examined. Cladistic analysis of the ITS1, 5·8S, and ITS2 regions showed a cluster of five to six small to large clades basal in the topology and one large apical clade arising from the deeper nodes, none of which has been previously recognized in toto at the subgeneric level. Two of these groups, the Compactae and Pallidosporinae, which have been previously recognized as subsections of section Compacta, did not appear to be closely related. Bootstrap support and Bremer decay values indicated that collapse of the tree into monophyly at the deeper nodes would result in two large groups which are consistent with the classical subgeneric concept of the Eurussulae and a narrowed Compactae. The topology confirmed some previously described infrageneric taxa at the section level including the Tenellae and Heterophyllae and at the subsection level including the Cupreinae, Laricinae, Lilaceinae, Integroidinae, Violaceinae, Sphagnophilinae, Viridantinae, Emeticinae, Subvelatae, Pallidosporinae, and portions of the Polychromae and Sardoninae. The molecular analysis also indicated many interesting new combinations or relationships not previously conceived. Mapping of characters such as spore print colour, taste, and presence of acid resistant incrustations, which have been used to define infrageneric taxa in Russula, onto the phylogeny identified interesting patterns consistent with hypotheses regarding plesiomorphic and apomorphic characters. However, because of potential loss or reversal of character states, this analysis did not support their unequivocal use in infrageneric classification.
A technique was developed for transforming the ectomycorrhiza-forming basidiomycetes Suillus bovinus, Hebeloma cylindrosporum, and Paxillus involutus based on Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated T-DNA transfer. The selection marker employed was the Shble gene conferring resistance to phleomycin under control of the Schizophyllum commune GPD promoter and terminator. Transformants from all three investigated species were shown by PCR to contain the GPDScP-Shble-GPDScT construct, although the fate of the foreign DNA (integrated vs episomal, single-copy vs multi copy) could not be determined. The mycorrhiza formed between S. bovinus Bler transformants and Pinus sylvestris did not reveal any differences from those formed with untransformed Suillus bovinus.
Mycological Research News features: Numbers of insect and plant species.
Eleven papers are included in this issue. Ectomycorrhizal forests have been discovered in Guyana, and DNA profiles
from forest soils demonstrate that ectomycorrhizal fungi are adversely affected by burning. Molecular and
morphological studies have led to a reappraisal of the relationships and generic concepts of smuts on certain
dicotyledons, and also of ‘subcentric’ Achlya species and allied fungi, leading to the recognition of a new genus.
Five papers concern the molecular characterization and variability of plant pathogens: Alternaria species-groups
associated with core rot of apples; the identification of Verticullium longisporum on oilseed rape; Colletotrichum
gloeosporioides on Stylosanthes species ; the transposa and vacuma groups of Botrytis cinerea; and Pyrenophora teres. In
addition, phytotoxic metabolites have been identified in Sarocladium oryzae.
A revision of Dioicomyces (Laboulbeniales) is also presented and the following new scientific names are introduced:
Newbya gen.nov.; Achyla truncatiformis, Dioicomyces denticulatus, D. ladoi, and D. leptalei spp. nov.; Colletotrichum
gloeosporioides f. stylosanthis f. nov.; C. gloeosporioides f. sp. stylosanthis f. sp. nov.; N. apiculata (syn. Achyla
apiculata), N. braziliensis (syn. A. braziliensis), N. curvicollis (syn. A. curvicollis), N. megasperma (syn. A. megasperma),
N. oblongata (syn. A. oblongata), N. oblongata var. gigantea (syn. A. oblongata var. gigantean), N. oligocantha (syn. A.
oligocantha), N. pascuicola (syn. Aplanopsis pasuicola), N. polyandra (syn. Achlya polyandra), N. recurva (syn. A.
recurva), and N. stellata (syn. A. stellata) combs nov.