The cost of a fabrication line, such as one in a semiconductor house, has increased dramatically over the years, and it is possibly already past the point that some new start-up company can have sufficient capital to build a new fabrication line. Such capital-intensive manufacturing needs better utilization of resources and management of equipment to maximize its productivity. In order to maximize the return from such a capital-intensive manufacturing line, we need to work on the following: 1) increasing the yield, 2) enhancing the flexibility of the fabrication line, 3) improving quality, and finally 4) minimizing the down time of the processing equipment. Because of the significant advances now made in the fields of artificial neural networks, fuzzy logic, machine learning and genetic algorithms, we advocate the use of these new tools in manufacturing. We term the applications to manufacturing of these and other such tools that mimic human intelligence neural manufacturing. This paper describes the effort at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)  to use artificial neural networks to address certain semiconductor process modeling, monitoring and control questions.