New combined main- and side-chain azobenzene polyesters, which exhibit an intensity dependent refractive index, have been prepared in order to optically fabricate nonlinear waveguides. Novel sulfone azobenzenes, a diester, (4-[[5-(ethoxycarbonyl)pentyl]sulfonyl]-4'-[[5-(ethoxycarbonyl)pentyl]methylamino] azobenzene, and a diol, 4-[[(8-hydroxy-7-methylhydroxy)-octyl]sulfonyl]-4'-N, N-dimethylamino azobenzene, have been used to prepare new polyesters by transesterification in the molten state. The polyesters have been characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), size exclusion chromatography (SEC), third harmonic generation (THG) and optical anisotropy measurements. The molar masses of the polyesters were in the range of 5000-10000 g mol−1, which was sufficient in order to spin coat thin films. From THG measurements the polymers are shown to possess an offresonance electronic X
(3) of the order 10−12 esu corresponding to a nonlinear refractive index of 2.3×10−14 cm2/W.