Magic-angle spinning 13C NMR spectra of carbon monoxide adsorbed on rhodium/Y zeolites yield information about the proportioning of CO in the various possible adsorption states; linear, bridged and dicarbonyl. The relative amounts of these adsorbed types, particularly the ratio of bridged to linear CO is influenced by the nature of the majority cations present with the rhodium. Reduced Rh-Na(+) and Rh-Li(+) zeolites form all three CO surface species, while acidic Rh zeolites, formed by the introduction of the co-cations Ca(2+) and H(+), exhibit no bridged carbonyls. The suppression of the bridged moiety results from the withdrawal of electrons from rhodium by the acid centers making the metal electron deficient (more oxidized).
Rh(I) dicarbonyl species form on all samples studied, however these species are indistinguishable from the linear monocarbonyls based solely upon the isotropic chemical shift obtained from magic-angle spinning. The number of dicarbonyl species can be quantitatively determined by the Carr- Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequence, the powder pattern or by selective exchange experiments. At room temperature the two CO molecules in the gemdicarbonyl appear to undergo a mutual hopping exchange. This motion is frozen out at 198K. The carbon-carbon internuclear separation in the gemdicarbonyl is 3.3 Å.
Catalysts pre-adsorbed with 13CO undergo exchange of the dicarbonyl species upon exposure at 198 K to 12CO, however they also react to form 13CO2. When exposed to CO at room temperature no CO2 formation is detected.