Skip to main content Accessibility help

Use of Computational Thermodynamics in Rapid Prototyping and Infiltrating Steel Parts

  • Brian D. Kernan (a1), Emanuel M. Sachs (a1) and Samuel Allen (a1)


The direct manufacture of metal parts by rapid prototyping often involves building a porous skeleton from a metal powder. In this work, a method termed Homogeneous Steel Infiltration has been developed for infiltrating steel skeletons to make conventional tool steel alloys. The method uses a gated infiltration route that uses as the infiltrant a steel alloy with a lower melting point than the base powder. The infiltrant liquid may use carbon and/or silicon as a melting point depressant. Premature freeze-off of the steel infiltrant is avoided by operating at a temperature where some liquid is stable at chemical equilibrium. The compositions of the skeleton and infiltrant and the infiltration temperature are selected by using computational thermodynamics. Examples of successful infiltrations using D2 and A3 tool steels as target compositions are shown. The thermodynamic design method enables suitable parameters to make other tool steels, some stainless steels and manganese steels.



Hide All
1 Sachs, E., Wylonis, E., Cima, M., Allen, S., Michaels, S., Sun, E., Tang, H. and Guo, H.: ANTEC ‘95. Vol. I--Processing. Society of Plastic Engineers. 1995, pp. 9971003.
2 Paul, B.K., and Baskaran, S.: J. Mat.Proc.Tech., 1996, vol. 61, pp. 168172.
3 Radstok, E.: Rap. Prototyping. J., 1999, vol. 5, pp. 164168.
4 Dimov, S.S., Pham, D.T., Lacan, F. and Dotchev, K.D.: Assembly Automation, 2001 vol. 21, pp. 296302.
5 Sachs, E., Williams, P., Brancazio, D., Cima, M. and Kremmin, K.: Proceedings of Manufacturing International ‘90, New York, American Society of Manufacturing Engineers, 1990 vol. 4, pp. 131–6.
6 Michaels, S., Sachs, E. and Cima, M.: Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium 1992; Austin, University of Texas, pp. 244250. (1992).
7 Lembo, J.: Adv. Mater. & Processes. 2003, vol. 161, pp. 52–3.
8 German, R.M., “Powder Metallurgy Science”. MPIF1. Princeton, NJ, 1994, p 310.
9 Lowhaphandu, P., Lewandowski, J.J.: Metall. Mater. Trans A, 1999 Vol 30A pp325334.
10 Stewart, T.D, Dalgarno, K.W., Childs, T.H.C., Perkins, J, Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium 1999; Austin, University of Texas, pp. 443–49. (1999).
11 Uzunsoy, D., Chang, I.T.H. and Bowen, P., P: Powder Metall., 2002 vol 45, pp. 251–-4.
12 Lorenz, A., Sachs, E., Allen, S., Rafflenbeul, L., and Kernan, B.: Metall. Mater. Trans. A. 2004 Vol. 35A, pp. 631640.
13 Lorenz, A., Sachs, E., and Allen, S.: Metall. Mater. Trans. A. 2004 vol. 35A, pp. 641653.

Use of Computational Thermodynamics in Rapid Prototyping and Infiltrating Steel Parts

  • Brian D. Kernan (a1), Emanuel M. Sachs (a1) and Samuel Allen (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed