Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Understanding Void Phenomena in Metal Lines: Effects of Mechanical and Electromigration Stress

  • Paul A. Flinn (a1)

Abstract

As the shrinking of VLSI devices continues, the problem of voids in interconnections becomes of steadily increasing concern. Voids can result from the effects of triaxial tensile stresses produced during fabrication; they can also arise from electromigration. The effects can combine: voids arising from mechanical stress can move and grow under electromigration stress. A detailed understanding of the phenomena requires both knowledge of the properties of the metal and dielectric as functions of time and temperature, and direct observations of the void behavior in real time under varying stress conditions. The material property information can be obtained by a combination of wafer curvature, X-ray diffraction and ultramicro indentation measurements. Void behavior can be inferred from high precision resistivity measurements, and observed directly with Scanning Electron Microscopy. With these data it is possible to evaluate various models for the phenomena.

Copyright

References

Hide All
1. Blech, I. A. and Meieran, E. S., “Electromigration in Thin Aluminum Films”, Applied Physics Letters, Vol.11, 1967, pp. 263-.
2. Castano, E., Maiz, J., Flinn, P., and Madden, M., In situ Observations of DC and AC Electromigration in Passivated Al Lines”, Applied Physics Letters, Vol.59, 1991, pp. 129131.
3. Besser, P. R., Madden, M. C. and Flinn, P. A., “In Situ Observation of the Dynamic Behavior of Electromigration Voids in Passivated Aluminum Lines”. Private Communication.
4. Madden, M., Meribe, T., Abratowski, E., and Finn, P. A., “High Resolution Observation of Void Motion in Passivated Metal Lines under Electromgration Stress”. Paper H 1.4, this conference.
5. Klema, J., Pyle, R. and Domangue, E., “Reliability Implications of Nitrogen Contamination During Deposition of Sputtered Aluminum/Silicon Metal Films”, Proceedings of the 22nd Annual International Reliability Symposium, IEEE, New York, 1984, pp. 15.
6. Curry, J., Fitzgibbon, G., Guan, Y., Muollo, R., Nelson, G. and Thomas, A., “New Failure Mechanism in Sputtered Aluminum-Silicon Films”, Proceedings of the 22nd Annual International Reliability Symposium, IEEE, New York, 1984, pp. 68.
7. Flinn, P. A., “Stress in Passivated Films”, Thin Films: Stresses and Mechanical Properties II. MRS Symposium Proceedings Volume 188., Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, PA, 1990, pp. 313.
8. Flinn, P. A., “Principles and Applications of Wafer Curvature Techniques for Stress Measurements in Thin Films”, Thin Films: Stresses and Mechanical Properties. MRS Symposium Proceedings Volume 130., Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, PA, 1989, pp. 4 1 -5 1.
9. Flinn, P. A., Gardner, D. S. and Nix, W. D., “Measurement and Interpretation of Stress in Aluminum-Based Metallization as a Function of Thermal History”, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Vol. ED–34, 1987, pp. 689699.
10. Flinn, P. A. and Waychunas, G. A., “A New X-ray Diffractometer Design for Thin-film Texture, Strain, and Phase Characterization”, Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology, Vol. B6, 1988, pp. 17491755.
11. Flinn, P. A. and Chiang, C., “X-ray Diffraction Determination of the Effect of Various Passivations on Stress in Metal Films and Patterned Lines”, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol.67, 1990, pp. 29272931.
12. Greenebaum, B., Sauter, A. I., Flinn, P. A., and Nix, W. D., “Stress in Metal Lines under Passivation; Comparison of Experiment with Finite Element Calculations”, Appl. Phys. Left., Vol. 58, 1991, pp. 18451847.
13. Sauter, A. I., Modeling of Thermal Stresses and Void Growth Processes in Microelectronic Interconnect Structures, PhD dissertation, Stanford University, 1991.
14. Chiang, C., Neubauer, G., Yoshioka, K., Flinn, P. A., and Fraser, D. B., “Hardness and Modulus Studies on Dielectric Thin Films”. Paper H4.1, this conference.
15. Peek, H. L. and Wolters, R. A. M., “Bubble and Cavity Formation in Aluminum-Plasma Silicon Nitride Structures”, Proceedings Third International IEEE VLSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference, IEEE, 1986, pp. 165172.
16. Filter, W. F. and Ayle, J. A. Van Den, “A Test Vehicle to Assess Stress Voiding Models and Acceleration Methods”. Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Stress Induced Phenomena in Metallizations, American Physical Society, New York, 1992.
17. Gardner, D. S., Michalka, T. L., Flinn, P. A., Barbee, T. W. Jr. Saraswat, K. C. and Meindl, J. D., “Homogeneous and Layered Films of Aluminum/Silicon with Titanium for Multilevel Interconnects”, Proceedings Second International IEEE VLSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference, IEEE, 1985, pp. 102113.
18. Murali, V., Sachdev, S., Banerjee, I., Casey, S. and Gargini, P., “Metal-Voiding Phenomena in Aluminum and its Alloys”, Proceedings Seventh International IEEE VLSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference, IERE, 1990, pp. 127132.
19. Freiberger, P. and Wu, K., “A Novel Via Failure Mechanism in an AI-Cufl'i Double Level Metal System”, Proceedings of the 30th Annual International Reliability Symposium, IEEE, New York, 1992, pp. 356360.
20. Shin, H., “A Sunken Phase in Aluminu-Copper Interconnects as a New Kind of Stress Void”, Proceedings Eighth International IEEE VLSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference, IEEE, 1991, pp. 292294.
21. Okabayashi, H., Tanikawa, A., Mori, H., and Fujita, H., “UHVEM Observations of Stress-Induced Voiding in Al Metallization”. Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Stress Induced Phenomena in Metallizations, American Physical Society, New York, 1992.
22. Tseng, W. T. and Stark, J. P., “Interface Reaction Model for Process Voiding in Aluminum Conductor Lines”, Applied Physics Letters, Vol.59, 1991, pp. 680681.
23. Abe, H., Tanabe, S., Kondo, Y., and Ikubo, M., “The Influence of Adhesion between Passivation and Aluminum Films on Stress Induced Voiding”. Japan Society of Appl. Physics, 39th Spring Meeting, Extended Abstracts, p. 658. April 1992.
24. Lloyd, J. R. and Koch, R. H., “Study of Electromigration-Induced Resistance and Resistance Decay in Al Thin Film Conductors”, Proceedings of the 25th Annual International Reliability Symposium, IEEE, 1987, pp. 161168.
25. Hinode, K., Furusawa, T., and Homma, Y., “Relaxation Phenomena During Electromigration under Pulsed Current”, Proceedings of the 30th Annual International Reliability Symposium, IEEE, New York, 1992, pp. 205210.
26. Nix, W. D. and Arzt, E., “On Void Nucleation and Growth in Metal Interconnect Lines under Electromigration Conditions”. Private Communication.

Understanding Void Phenomena in Metal Lines: Effects of Mechanical and Electromigration Stress

  • Paul A. Flinn (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed