Skip to main content Accessibility help

Ultrasonic Computed Tomography for Imaging Bones and Adjoining Soft Tissues

  • C. M. Sehgal (a1) and J. F. Greenleaf (a2)


The skeletal system of bones and cartilage forms a framework that supports and protects soft tissues. It also provides surfaces to which muscles, ligaments and tendons attach and coordinate movement of bones. Since such musculoskeletal system serves as a “structural” element of the body it is easy to see that its functional capabilities are closely related to it mechanical strength. Consequently, there have been numerous attempts to characterize the properties of bones. Currently, several sophisticated diagnostic procedures and radiographic imaging techniques are available for quantitative purposes. Virtually all the available methods are based on the measurement of mineral content of the bone. It is well known that it is the combination of the organic and the inorganic components that determine the strength of the bones. Thus, in principle, the traditional methods can provide only part of the information about the bone tissues. With this shortcoming in view an effective case can be made for the development of a technique that measures both the components. Many researchers have looked at ultrasonic energy to fulfill this role. The rationale for the choice of this energy is that ultrasound is a “mechanical radiation” and its propagating properties provide a direct measure of mechanical strength or related property of the medium.



Hide All
1. Anst, G.T., Fields, T. and Siegel., I.M. Ultrasonic technique for the evaluation of bone fractures, Amer. J. Phys. Med. 37:157 (1958).
2. Heaney, R.P., Avioli, L.V., Chestnut, C.H. III, Lappe, J., Recker, R.R., and Brandenburger., G. H. JAMA, Vol.261:29872990 (1989).
3. Wright, L.L., Glade, M.J., and Gopal., J. Pediatr. Res., 22:541544 (1987).
4. Rubin, C.T., Pratt, G.W. Jr., Porter, A.L. Lanyon, L.E. and Poss., R. The use of ultrasound in vivo to determine acute changes in the mechanical properties of bone following intense physical activity. J. Biomechanics, 20:723727 (1987).
5. Abendschein, W. and Hyatt., G.W. Ultrasonic and selected physical properties of bone. Clin. Orthopaedics Research and Related Res. 69:294301 (1970).
6. Leitgeb., L. A new noninvasive quantitative method for fracture diagnosis. Medical Progress through Technology. 11:185190 (1986).
7. Sehgal, C.M., Lewallan, D.G., Nicholson, J.A., Robb, R.A. and Greenleaf., J.F. Ultrasound transmission and reflection computerized tomography for imaging bones. IEEE Ultrasonic Symposium, Chicago, IL Vol.2:849852 (1988).
8. Simonet, W.T., Bronk, J.T., Pinto, M.R., Williams, E.A., Meadows, T.H., Kelly., P.J. Cortical and cancellous bone: Age-Related changes in morphologic features, fluid spaces and calcium homeostasis in dogs. Mayo Clinic Proc. 63:154160 (1988).
9. Sehgal, C.M., Brown, G.M., Bahn, R.C. and Greenleaf., J.F. Measurement and use of acoustic nonlinearity and sound speed to estimate composition of excised livers. Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, 12:865874 (1986).
10. Rob, R.A., Heffernan, P.B., Camp, J.J. and Hanson., D.P. Workstation for interactive display and quantitative analysis of 3D and 4D biomedical images. IEEE Proceedings of Computer Applications in Medical Care, 240–256 (1986).

Ultrasonic Computed Tomography for Imaging Bones and Adjoining Soft Tissues

  • C. M. Sehgal (a1) and J. F. Greenleaf (a2)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed