Skip to main content Accessibility help

Thickness Dependent Effects of Thermal Annealing and Solvent Vapor Treatment of Poly (3-hexylthiophene) and Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaics

  • Zhouying Zhao (a1), Lynn Rice (a1), Harry Efstathiadis (a1) and Pradeep Haldar (a1)


We have utilized room-temperature solvent vapor treatment followed by thermal annealing to process bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaic devices based on blends of poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) of varied active layer thickness. The morphological and photovoltaic performance characteristics of the cells subject to these treatments were found to be dependent on active layer thickness. The devices were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and opto-electrical and external quantum efficiency measurements in order to analyze the mechanism underlying the observed trend. Performance indicators including fill factor, short-circuit current and power conversion efficiency were correlated to the ordering of device active layers and morphology. The maximum power conversion efficiency achieved was 4.1 %.



Hide All
1. Saricifti, N.S., Smilowitz, L., Heeger, A.J., Wudl, F. Science 258, 5987, 1474 (1992).
2. Brabec, C. J., Cravino, A., Meissner, D., Sariciftci, N.S., Rispens, M.T., Sanchez, L., Hummelen, J.C.. Thin Solid Films 403–403, 368 (2002).
3. Brabec, C.J. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 83, 273 (2004).
4. Kim, K., Liu, J., Namboothiry, M., Carroll, D.. Applied Phys.Letters 90, 163511 (2007).
5. Li, G., Yang, Y. J. Appl. Phys. 98, 043704 (2005).
6. Erb, T., Zhokhavets, U., Hope, H., Gobsch, G., Al-Ibrahim, M., Ambacher, O.. Ab Thin Solid Films 511512, 483 (2006).
7. Kim, Y., Cook, S., Choulis, S.A., Nelson, J., Durrant, J.R. and Bradley, D.D.C.. Synthetic Metals 152, 105 (2005).
8. Kim, H., So, W., Moon, S., Korean, J. Physical Society, 48, 441 (2006).
9. Aernouts, T., Vanlacke, P., Haeldermans, I., Haen, J. D., Haremans, P., Poortmans, J., J. Mance. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 1013 (2007).
10. Reyes-Reyes, M., Kim, K., Carroll, D.. Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 083506 (2005).
11. Yazawa, K., Inoue, Y., Yamamoto, T., Askawa, N., Phys. Rev. B 74, 094204 (2006).
12. Reyes, M.R., Kim, K., Dewald, J., Sandoval, R.L., Avadhanula, A., Curran, S., and Carroll, D. L.. Org. Lett. 7, 5749 (2005).
13. Vanlaeke, P., Swinnen, A., Haeldermans, I., Vanhoyland, G., Aernouts, T., Cheyns, D., Deibel, C., Haen, J. D., Heremans, P., Poortmans, J. and Manca, J.V. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 90, 2150 (2006).
14. Kim, K., Liu, J., Namboothiry, M., Carroll, D.. Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 163511 (2007).
15. Kim, Y., Cook, S., Choulis, S.A., Nelson, J., Durrant, J.R., Bradley, D.D.C.. Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063502 (2005).
16. Vanlaeke, P., Vanhoyland, G., Aernouts, T., Cheyns, D., Deibel, C., Manca, J., Heremans, P., Poortmans, J.. Thin Solid Films 511512, 358 (2006).
17. Huang, J., Li, G., Yang, Y.. Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 1121 05 (2005).
18. Ma, W., Yang, C., Gong, X., Lee, K., Heeger, A. J.. Adv. Func Mater, 13, 85 (2003).
19. Miller*, S., Fanchini, G., Lin, Y., Li, C., Chen, C., Su, W. and Chhowalla, M.. J Mater Chem, 18, 306 (2008).
20. Li, G., Yao, Y., Yang, H., Shrotriya, V., Yang, G., Yang, Y. Adv.Funct. Mater., 17, 1636 (2007).
21. Zhao, Yun, Xie, Zhiyuan, Qu, a_Yao, Geng, Yanhou, and Wang, Lixiang. Appl. Phys.Lett. 90, 043504 (2007).


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed